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Li K 

KN GLAND andWALes ; 

D It 





The paper in this volume is brittle or the 
ianer margins are extremely narrow. 

We have bound or rebound the volume 
udlizing the best means posfible« 



n K 

' ^/y///^^^y 


D B 











England and Wales; 









Aliion ! o*er thee profuicly Nature »bow£n 
Her gifti; with Itvdieit verdure deckt thy ioi]| 
With every mingled chirm of hill 3nd dale. 
Mountain and mcadi boir cliff, and fofcst widei 
And thiQe the Ruins, where rapt genius bxoodi 
In pcaiive haunti rommttc i rifted Tfiwers, 
That, heeding o'er the rock, fctr the grey creit, 
Ettibattled ; aod within the secret gbde 
Cooeckl'd, the Atbty's ivy-manlJcd pile. 





|. AMD A. A&CH; J. HAtHlii 





0^1 mo 











Topographical, Historical, Dcsciiptii^e, and Litcrart/, 








€kictn, UOT» 

jr/t GJLEArLr omljcmd FA/rifj), 





Cnglatttj anil OTlales. 


XS situated on the banks of the Medway^ which, from the swifts 
ciesa of its stream in this part of its course, was called by the 
Briiotis, JhpT-brif;* an ap(>encilion that was afterwards given to 
the city itself; tliough the Eonmns Jatinizeil it to Dl ROBKiv.^^ 
or Dl ROBRivis, as it is written in Antoninue. In the declbe 
of the KomaH Empire, this name was contracted to Roibis, as 
appears from the Peutingerian Tables. The Saxons again altered 
it to Hrof-ccastre, from a thief named Hrof, said, by Bede, to 


♦ Lambard'i Penmbahfioo, p, 2fl3. *' The learned in aiironomie/' 
■ays the same author* '' be of the opmi»n, that if Jupiter, McrcU'^ 
nc, or any other planet, approach widiin certain degrees of the Sunnc^ 
aad be burned (ai they term it) under bii beamei, that then it hail^ 
ID maner no influence at atl^ but yealdeth wh^Iy to the Sunne that over* 
ihiiieih it : and lome men beholding the nearnesse of the$e two Bishop* 
ridttj Canterbury and Rochester, and comparing the bright glory^ 
pompe and primarie of the one* with the contrarie akogether in the 
•tber, liate fancied Rochester to overshadowed and obscured, that they 
recken it no See or Bishoprick of itself, but only a place of a meere Sur*- 
firagan, and Chaplain to Canterbury. But he that shall either advisedly 
weigh the 6rst institution of them bothe, or but indincrenily consider 
the estate of eyther^ shall easily finde, that Rochester bathe not only 4, 
kwfttll and canonical Cathedral See of itself, but that the same was 
also more honeiiiy wwnand ^bieinedj than ever thai of Caulerbury was*** 

Ibid.f* 20(5. EdiL 1376* 

612 EEKT. 


hawt been the priocipal citizen ; and this lEtter appellation has^ 
lapse of time, been converted into Rocliester. 

This was one of the Stipendiary Cities of the Romans; and many 
Roman remains have, at dtf&ftent times, been dug up here. In 
the Castle Gardens, and its vicinity^ abundance of eoins have been 
found; principaUy of the Emperors Vespasian^ Trajan, Adrian^ 
Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Constant ins, and Conttantine 
the Great,* Even within the walls of the great tower, or keep, 
of the Castle itself, Roman coins of Vespasiani Timjan, and of 
the Lower Empire, have been met with.f In the present ruined 
walls of the Cathedral precinct, Roman bricks are worked up; and 
it is probable that the whole city stands on the original Roman 
site. Various Hoinan antiquities were also found, about seventy 
years ago, in levelling a part of a large artiBcial mount, caUed 
'Bully Hill, which is sittiated at a sotall distance southward from 
the Castle4 These consbted of vessels of glazed earthenware^ as 
'vms, jugs, Paiere^ &c. The largest um was of a lead color, tQ 
heiglit thirteen inches; and In circumference, two feet^ seven in* 
ches, in the widest part: It contained ashes, and human bones. 
The Patera were of fine red earth, and ct diSerent sizes ajid 

The Roman History of Rochester is completely barren ; nor did 
it arrive at any celebrity litl the conversion of Elhclbert, the 
Saxon King of Kent, to the Christian faith, in 597 f soon after 
which, that Prince caused the Church of St. Andrew to be er^ted^ 
s|nd raised the City into a Bbhop's See. {t was still, however^ 


** lljorpe's Custumah Rqffense, p. 147. " There have likewise been 
found at different times in the gardens near the Castle, and in St.Mar- 
earet^s, 2 fibula vesiiaria, in silveri an(} roapy other valuable relics.'* 

t Cough's Camden, p. 233. 

} Hasted's Kent, Vol. I. Fo. p. 59, (note.) 

§ Many of these vessels were given to Dr. Thorpe^ father of J. 
Thorpe, Esq. and are particularly described by the latter in hit CustUi^ 
male Roff. p. ^% 



pnacqAUycoD&idered as A military station ; and Bcde styles it a * Castle 
of dieKeQttthtnen/ In the year 67G, Ethclrcd, King ofMercia* hav- 
ing imrsded Keul^ destroyed Rocfie^lcri ami ret tinted miU the pltm* 
der be bad collected into hb own tloiiiinJon*^/ The Dutush mr4* 
dtrs f^cre aba very fref}uent visitois in this city; and iU iiiha* 
biUillA often ^clt the effects of their inhuniaiiity; but pitrticularly 

LSI $39, when they sacked the place, and committed * unheiiid-of 
cruelties^' la 8S5, they t>esieged it int-fTertuHlly, the mh^biTaiits 
bmvely with^tnoding them, till tJiey ivere driven to iheir ships by 
IIk grmi Aitred, lit 9Sti, it was again besieged by King Ethelred, 
■k> had taken umbrage at the haughtine^ oHbe Bishop of Roches 
ic: * iitUiig hiinself unable to subdue the city, he tiesiiteif, and 
g\ 1^ I'engeance b\ laying waste all ihc la»»ds beloni^tng to 

ifae See, Twelve years afterward!), the iiih.ibitants fled with terror 
■I the apfrroach of the Danish fleet, and the city was once mor^ 
pjlaged to the uttermost; nor did it from this period atte^iipt my 
fesistioce to the iuvailer s yoke. 

In l!i« tune of Edward the Confessor, Rochester bcloiFi^'Cil to 
tiie CfoWD. Willram the Conqueror ^4ntcd it to his half-brother, 
CMo^ BUiop of Baieux; and its value is thus recorded in |j)e 
Dofne«lay Book, ** Tlie city of Rochester, In the time of Kins* 
Edward the Confessor, was worth 100 shillings, and the hke when 
tbeBi&liop received it; now it 191 worth 20 pounds; yet he who 
hM It paid 40 pounds/ 

On the disgrace of Odo, m Uie year I063p Bodiester, with hi« 
other possession^ were ^ei^ed by the King, and it continued in the 
Crown for a long period, Henry the First farmed it out to the 
cttkros, at ilie yearly rent of 201. which was paid by the Ftapo^i- 
i^ or Bailitf. Me also granted to Bishop Gundulphp and ttie Chnrcb 
of Rochfifeieri ao anaual fair, to be held on the eve and day of St, 
P^miliBus« together with various rights and in im unities, lu the 
mnift reign, on the eleventh of May, 1130, while Meury bin^^el^ 
she Archbtshop of Canterbury, and niany of the nobility, and other 
prelates^ were at Rochester, on accouut of tbe consecration of the 
Vol. VII. Oct. 1806, Rx Ciahedr4 



• Btde^ lib, if. chap* 12. Huat. lib. ii. p< 318. 

*A»a icifgiif gnmieci to ttw tutaxtoi^ u 
City in fee, or perpetoal, femiy for 20 pomidf 
to lioM of htm and his heirs for ever, iHth all 
KbertSes, tmd free customs; and that tiiej sh 
.nercantiley witib sundry otiier privileges, Hbertic 
These advantages were still fartlier ioereased b^ 
who directed his writ to the Bailiff^ and the 
Hochester, ordaining, <' that no one, except h 
purchase victuals in the City tiU the Monks o 
been first served." This mas afterwards so fiu 
mmt Monarch, that even his own servants were 
a prior purchase; and the Monks contxnned to 
thus given till the Dissolution. 

Till this reign, the citizens had been compelle 
certain payment, called MaUtolt, which they 
•persens passing through Rodie^r to embark f< 
Richard, however, abolished the toll: and He 
that considcnilion, excused the City from the 
shillings amroaUy of their foe-form.t 

The inhabitants of Rodiester coi^ued loyal I 
ing the Barons* iv'an: and Hcnrj* die Tfahd, in 1 
his refgn, not only confirmed the charter of h 
but, in recompente for * the ftitlifol sendees o1 
the damages and losses thev had isuimiinMl {» ^ 



piit of tbdi aminal feisfcrm; apcl gmn*ccJ, " iLat they should be 
ci<9ipt tram toHi t^sLige, itall^gf!', and tnura^, vhroughout Etig- 
ImhI aodHi^ ^e«-pt>i' ' • V* trcenmrltet^i^vb ^b^if 

dljr, nod Mne reUui] < 

KoiwitJBljiii^^^ the^ gmiftSi Rc^ctifster in^s 9|Em talten mto 
the lungs baorfK, «iMe it r^JtifiiDefl till his successor, Edward th^ 
libit, tu th€ pijjbtii <i^ his ^cigB, fximjnjUcJ it tQ the aire of 
J«hii fk C4>lihaKi, to hpld of luin suid hi$ ht\n m ferm^ for bi| 
lifci pi tint fomier yearly r^nt; nbich giant y«'^9 allowed qu ^ qjiq 
^smrraniQf brought against hint in the t>v^nt)-Or$t of the saiof 
ttagn. The pH>f*i«?ges gr4nted to the fiif by Hfiiiy th€ Tliii-d, 
toififinii^hy Edward ilie Third; ^tfaey w^rr also by kif 
r» Richard the Second* 

llcniy the Sii^th granted itddltionai Ijh^rties to ibis city; ynd 
tlieo) were, " that the Bi^ilift tJic Cilijecns, aud their li(:ir«, 
t ha^^ Uie passage culled the Ferret below the city aiuj the 
lowD of Slrottd, aad from the town of Stroud to the city, the 
KiB^i bfidge on the other nlde of tfje wnter being broken ; and 
dbo llie ipeee of the bridge, together with the house catied the 
Bar^ieam; mnA that they shouki have an annual fair on St* Dun* 
iti^s day, with nil its privileges, dec * 

Poring the asune reipi, (anno J ^40,) Bishop ^owe, and th^ 
taof aiui Convent of Rnch^ster, came to an agreeoicnt with tht 
MttfTaiKl Citiiens, coiKerniug the hmits and piivilc^iBs of the City 
WtA Am G|^iifi!ii jf»reciiu!ts^ in which, amotig other roatten, it was 
irtaminidy ^ thit the BaiiifiT^ and his successors, nitght cause to 
lie earned before tbein, by their Sergeants, their mace or nmces, 
wd the twcrd Ukewtse, if the King should ever give them one, a^ 
wdl Ip and in thc^ Parish Church, as in the Cathedral and Ceme« 
toy, espectally on fe^tiral days and proc^ssioiUp and solemn ser- 
IMpi^ and It the reception and instalhition of the Bisliopa^ and at 
ill oilier fit tinif«; but thi^ Ih^y should Duake no e^xecution or ar- 
icil, Of any thiog beioiigiog to the law, within lli£ precinct of the 
Unaailiny and Palace of tlie Bisliop, unless the same f^uld be 
•pccMy ftquired oixht Bibhop or Prior/ 

R r $ Itoche^ter 

ampler liberties^ their service and readinei 
confirmed to them ell their former char 
they should* thenceforth be styled ** the 
Rochester; and so to purchase^ pleacf, &c * 
he extended the metes and boonds of the C 
new and important privileges to the Citizens 
Hairy the E^th, and his respective sue 
Chailes the First, confirmed all the preced 

* Among these were the right to learch all 
the river Medwa^, and to have ** all forfeitables 
fishes^ within the liberties and precincts of the 
ferry over the water if the bridge should be brol 
bread and alc^ and of all victuals^ and weights 
other things whatsoever belonging to the office of 
and to be frtt by land and water throaghout En 
of felons, lad out-laws, of men resident, &c. s 
Portmo^, from fifteen days to fifteen days; an 
tach by goods ^nd arrest by body, or imprison: 
of all pleas, real, personal^ and mixed^ within th^ 
all writs and precepts: and that the Sheriff of tb 
be exempt from doing any office : and that they 
of fines, trespasses, deodands, &c. and keep t\i 
thcf Bullie, and a court of pic -powder ; and have 
dav : an<l »*»•» ♦*•— -*" " ' 



^Itff Monarch, tn Uie year 1630, constituted, in addition^ tbat 
•• tte Ciirporatiao should cousist of a Mayor, twelve Aldeiinco, (of 
whkh lolier aumber tUe Mayor was to be one») twelve A$sist:tiits 
«r GoaiiiMMi-Coiiiicil, a Eecorder, and Town Clerk, two Chamber- 
km$f ft priodpfiil Sergeant at Mace, a Water-Buililf, and other iufe* 
DOr c^cen;." By this last charter llie City w now governed : the 
libfpf is elected annually, 011 the Monday before St« Matthew j 
day« Tbe present Seal of tiie Corporation is of considerable an* 
tii|0iiy: 00 one tide is St. Andrew on the Cross, and on the othcTt 
tbe CftsUe of Rochester : round the former are tlie words Si gilll m 
CaMMUNKCivcTATls RoPFBNsts; and rouDtJ the latter, Sigil- 
UM r RoFFSNSis* In theye4ir 1783, an Act was passed 

fer th*^ y of small debts iu the City of Rochester, and ihc 

tit^oinin^ Parishes* 

Son€ tnen, says Latnbard, ** ilc^iirous, brlike, to atlvaunce tbe 
iitilByttOii of this Citie, have left ns a farrL** fetched antiquitie con« 
ceimg one fieece of tlic same, athrtniEig, tiiat Julius Caesar caused 
' E nt Rochester (as abo that otlier at Canterbtu^', and 
t:^ ,,,,.i^ of Lorjdon) to be builded of common clmrgc: but 1 
having not hitherto read any such ibing, eylber b Ciesar's own 
CominetitarieSf or in any other credible hyslune, dare not avow 
any other begiiiniog of lias Ctlie, or Castle, then djut which 1 inud 
in Bcda, nbo writflhi that * the Citie of Ilochei>ler tooke y niunc 
of one Ho/g or rather Urof^ as the $a\OQ boke hath it, which wag 
jooielyitie tbe Lorde aud owner of the place."* 

KiUMuaet how«vc:r, adicaooes torther, and atHmis, that '^ Caesar 
fMBMifKlcd Ibe Castle to be built (according to tht: Rouuin order) 
lo fttiv tbe Britons, and the same was callt^d the Castle of Med- 
wajf: but lime anil tempests bnuging the same entirely to decay, 
Oii^ or Uftke« King of Kent, about the year 490, caused HrofF, 
0tm of bo chief Counsellors, and Lord of this place, to build a new 
.CtJtk opOQ the old foundation, and hereupon it took the name of 
Brqfe'g CkmUcr^'i 

R r 3 That 

^ Pterambubtlon of Rene, p. ^93^^4. 
t Survey of Kent* p, C25* 

vruc, may ut aamiued, for the Castle tef 
when Egbert, KEng of Kenty gftve a cCkUuA 
Chardi lymg withfa the walls of the CaHle 
955, Etbelwnlpb, Khig of Wcss^x, gave a 
Vk Mbiister, mtnated ** in meridie Castelli 
here observed, that it appears, from diffiera 
Roffensis, that the whole City was frequeutly 
(he appellation Castrttm^ and CasttUwn HrbJ 
After the Danes had obtained possesnon d 
tie was much dilapidated; but, Accordfaig to 
the latter of whom Quotes a nmnuscript in I 
lus tnithority,t it was rqurired, and garrisom 
WiUiam the Conquer^u*. Tlie repaira appear 
mider the isnperinf endence of Odo, Bishop 
been constituted Earl of Kent, and Chief Ji 
but afterwards proving ambitious and tyraun 
tent prisoner to the Castle of Rouen, in 9 
continued till tlie accessioD of WnUam Rnfiu 
stored hmi to his possessions; but neitfier \ 
gratitude^ could restrain the turbulence tyfOd 
surrection m Kent in favor of Robert, Dnki 
King's brother; iuid having pillaged and desl 
he secured his |dnnder in Rt)chester Castle; 
Fevensev Castlt*. fc» Sn*^* wmUmi^ %^ — ^^2^ - j 



liMH, ht theo 9gsmd to deliver Dp bis Castle at Rochirsteri 
' fflitrffli Vtfe many gaUani men, imd almo&t tbe ^^lole tiobility 
if Vmumx^y/ and iv«u coaduaed Uitlicr for tbe purfxise; but 
EiHlice» £«fl of BoulogDe* tlie Governor, detubcd both bim ami 
!» gttuiis, aiul positively refused to aun^ndcr tlie iortresf U> tb^ 

Mafm uumcdiately maicb^d his army la RocbesUr; but findinf 
y$ itrengith insQl&ciefit for tbe siegi;, uud tbsil bis subjects w^r< 
Im Mtloui in tbeir support tban accorded i^illt Kb Hiib^s, be 
jsM^ a pfochmatioii^ dtdariug, tbat *' wbo»o«vi*jr wuuid cot h% 
li|iia«d a Nithi^gy^ must repttir to Ike iie|^ of Rocbester/" Tliif 
[ iU iotendod efibct ^ tbe p«?ople flocked to tJit 
10 gitmt amnbeii, and tbe town and Ca«tk wer^ 
floMly inmeHed; yat »t iras not till al^er tbe c.| /^ration of several 
tfuH Uie beiie^^ ooidd be imbtoed to capltiiJate, Tbe 
, iitIm Vtts bfybly ioociia^ at tbdr re»i5tance, refused to grrnit 
I asiy letms; but was at leogih pcr&4iaded to pardoii tbeni^ ap* 
to tbe pliraseology of tlio^ titne«, in *' lite and liiub.' 
nty wext^ liowever, compelled to abjure the i^m, wttb fortesturt 
wi tbeir eftates. Odo biiu«elf waj sent prisoner to Tuubridfe 
Cartla; l»ttt ihe Kiug iifteniirard« released hinit on eouditiou tbat b^e 
f vitted the realm for ever* 

Hut diegp occaaiooed ooiniderBble daomge to the Castle: 
ii not infifobable, but that Gundulph, tbe tbeu Bi^ic^pof Rochester, 
tad line Fiiory might bave boe^i thought lukc wamiiu tticiraUeguiocc; 
So€ ifai King wcMdd not grant tbeio any kind of iiidntgeDce, nor 
mvAtm Miy fcaiit in tbeir tavor, lUi, by tbe good ofiice^ of tbe oo* 
HBQr, tbey Jiad purcbacted tbeir peace, by expending 6oK in tlie 
mpitr of tbe Caitk, and in buii<ling a new * T(rj^r qf Horn utthia 
Ibi walk 

CaKfaklflbf wbo was particularly skilful in architecture and ma* 
aoufj, «a« alio engaged iu works more oou^oaut to hii^ suired 

R r i tuuclipflt^ 

^ T^B 9eeaii»g of thk term ha« been contested ; t>ut It leems to have 
•n a Mk- tB ic for ihoie potiejued ofii mean and tlastardly ipiritjand 
) guilty of lacrilege, and rifling the dead. 

' In the year 1 126, Henry the FirsT, by t 
granted to William Corboyl, the then Arc 
and to his successors, the custody of thb C 
Castellan, together with free liberty to bui 
own residence. The keeping of the Caiistle 
the Second, probably after his quarrel with 
& Becket, who, among his Other insulting ch 
of havhig deprived him of the Castle of Roc 
formerly annexed to the Ardibbhopric. 

In the year 1215, when the civil brcNls bt 
the Barons had involved the nation m calami 
been compelled to sign Magnai Charta, J< 
means, to recede from what had been forced 
purpose, with a few adherents, he retired to t 
having obtained the Pope's interdkt^ as well i 
French King, he determmed to rescind hi 
Langtott, the Archbishop, who had refused 
publishing the interdict, was suspended^ It wi 
lacy tried to accommodate the discordant 
for the Barons, highly exasperated at the S 
endeavoring to Alslfy the oath he had so sc 
nimede, prepared to appeal to arms, and 1 
Castle of Rochester. Pntr**^*-^ -* ' " 

(Imibl^ iIh? number of the King*s army, waf 
mnpdlM to l«ave (be behi^giHl to the Sovereign's mercy : yet ttiej 
lid fM stirrender till aAiT an iiivestnient of three mouths, i»hea 
iw Kio^t fired by reseRtmeni sit the obstiimie resistance of the 
I GoYemor, detenwinetl fo sacnAce him and the whole gar- 
I lo \m ten«^nce ; but was dii^tinded from this step by the 
itficstjof some of hi^ court: he, however^ commanded, tltat, ex^ 
the cross-bow men, all the common soldiers should fa« 
b order to strike terror m cases of future resistance in Im 
I projects.* 

Itt tbe fotlowtng year, Lewis, Daiipliin of France, who» having 
boen iurited to tJie U!^istauce of I he Barons, h^d bnded at Sand- 
nieh, reduced ibis Cajitle alter a Abort liege. After his flrght, and 
tbc death of King John^ it again submitted to tJie Crown ; and 
tJenfy the Third granted it iot hie to Hubert de Burgh, Earl of 
Keoti and Justidflirv of England, who w;i5 commanded to repair 
te bctildings. Tlie Kings fnvor afterwards dechniiig^ Hubert waa 
ffapoinased ; and Srepbeu de Segrave, John de Cobbam, Nicholai 
de Modi^ WiUiam de Say, and Robert VValeran, were in succesdoii 
flfipoiiilcd Governors of the Ca^Ues of Rochester and Canterbury .f 
AlKml the year 1^04, after tlie King bad again excited the Biirona 
l0lfiii«» * * r fusal to comply with the * Statutes of Oxford/ 
tit greall^ ned the fortitkations of this Casitc^ and furnished 

ll witlt every thing neressory to sustain a siege, Roger de Ley* 
boffie, who \ias made Chief Ci>ui»tabte, had under him John, Earl 
of Warreo and Surrey, John, Ei:\rl of Arn odd ^ and utber uck 

SlK>rt1v afterwards, Simon de Monttbrt^ Earl of Leicester, the 
cbicf nf ibe associaied BaiOds^ having placed London in security^ 
pnwamded lo iMssicaf Rochester. On Ids arrival at the west bank 
of Else Ucdway miih a considerable I'orce^ he found an army ready 


•• Htiu as)d AatiquTties of RoclK>(er» partly edited by tlic Rev. 
S. Dennis, p* J3^ j6» 

t ilautd I i\ent» \ ol. U. p. 14* Fo. 

6» UHTr 

«» dispute theptMigeof diebridfe; aadM tbeoppMiteride • 
paUiKMlt md bfegil-wofk thromi up^* with a stray body mt tim 
loiMibitaiits ready lav tlwcoQtMt, He detanrnmed, bow^vcr, to it« 
taekthem; aod jent OiUMrt de C21aie to iav^st thetoirQ oo tho 
sottth side; aod after beiiy twice lepuised ^ iMaos of voNala 
fitted witk combiMtibles^ be ect five to the wooden bridge aM 
tower upon il: the hurty and coafiisioo which this 
ipire bin en oppoituoity to mabegood bis passage; and I 
tltt town, and ' spoiled the Chmcb, and what was left of the 
Priory; for Roger de Leyborne had before burnt down aU the 
«ob«rb8» as welt as poit of the Ci^» and the Priety.'* He next 
assaulted the Castie; but was resided by the Eari of Wartcn with 
snch Sfdoor and resolution that, after a siege of seven days^ he 
wu not aUe to peaetrate finrther than the ont^orks. The Cns« 
ttSy howefer, nnttt have tdtimately somndeiedy had not Heniy 
eaikri off the attention of the baronial anny, by thieateniiy the 
safety of the City of London. Montfbrt left a few troops to con* 
tinne the siege, but these were soon disoomfitedy and pot to fi%ht 

Hie battle of Lewts^ and the subsequent treatyy taUqg phce, 
little more occurs in the history of this Castle, excepting the names 
of those to whom its custody has been entrusted. Henry the 
Tinid gave it to Guy de Rochford, one of his fofsign favorites, 
srtio being baniBhed, it reverted to the Crown. It was afterwards 
entnisted to William St. Clare, who died Castdlan m the forty** 
e^^ year of Hcmys leign. 

In 12^4, the jeoond year of Edward the Fust, Robert de 
Hougbam, Lord of Hoogham, near Dover, was Constable. In 
die following year, in oonsequence of his death, the dignity was 
bestowed on Sx^Krt de Sepvans; and about the middle of this 
mign, Sir John de Cobham was appomted. Stephen de Dene was 
Constable m 1304. Bang an enemy to the Monks, he taxed their 
possessions in the vicinity of the Castle; which being unpreoedent* 
cd, the Monks tried their ri^^t in the Court of Exchequer, and 
succeeded in obtaining a verdict: they also procured the dismissal 


• flailed*! Rent. VoU IL p. 55. 


lotfAlhHl on i person tuimed Simon ShsiHfede^^ for lire otnisiiOtt 
iCOnite-^mnl, by wliitli he Wd land?* ih Water ingbury. DuHtif 
IM 1>rt<T« rebellion^ tire iii9urg«4its attdfked tliu Castle, ftmt lif 
fbitc dtsdjftrged one of thft prbofiera. Iii l^ia, IIb govtmmtnc 
#11 eocifot^ on Tttomns, Lord CoMmin, itffao Md it tilt bk 
Mil In 147^^ 

Edwml the tourtk wBe ttke last Monarch wlio wemi to htvt 

inid bitenlioii to this %tmctur^. Me refnthr^d the ^tdls both oC 

tke Oftle find City, nhmil th«! eleventh of his reign: btit from ttioft 

priod tbey Inure b«eii nerrk'ct^i, ond havf progtesaively adianoii 

to their present Htate of dei-ay* 

Many estMtes in this ctimiity itrc h«ld of !l)o<;li«8fer C«^tk| 

V the ttmricrvt t<?Tiurt; of €i^tl^«^rd. On St. Aiidrew's di% 

M slie, « Buttner is hang o^it M the bfiuse oF ihc refeHx?r o£ 

Unti; li»d rwry teitant ^vlco doe» not tlien di:^ai^ hb drreurs ti 

bUe to liave his Vent d<jiibted» on the ti^tum of evcfty tkie of tim 

llld«fftV. till Uie WhoJe is di^4iarged/ 

The wtiKition of the CASTI.E v«s extretnely favornhk lor d<^ 

itmidii)^ nt the sotsili-we«t an^le of the Cfty^ oii on mti^ 

icr rii^iri*; obrupfly from the Metlw^y, that rti^r preserved H 

injy uttsfk on the we?»t; wlul^ its south, oast mrd itortllddei 

VRvirorfed by a broed und deep ditcii. The outward niRl^ 

nUdi fonined nn irir^c^ilar fmmUekigfiiiii of iib<mt SCO fbel ii 

lioglli, were ' 1 9q«nt« md round mmet% 

i M fc t ni uTetli nt ^ j>'lioks» at>d iiiacbicolalionsi 

Ihu tbes^ firith llie walh them^Kes^ are now wrgii»g to fi stiite oC 

Tlie »K«- ^ are ^n ih^ 1*-, nmi nt Tl>e wt Hlm i l 

tliit Rt . . .^le wfts icii. . u r, ftmi roise boldtjrHoi^ 

^iirh « itow idffKHt fiMed up. On the northH^nfit wflft 

'^pHueipnl erttiHttft: this Kas ddtmded by » tMver gH*eway» Ivitb 

«r t>ie skies; a tetiiainmg p<«t of wIucIj Ijhs recently 

III tlie %«flil o4' (»ne of the to^verd^ whieh might ha^'c been 

jMi%ned to command i1k* passage of Rochester Bridge, ia a hoU 


^ lii^. of Rochetter^ p* id 

62-1 KENT. 

low, or funnel, descending perpendicularly to the Medway, to 
which it opens, under a pointed arch, the crown of tlie latter beiug 
consideraLly below high-water mark. This was probably intended 
for two purposes; for a sally-port at low water; and to procure 
water from th« rivfer when the tide was in. 

The Keep, or Great Tower, erected by Bishop Gnndulph, is 
still nearly perfect as to its outward figure, which is quadranguhir, 
fht sides being nearly paraM witli the cardinal points of the 
compass. Tliis is on^ of the most interesting and curious sped- 
piens of the Norman military architecture now remaining in Eng- 
land. It stands at the soutb-cast corner of the inclosed area, and 
rises to the height of IM iiret: the.waUs spread outwards with a 
slope from the level of the ground-floor, but above that tliey rise 
peipendicularly, and form, a square of seventy feet: their thickness, 
on tlie east, north and west sides, b eleven feet; but on the south 
it is increased to thirteen feet. Near the mkldle, on each side, ii 
a pilaster, ascending from the base to the roof; and at tlie angles are 
projecting towers, three of wliich are square, and the fourth, ciiv 
.cular. These also rise from the base to the summit, and are cou« 
turned above to the height of twelve feet: they are provided with 
parapets, and are eiiibrazitfed, together with tlie rest of the building. 

The skill and ingenuity cxcrdaed in the constructbn of this fa- 
brie, are particularly observable in the various precautionaiy con- 
trivances that secured tlie entrance. This opened upon the first 
floor from a smaller tower, that was attached to the Keep on the 
nortli side, but could not be qiproached by an assailant without 
the greatest danger.* The first ascent was by a flight of twelve or 
thirteen. st^M, leading round the nortli-west angle to an arched 
gate, and covered way; beneath which, a flight of seven steps led 
forward to a draw-bridge, that connected with the arched gateway 
of the entrance tower: this opened uito the vestibule, between 
which and the Keep, there were no other avenues of commn- 
ideation tlian by a third arched passage, m tlic tliickness of die 



^ Here was originally the only entrance into this structure; but an 
opening or two, »ince made by the enlargement of the loop-hulcs hav« 
been mistaken for ancient Joor-wayi. 

■ ^ iir inlel lo the borfy of ihe 

itt^f mvj- , and portcuUfs, llie bmgef 

nd groo'ves of which remain ; nnA in the roof are op^ning^t^ for the 
pi!T|i ' ' ^miction on the heads of tLssaihintii, 

Til .ec|i is divitied by a strong wall into two 

Deafly equal pnits, comtntinicating, fjo^vever, by op«n arches on 

I tkxifr. In the centre of tUh wall h n Well nf conslflerahle 

III, two feet ttlne incfies in diatncfcr, neatly wroii»>ht, 0|T€i3iftg 

> tlie very top of llie Keep, and havmg an arch of communica* 

Tlie floors were ibieo In nunibtrr, iiideficn- 

nt story; but these were removed in the reign 

ttf James the First» when the Castle mis dismantled r the opening* 

hi die walls in which the endi of the thnhers were loilgcd, evince 

the latter to have Ijeen of great thickness^ though none of them 

WW rMnaiii, Hie basement story wm low anft gloomy ; the only 

\ which it received beini? a^l milled through seven small loojv 

^iioles^ which opened J u ward ly« of a conical figure: ht^re the mnni- 

tioD and store* for the use of the garrison w^re deposited » lit 

hk nortli-east angle is a circular winding staircase, which ascends 

' from Hie ground to tlie summit of the Keep; and within tlie south 

^W b a *c}uare passage, or funnel, which also eoniniuuicates wilti 

the upper Boors^ and, from its singularity, has given rise to much 

jiDfif * t ition: the preciR^ uses lo which it was assigned, arc 

mtiy^ vuit to ascertain, yet the Mipposilion that it was iu- 

tended for tJie conveyance of military stores ta the upper parts of 

l!le Keep, without incumbering the stairrafc, is entitled to some 

atteotioii* On tiie north side ts a dark Dight of steps, leading to 

tlie dungeon, a small faulted apartmenr, almost without lighf^ 

flapping beneath the lower *itofy of the entrance tower. 

*nie first floor, which seems to have lieen thnt occupied by thi 

lioldieiyg and into which was the entrance from without wai 

-two feet in height. On this floor, besides seven loo|vholc«, 

iaomewhat leis cautious construction than those bene;ith, were 

I two s[Nicioas conical ftre-places^ gradually cotitiacting to the outer 

part of Uie walk, where small aperltires were left to give issue to 

the iinoke. Atiother, but snialleo tiro^place, is contained lu a lit* - 

9t6 HIUMP# 

tic Bpartment withio tiie noitli-west tngh ; and htst i|so mtrt tmm 
my cunously-QPQtrivedy sind welktefeoded^ windoiPi, dai^gnid tg 
fooinand a view of wliat wa« paiMiig on the 9t^ of the CQtmoftt 
Within the east wfdl of thi^ ^oor 14 a galleiy, tg§etb«r vitb «mm 
l^ifale apaitmentg; the opeoiogi into whkh were mgidailjr irdl 
cakwUttisd for the security of tfn^m wbo ii4gl|t be tbefie a t | it ilMii4 
tp watch the proceedings of a heHHgipg aro^. In (be ^onlii-aait 
aafie begioB a secopd eiroular ftairqisa, which, as wall aa that in 
t|M opposite tower, ascends to the top of Che K^p« 

Tho seoood floor consbted of the State apartaMati^ apd mm 
mora oraanienta) and loAy than either of the others: Ihe bafg^ 
mii Iwentyi^gbt feet. These apartmoiti ooninmoiicaled bf fow 
laiie seniidiGuhur arches, foroa^ hi tb^ paititioii wall, and m* 
tallied by massive solunms and half colaniBs, curiously wipii^lti 
•ad about eighliean feet high. The aicbes, as well as those ff dai 
two large fife-plaoes on this floor, (wbiob ai^ of miijar (vna t# 
Ibose before aneatiooed,) aro decorated wilb licb aig'^g n^oiddr 
ings, of a nuried and complex character. Witbhi Ibe tbidbana of 
tfiewalli round the upper pari of this floor, isagalltfy wbiebUiM 
tersaslhe whole Kisep,and receives light ftom without thaaugjh akan^ 
twenty-five sosall windows: the e«terioia of thesrvrere mos^ bigWf 
iaislipri than any of the former openings; and inwardly they appetr 
to have been secnied by wood^ shutten, $be biai^ and barrbofea 
nf which still amaui. This gaUeiy wms also open lo the state 
apartineais by sia aiches on each side. 

The upper &>or was about sUteen iieet high, and has likewise % 
fpUeryt with nprniosi both withjo and without, simitor to the pnik- 
pviing^ From the remains of a large areh id tbe sontb-essl eaii> 
ner, it seems hig^y probnble that die €ha|)el was placed hems 
Iheiijf^ this cannot absolutely be determined;* the destmction of 
Ibis a^gia in the wars between Kiiig John end bis Barons, and ita 


• ' fVom a dfttelen rescript in the tUgiemm Rqffbn$e, k appears <tliail 
ehere was a Chapei ia the Cattle, fuueed tbe King*c Chapel; and thp 
A^ttaisKeis ifass o&ist^ in k w^re aJimd. ^e iiiDg^ ChapWnsj: thrir 
Stipend was fifty fhillingt a year.* NUt, qf Rochester, p. ap. 



: R^ificsttion in a dirtenent style of aTcftitectiiw, li:mit|; 

smftll alteration in th<? plan of tlie builditig, »» dr- 

I by Biibojp Gmidiilph. 

Tile roof of the Keep, as well m the floors, lias been entJreU 

totn>]fid: It most probablj eonsisted of & pint form on a \tvtA 

mill die top of the wait within the parapet: the latter wm «feoiit 

fcre fet high, and had etnbrasmres abotit two ftot wide. Ttic 

t at the angles were raised another story ; and had aM 

I ptanformsi with parapets and crnbraztires. These, as well at 

Iht pItttibtTn, cominaDd a ^-ery noble and extensive view over tlit 

vAmhatyt the mer Metlway, and all the adjaceni country ; s« 

ttttl tm nmmy eottid upproach ^vithin the cUstance of several milea 

wiRliout being discovered. The gutters which cofive)t!d the water 

Item the pbLtfoTiD, are stifl perfect, TTie etitrance lower -eontaiiied 

ITO ipartnentSi the opening into which from without, tliou^h 

flOillt lire less contracted than those on the same ^ors in ^m 

Kffp: tUs «l»o was rrowned by a platform, surrounded by a pi^ 

npely and anbrnzored* 

A0 the writs ai^ composed of the common Kenlbh raf^om^ 

by a strong grout or mortar; in the composition eC 

oneoK quantities of sea-shells were used, and which hm 

from age, a consbtency, equal, if not superwr, to thfe 

lAeae itidf. The coigns are of the yellow hind of stone, said to 

{■vcbeeo brotigbt from Caen, tn Nortnamly: the window-frames, 

tegifter with the mouldings round the prrndpal entrance, thelhccfil 

«f tbe oolmmis in the state apartmci}tSj» and tlie arHies ?ibove, m 

ifA u iSbmt of the lirc^place, and tlie sleinii^ of Ac WeB, 

loeaUof this stone; but the vaulthigs of the galleries^ together 

mtb the staircases, and all the arrhes withm the walls themselves^ 

tn formed of the ruderag-stonc^?, which sf^ein to tmre been placed 

cm wooden centres, and the gi*out poured over them in so liquid k 

jtate, as to till up every crevice, and unite the whole in one im* 

fmiom anaasw The masonry of the southeasteni or circular 

tefv; Ibmifb of a difiereiit age, is essentially the same; but tb^ 

<ngpatte Wifte<«lMM: at the base may yet be traced tlie squaif 

vi ibe ortgiiuit tower^ which stood ktnf poor lo Um 


638 XKNT. 

liege m the time of King John. About tlie be^muiig <^ ibefaut 
ceotiiry, an attempt, originating in sordid motives, was made to 
destroy the whole of this venerable fabric; but thts, through the 
•olidity of tlie walls, was found to be too expensive an eateiprise, 
and was therefore abandoned on the same principles from which 
it had originated. 

The See of Rochester, though one of the most ancient, is at 
Ihe same time one of the smallest in England ; and those only of 
Glocester and Oxford are stated in the King's books as infe- 
rior in value. It was founded about the year 600, l^ Ethd- 
bert, Kit)g of Kent, together with a Priory of Secuktf Canons, 
in honor of St. Andrew,* to whose powerful uitercession was 
ascribed many signal instances of Divuie favor, and various mita- 
des. Augustine, the Aposiie of Britain, and first Archbishop of 
Canteifiury, on the completion of tlie Cathedral Church which 
Ethelberl had founded, (anno 604,) conferred the episcopal dig- 
nity on Justus, a prelate of eminent learning and integrity, who 
had been sent from Rome to assist in the conversion of the Saxous 
to Christianity. From this period the See of Rochester has been 
held in succession by ninety-three Bishops, many of whom have 
been fantous for their talents, piety, benevolence, and exteosiva 

Paulinusy the third Bishop, who had pre\nousIy held the See of 
York, and was established liere hi 633, was, after his decease in 
644, reputed as a Saint; and his memory acquired so much re- 
nown in after ages, that his relics were removed from the vestry, 
or sacristy, of the Church erected by Ethelbert, where they had 


* •* Ethelbert*! Church was dedicated to St. Andrew, as a token of 
respect to the Monastery of St. Andrew at Rome, from which Augus- 
tine, and his brethren, were sent to ronvcrt the Anglo-Saxons; and, 
after the Church was rebuilt, Lanfranc did not change the name of its 
turelary Saint, as he did in his own Cathedral, the Primate having such 
confidence in this Apostle, that he never transmitted by Oundulph any 
principal donation, without entreating the Bishop to chaunt the Lord^a 
prayer once for him at the altar of St. Andrew.** Dcmie^s Mem. qftkc 
Cailu Ch. fif Rochester, printed in the Custumale Rqffense, p. 154. 

tail totetred^ 1010 die dw of the Cftthedml built b^ Gundutpli, 
md irerw tliere placed in s sfariiie cased with silTer, nt tbr expcjnac 
of AitMiiihop lanfinmc. The faurtli Bbliop, named hhamNxr$ 
wu bom at Canterbtiry, and h nK!orded m tlie fint EngUsbniiii 
wIki obnitied m pfebcy in his own country: he also was n^ganled 
■i 1 Siior, and hiii r^msiini were traiiilntcd into Gundulph'* Chiirdit 
bj BUiOf) Jolui, between IJie jmm I) ^5 ^d 1 137, H'C Prinry 
cf St Attdfew w»fl at an early period poi&e!»ieil of a legend of hit 
mhacles;* and his menrnry, like that of PanUnus^ was refv^a^ for 
fiiititrirs: hr died in 655. TMm, thtt ninth Bbhop, Nrtitn^s 
oiniiciift for bts knowledge of the Oreek, Liitin^ tind Sixon lasi» 
gi£^:vtsH' s^ is highly prmised bv Bede for his literary iiH*iit&| 
He died in 7^^, ^u^d was buried within the original Church, in tlie 
pxtioci of St. Paurs, which lie littd purposely built for his iicpul'^ 
ihiT. Theie three Bisltops an* tite only ones known to bavr hem 
|iden«d in the ancient Cadiedralf of all the twenty-eight that hekl 

! Se« prior to tlie Norman inTa&ion« 

Hie posfCf$toos of the Bishops, »nd of the Secular Priest«, west 
ally increased by new grants from llie Sa\on ICings; yet 

> foaxiy loses sustained dnring the wart between the states of 
HcptaDrcby, and in the subsequent destructive incumotis of tlia 
caused such a considerable defalcation in their respeelivc 
It %b Icttffi' uRn actttdy wniciiiit for s deoeat nuunto- 
At the time of the Conqtte^ the Chiircb was m soch ' a 
^Mt of poverty; that Divkie wonhqp wat-entirely neglected in it.1 
Mmi even Ihft Secular Canooty thou^ rednoed to * four or five iq 
mauba^* vraieoU^edtodepeiidiwaportion of their sosteoaiioi 
M llie alma- bestowed by the pbiis, 

Tht a cc ttt hm of the Conqueror was maifced by new spoliations; 
iHiifaB the cMtcs that leiimined to the ChiiKb werp given to 

Vqu vn. Oct, 190S. S a 9idiop 

* BigUirum Bqffktue, p. 0. 

f ' TMrnptoiUacouecrwDit, vimm l^aUna, Gnfeth d Saxani^ 
BMgfia affile erudHume mulf^pHeikr tustrucfum.* ffUtor. Btdoi, 
% r, Ca^ 8. 

XVM.Qgf.2;^ § Basted^sKeat, yoLII.p.9a.F4. . 

6so Hkurt. 

BUiop Odo; and the See itself, neglected by its Primate, seemed 
verging rapidly to entire dissolution. Lanfhme, whom tbe levohi- 
tjons of empire had advanced to the See of Cantei1>uiy» and who 
appears to have been unfeignedly zealous in his endeavors to pro-» 
mote the interests of religion, raised Emast, a Monk of the AbbegF 
of Bee, in Normandy, to the Bishopric of Rochester, in l607r 
for the avowed purpose of improvii^ its aflbirs. The death, of 
Emoet, ill the same year, made room for Gundulph, who wa^ ap* 
pointed by Lanfraiic in 1077, and who, also, had been a Moidc in 
the Abbey of Bee. He was a native of the diocese of Rpnen, in 
Normandy ; and, according to a traditiott preserved by WiiUam of 
Malmsbuiy,* his advancement had been foretold by Lanfinuic, 
from a trial made by the Sortes Evangeliae, many years before 
either of tliem could have entertained the most distant idea of 
t|ieir subsequent promotion to episcopal dignities. 

Gundulph proved a most active agent in the le-estabUsfamoit of 
this See; and the estates granted by the Conqueror to Bishop 
Odo, having been recovered by Lanftanc in a Solenm Assembly, 
held during three days at Pinenden Heath, he detemuned to re- 
build the Church, which was now in a state of complete ruin. 
By hb own exertions, also, he recovered the Manor of Isldam, in 
Cambridgeshire, which bad been taken possession of by Pichot, 
tbe Sheriff; and having removed the Secuhur Clergy fipom tlic 
Priory of St, Andrew, he replaced them by Bcnedktine Monks, to 
xrhora he conveyed the greatest part of the estates belonging to 
his See ; and was likewise the means of procuring for them opnsi- 
derdble acquisirions, in grants of famd, and other property. Out 
of those manors, however, which he had assigned to the Monks, 
lie reserved to himself, and successors, a right to certain artkles of 
provibion, which were to be rendered annually, on St. Andrew^s 
iiay, under the name of a Xenium.f 


^ W. Malmib. de Gestis Pontrf. 

f From Binop ; a preient given in token of hotpitality. The original 
record concerning this provision, has been copied into the Rfgistrum 
Jhjeiise: it diflfcrs, in a few particulars, from another copy preserved in 




Hie C«t)ie<lral erected by Giinditlpb, if a jtidgment can be 
fbroKd from tbe remains of ht!$ buildiitg, still apparent in the imve, 
lod mt< firmt, mvm have bct^n a magixiiicent and apaciotu edifice. 
Uii fneml^ ArcUbisltop Lanfranc, advanced targe mints towards its 
tiirtiflB ; and H appears, also, Utat be was as^sted by gifU 
Aooi Wmiutt llie Conqueror, WilUam Eufu9, and Henr^^ the First* 
Hoie Ibflaaate tban ntuny oi the Norman prcluteSf he had tbe 
fhflMPt of nearly completing his own Church, as appears from 
te Ibllowiiig paaiagt in the Tcxtus Roffcnsis, which was com|)iled 
by BiiliDp Emulpb before the year 1 124. * EccUsiam Andnm 
fgmt v€im$tiU€ dinttaiH, novam ex inUgro, ut hodk Qpparct, tidifi* 
tmi/* It seems, bo^xver^ not to have been entirely tiuishei} till 

S s 2 sevend 

ihc BritUh Muieumt among the Cott. MS. A. i. 9, fol. 98. a. 6, Tlie 
Mlowing If s fraiMlated abstract from that m the HegMt Roff. p. (3. 

I, GvNnuLFH, *'doappoim» that cTery year, at ihe celebrBtion of 
ibe fem of Sc. Andrew the Apostle, there be referred ta me, aad my 
saieeflon» ont of the eHfttei which 1 have assigned for the maiRtenaiice 
of dM M^rnks* luch a Xcniuw at i* here specified : that if to lay, from 
ind from Frimbbury, and from Deuton, and Irom Southflcet, 
tuke, itkceen hogs cured for bacon, thirty geese, 300 fowb, 
lOOOkmpfryv *000 eggt, four ialmon, and sixty bundles of furze ^ and 
Ibm Stoke, ti>t«n it?am, and one measure of oats: — but half the fi»h 
aiKleggi to be tiic Monk** portion r — and from Lamhea, (l^mbcth,) 
lOOD Impreyt, for ihe use of the Monks: aho from Hadenham, twenty 
AilHigi-worth of fi«h, to be earned lo their cellar. But if it should 
lapptHi contrary to mf wiihet, that I, or any of my successors, shail be 
abMit fnmi the feast* then, in God's name and my own, I order that 
ikmUakXimttm be carried to ihc Hall of St. Andrew, and thete, at 
tkducrecioa cf the Prior and Brcthrcu of the Churchy be distributed 
totW ftrangrrs and poor, m honor of the festival.'* llie claims of the 
littbops lo tbe Xeniuoip were afterwards contested by the Monks with 
BMchpcninaciiy ; but the disputes were at length »eit!ed| by the former 
eoBittiting to receive a composition in money, in lieu of the provisions 
IB kind. This'oaroposition, at appean by tome passaircs in the Regis t^ 
^/ p. I S4, 1 25» atnountedi in i*ve time of Hamo de llcihe, to 4I, 1 29, 9d. 
^ ili the an«clct, r ii^rpt comi which was to be esbimated according 
to this uirreat prite* 

632 KBMr. 

several yean after hit death, wlucb occormd b Bltadi» 110|r-S| 
as the solemn dedication of the whok ttmctaie did not take friaoe 
till Ascension-day, 1 130; when, according to the Saioa Ouonide, 
it was performed m the presence of the KiBg» (Heniy the First,) 
by Corboyl, Archbi^iop of Canteibuiy, aMMted hy eleven Eni^iih 
and two Norman Bishops. Qnndu^ is atated to have been 
Confessor to Matilda, Hemy^Queen; and it has heen dionght 
that many of the gifts and pimieges bestowed by her Koyal pait- 
der on the Prioiy, (among which was the pnvil^ of eoiniqg 
money,^ were obtained by her influence, eitited fiom the Mpect 
which she entertained for the mcmoiy of the psoas Bishop.t The 
fiteiaiy acqiurements of Onndulph were not brilliant; bot hi$ 
skill and judgment as an architect, were of the most superior 
order; and he had the advantage of having them kept in full exer- 
cise. In the time of the Conqueror, he wasemployed to construct 
the Wkke Tower m the Tower of London; and in the wigm of 
his successors, William Rufin, nd Henify the First, he built the 
greatest part of the Cathedral and tiie Cauie at Rochester; and 
founded a Nunnery for Benedictines at West-Mailing, in this coun- 
ty, the buildings of which are also attributed to bun. He was b- 
terred in his episcopal vestments, before the altar of the crudfiz, 
which was always < raised at the interaectioo of the cross which 
divided the nave from the choir.t His festival was celebrated b; 
the Monks with peculiar splendoir. ^ 

Ralph, the immediate successor of Gundulph m this Bishopric, 
was translated to Canterbury in 1 1 14; when Eniulpb, a nathre of 
France, and Abbot of P^teiborongh, was advanced to the vacant 
See. This was the industrious compiler of the Textui RoffensisJi 
a work that contahis much valuable information on matters of an- 
tiquity, though its more immediate purport was to ascertain the 


• Regiitrwji Rqffease, p. 2. f Dcnnc j in CuHumaie Rqffcase, p. 1 5G. 
X Denne ; in Gust. KofT. p. 186. 

i See Pcgge't Account of thb venerable collection of ancient record^ 
in the BibUothcca Topographka, No. XV. 


i^its of Ibe Cburdi of Rochester. He also was difttnguishcd hy 
his kDOwled^ in irclut^ture; though but few reumtiis of his 
fwiMiliufci ItBve TtnebMl our times. Wheu » Monk at Cnnterburv, 
hfe tegw llie spkodid sltcmticms in the Cnthedml Church of that 
dtj, «ycii were sHenrards completed hy Prior Conrad ; at Petcr^ 
t be finiibed the ChapC€r-hous4.>, and erected the Refectory, 

Doiniiluiy for tlie Monks: and at Rochester he built the Dor- 
the Refectory, and tlie Ch«ipter-hou«e. The ruins of the 

tf whkh adjoined to the Cathednit on the south side, display 
n gmHer pf^usiofl of Ofnunient Lfian the btiihiings of Gundtilpb, 
tbotigii the 9ty)e both of the architecture and sculpture b tbe 
snae Enmlph died in March, 1124, at the age of cighfj^four; 
ood wms Micceeded by John, Archdeacon of Canterbury', who 
gr«iited tlte Churches of Frindsbury and Stroud to the Cathedral 
0f Bodloier, for tlic puqiose of supjjijiiig uax tajtcn to hum 
omUiiiUiDy belbre (lie altar. This Prelate died in June, I J 37 ; on 
tiielhird of which months the Priory buildings were imKstly de- 
stirned by a fire, which fwrtly consumed the City, and diuiiagcd 
tbe CaibedrttL The Monks were disj^ersed in dtfievent Abbies, 
wliait fbtMoQSKtery was t^building; and tins appears to have 
gjh^ai opportunity to John^ si Noniian Bishop, who bud been 
tfUnbled to tb» See oii the death of his predecessor, in 1 lOJ^ 
(dMRi^ hi* naii»c b oniittcd by Godwin,) to aheuate several 
of ibe Cbvrrhes in favor of one of hb own friends, Ascclin, who 
ineeeeded him in 114'2, and died in 1147» vindicated the claims 
of Ibe Monks, and obtaiited restitution of their possessions by an 
tonotxlbte onier from the Pa^val See, be having travelled to Home 
to ftate the rtrcomsfances of the case to the Pope in |)erson» 
Walter, Archdeacon of Canterbury, and brother to Theobald, the 
Arehbi^bop, was nominated to the vacant See, and was elected by 
tbe Monks of Rochester in the Chapter-house of Canterbur)\ 
wbere they bat] been assembled tor the purpo^. Thii Biiahop as- 
»Ktc«l mi ibe coronation of Henry, eldest son of Henry tbe Second, 
in 1170; for which be w'«i^ afterwards excommunicated by Thcmias 
i BeckeL During his prelacy, another fire (anno 1 17^)) is stated 
lo baw cooatimed the whole city, toother with tlic Catbedral, 

S B 3 iiud 

634 KENT. 

and its offices; yet, howevet strong, or compr^keiisiTe, the terms 
which Gervase,* a contemporary wi;iter, and the annalist, £dnnnid 
de Hadenham, have employed in noticing this cahmity, the ooosi* 
derable remains of Gundulph's Church which still exist, prove 
them both to have overchaiged the picture. The conflagratioo, 
however, most probably extended over all the Cathedral eastward 
from the nave. This Bishop died in the year 1 1 83 : his successor, 
Waleran, is said to. have been seised with hb bst illaess m this 
city, whibt making preparations for a journey to Rome, in order 
to solicit the Pope for permission to eject the Regular Canons fitwi 
bis Priory, that he might again introduce a fraternity of Secuhirs. 
Gilbert de GlanvilU, his successor, pursued a similar line of policy, 
in endeavoring to humble the pride and arrogance of the Monks, 
with whom be was, in consequence, involved, for many years, in 
contentious controversy, The dispute was heightened by the claima 
made by thb Prelate, in right pf his See, to various presentations, 
ordinations of parochial benefices, manors, &c. of which the Monks 
had clandestinely obtained possession. The litigations were car- 
ijed to such extremities, that the Prior, and his Brethren, were 
obliged to coin the silver plates that covered the shrine of St. 
Paulinus into money ; and were at last com)>eUed to submit to the 
award and clemency of their Diocesan. . A formal abjudication, 
properly attested, was tlieu made (anno 120?) on all the points in 
dispute between them ;t yet the smothered enmity of the Monks 
figain burst forth on tl^e deat|i of Glapville, in June, 1214, when 


* The words of Gervase are, Hoc anno scilicet M.CLXXIX-^ 
(juarto idus Aprilisferia scilicet tertia post octavos Pascha eidem Rqf- 
fensi ecclesics triste accidit incommodum. Nam ipsa ecclesia Sancii 
Andrea cum qfficinis suis cum ipsa civitate igne consumpta est ei in 
cinerem redacta, X S, c. 1430. Edmund de Hadenham, as given by 
Wliarton in the Anglia Sacra, Vol I. p. 345, says, Rqffensis ecclesia 
cum omnibus qfficinis et tota urbe i^fra et extra muroa secundo com* 
busta est Hi idus Aprilis, anno XCFII ex quo nu>nachi in eadem eccle-* 
fia instituti sunt. 

f See Registrum Ifqfense, p. 52, and 69. 



liWy endeavored ti* prevent his remains from receiving interment 
1 die Catbedra) ; and on beini^ fnistnstcc! tn fliis attempt^ they 
(its iuueral, tliat the iiirennent iitighl ttike place bef€»re tin' 
, ifhicli the nation then lay under, nns taken ott*. He was 
a man of great nbilittes ; and in the reiji^n of Henry the Second, 
bvd been made u Justice Itinerant^ a Huron of the Exchequer, Jns- 
licar^ of England^ and Chancellor* The Bisiiop's Palace iii Ro- 
cheslcrt whkh had been burnt down by the fire in 1179t ^^ re- 
bidl by this Prelate ; and he also erected a Clobter of stone for 
die Mooks, and liimi&hed the Cathedral with an Organ. The 
dasaensiocis, however, which prevailed during his time, most probw 
Uy retaided the re-construction of iliose parts of the Church 
itUch tlie conflagration had destroyed ; and it was not till the year 
12^7» that the new choir appears to have tjeen sufHciently com- 
pleted for the performance of divine service. Even at\er that, the 
muA advanced but slowly; and the re^dified fabric did not re* 
ceive its (iiial dedication till the yeiir 1 240,* 

Ti)c subtlety of tlic Monks, sharfiened by their necessities, oc- 
msiancd by tlie dbputes with Bishop Gianville, led them to im* 
|ifOve an accidetilal event which happened in May, 1 20 1 , to their 
own advantafl;e* A benevolent Scotchmun, a baker by profession, 
named William^ had been intluced to undertake a pilgrimage to 
Jcrottlem; but when on the road to Canterbury, a bttte beyond 
Eodiiiter, be was murdered by his servant, and plundered of bis 
fifOfifffty, Hb remains were brought back to this city, and in- 
Hrred in the Church, where, accordhrg to the report of the Monks, 
t miiacles were wrought at his tontb. What these miracles 
\ docs oat appear u{Kin recftrd ; yet the 6ti|jerstition of the age 
iMTiii such, tliat the sepulchre of the munlered pilgrim attracted 
j^reat crowds of visitors, and the oblations n»aile by them became 
to the Monks a source of considerable atilu* iice. The uhole ex- 
peaat of re^boilding the eastern part of tlie Church, kom the west 
IMnsept, is recorded to have been defrayed by the riches thus ac* 

S s 4 quired ; 

* See M iUii'i Miircd AUbici, Vol I p. 294- 

636 SCENT. 

j^uiied;* and the fame of Williain was at length oompletod by ini 
canoniiaUoQ in 1254» through the aolicitattonft of Bishop Laonoco 
deSLMartm, who was thenatR<Hue. At the same tirae^ the Pope^ 
Innocent the Fourth, granted indulgenoes lo all who shooU nri(| 
and make offerings at the shrine of the new Saint Hiis oaau 
siooed a new ferment among the supdrstitious devotees of the a^e; 
many pilgrimages were made to his tomb, and St. Willlan maio- 
tained his reputation till a late period. <^ Here, (as they sayO ^^ 
serves Lambard, " shewed he miracles plentiful^: but certain it is^ 
that madde folkes ofiered unto hin liberally, even until these lat- 
ter times." 

The unroediate successor to Glanville, was Benedict de SauMetun^ 
who was Treasurer to King John, and afterwards « Baion (rf* the 
£xcliequer. This was the Prelate who, in coiyunction with Pao- 
flulpfa, the Pope's Legate, denounced the excommumcation of the 
Barons, and suspended Langton, Archbishop of Canterbuiy, for his 
previous refusal to publish the Pope^s bulL His siding with King 
John, did not, however, prevent his Cattedral from being plun- 
dered when that Monarch besieged the Castle; and *' not so much 
as oue poorc pixe was left to stand upon the altar.'f Benedict 
died iu 1226; and was succeeded by Hewry de Sandford^ who, 
through liis knowledge of the learning of that day, iras s^kd ' the 
great Philosopher/ , In the contest which arose between Ueniy 
the Third and tlie Monks of Christ Church, respecting the right 
of chusiiig an Archbbliop of Canterbury, on the death of Lang* 
ton, this Bishop was oue of the Ambassadors sent to the Pope by 
the King in support of his own pretensions; and by his influence^ 
conjoined with the ' offering of a tenth of all the goods both of 
the clergy and laity throughout England and Irelai^,' the election 
made by the Monks was declared vokib He died in February, 
1234-,-5; and was succeeded by Richard de Wendover, who was 
elected by the Mouks^ ui opposition to the claims of patro- 


* If'ilklmus de IIoo sacrista fecit totum chorum a prcdictis ddis de 
obUUionibus Sancii H'iUehni. Reg. RotF. p. 125. 

t Lambard's Perambulation, p. 301. 




lie tif Artlibisliop Edmund, This occusioned an appeal 
ip 1^ Court of Rome; aad^ after three years cotitroversy, th^ 
Hictioo WHS pronounced vnlkl: from this period, the right of tJie 
ifoDla to clius« their own Bisfaop, appears to have been admitted 
igr Ike Ifctiopolitan. Oa his death, in 1250, Laurence dc St. 
MktHw was advanced to tlie vacant See : his services in procuring 
<he cuxNUVitiOQ of St. WUham, were rewarded by the encomiums 
«f liie McMiks whilst liWn^, and the tnost honorable intennent 

ikad. During hts prelacy, the Cathedral was pluudcred^ 
nd confuted into a stable, by the soldiers of Simon de Montford^ 
fdiefi bcsiegiiig the Castle, in 1264, He died m 1274; and in th« 
October following, Walter de Merton^ who bad l>een Keeper of 
tlie Great Seal in 1256, and was twice appointed Chancellor^ 
im pfomoted to this Bblmpric. To him Ihe republic of lite- 
ntare is greatly indebted for his mumficent foundation of Merton 
Oolk^ge. at Oxford, which is considered as * the fir!it IHeraiy com-^ 
•■■lily ill this kingdom that had the sanction of a Royal charter/ 
Hts itmtiedtaie successors were John de Bradfield^ who died in 
1293; Ihmau de Ingfeihorpc^ who died in 12^1 1 and Thamas de 
Wotdhitm^ who dicii in 13ib\ 

On the decease of the latter, the Monks raised their then Prior, 
ifoaio de Hfthc, to the vacant See : he proved extremely active 
in ibe diseliarge of his episcopal functions, and made numerous 
gifts to the Priory and Church. * He also establislied a Chantry 
for tiro Ptiests, wlio were to officiate at the altar near the shrine 
of St. Williain, and heightened the great tower at the uitersectioa 
of the tun^ and transept, placing in it four new bells, called 
* Duostao. Paulmus, Ithamar, and Lantranc/ Soon aOerviardf^ 
be lepatied the shrines of ihe Saints Paulinus and llhaniar, at 
tbeeapinw of 200 marks. Growing decripit and feeble in hts 
laltrr dayt, he proposed to resign his Bishopric, but was refused 
pennk&bo by the Pope, and was reluctantly compelled to retain 
it till bis desith in 1332. His successor was the then Prior, John 
dt S/*epiy, an elc%e of Bishop Hcthe's, who was appoiuled Cfjun- 
oellor of Bnghuid in 1 356, and held that high otHce during two 
yienra. He vsns afterwards Treasurer to the King; and effing in 
I QGO, was buricti iu the Cathedral. 



Thomas Brtmon, Hit fi%-first DUhop, and tbird In suceeaaion 
ffom John rJe Sbei>ey, wats Confessor tn Richard Ibe Scootid. 
John Ktmp, tlie fiOy-iilUi Bishop, had the ctuttody of Uie Great 
Seal ; jukI wns utYcrwards traii?*bted in order, to I be Seiai of Cbi- 
cliesler^ London, York, and Canterbury. His suc<:ea«or wm tlic 
jcitrncd Mm Lftn^don, yvUo waii a native of ibis comity, and bttd 
been a Monk at Cbn&t>Cburcb : be aided Arcbbt^liop Cbicheley in 
[lis persecutions of the Lollarfk; and died in Septeinber, 1434, at 
Ba^il, while attending the Council bcid in that City, on tbe pari 
of Henry the Sivlh. John l^we, D. D. the filiy-nintb Biiibopy 
Vtns educated at Oxford, and became Prior of the Austin Friar»» 
in London, ixi \V22; and in 14*28, wa3 styled Provincial of bis 
Order* He held llm See upwanls of twenty-three year$, but was 
removed by death, in Sqitember, 146*7. Thotmu dt Rather futm» 
hh iiucce^Hor, was afterwardit Bishop of Lincobi» Lard Chancellor, 
and Arcbbiiiliop of York, Tl»e sinly-sixtli Bishop was the unfortu- 
nate John Faha-, who was beheaded in 1535, by order of Henry 
Eighlh, for matntiiining the ^iupreuiacy of tlie Poj)c in ccelest- 
fticrtl ntlhirs. His ^uccewor, Buhop Uildcilcy, died in i^Z^. 

Tlie dbsohtiion of Religious Houses soon alierwards taking place, 
^e Priory of Rochester was surrendered to the King in April, 
1510; nnd tt» nnirual revcnocf were then valued at 4S()K 11 s« 5d« 
The la^st Prior was Waiter PhUlips, surname d dc Bostf]f ; wbo, 
for bb ready com pliancy in surrendering the possessions of bis Mo- 
naster}, was appointed Dean of this Cutiietlral, under the new 
foundalton charter, granted by the King, in June, 1542, By this 
diartcr tiie Church, and part of tiie estiUcs of the dissolved Priory 
of St. Antla*w, with other possessions, w ere ve!)ted for ever in the 
new establishment, which wa» to consist of * a Di^tu s^x Prebenda* 
ries, six Minor Canons, a Deacon, and Sub- Deacon, ux Lay* 
(Merks, a Ma^slcr of ibe Choristers, eight L'honslcrSi oneGramniar 
Master, twenty Scbohirs, two Sul>-8ocri^t9, and sis poor Bedes- 
men ;' with bderior otficcrs. 

The tirst Bishoj) after the Dji>uiu( luu, was i\iiiw(ns llaith, D, D, 
tlie Kmg's Aimouer, who tvas transluled to Worrcjster in 1543: 
since tliAt period^ twenty-four prelates have been advanced to Uiis 



%tr^ of wUom Uic \mm Ridfty was Inimt at OKft>rd# with 
BillOp I^litorr, in the reign oi' Queen IVlstn ; mttl Francis Aa€r* 
tmry IWa eiiled li^ an Act of Uie LegLHlatttre, m 1723, for a trea- 
immblc cocrcgKiodene^* The pre«icat Bishop is Dr. Tficman 
fj ,nipicr, who was protiuiteiJ on the translation of tlte leajruinJ 
" r ■ ^:' \ 1i. in the yttar 180':. 

• /Chester sitaads at a hi tie distance to 

oulb of tiiclligh Slrfct. . itl » ;\ i from the Caatle, thewaJbof 

; M n! 1 With the CiislJc fiifcfn It is Imilt in 

itnd consists of u imve and aisles, Iwa 

Imitsepti, and a choir, with a low towerp ainl spire, rising froiu 

'^' intcncclton of the m « I \rev<rt tmnw»pt. Thiv [" . \hl- 

a^wciiiicfis of the iii - jc of at least four <i i ^ n*9. 

The Dife, and iwal front, with tlie exception of tUe parts here- 

.iftif n»i*ntii>n<*il, urrc the wotIc of tile Normiin, Gundidph; to- 

^^fthLT viitli I lie nta^sivc belUtower, which stands between the 

igmaaepiB on tbe north side, and BtHl hears his name. The north 

RJcfc ri>t was built by the Motik% Ilidiard de 

Eaal^i , iu i - ..., dc Mcpeham, subsequent to the tire in 

1 I79i atid the »oulh side, by the Monk Richard de Waledene^ 

about the coinuieijceoieni of tlic following ccotur). Tlie cboir, 

in. I iitiffirf tmnsept, Mere erected in the reigns of King JiUin, and 

L ThbiL hy tJie sacrbt^ WiUiain de Hr»o^ with the pio* 

H\ made at the xbriue of St, Wttliam, 

^ the went cnirancc of ibis interesting plk% the 

brhrl !ii be struck with tbe mJ;i*mficence of design^ 

':.^ ! richnras at deconUion, whicb, ontwtthManding the ravnges <lf 

ihiiC. and the inuovatlon-H of modern UR-hitects, are stUl observuble 

llmMagbooL I'hc principal door^wny oi>cus iu the ccntR% under a 

Iwaatifldljr recessed semicircular ardi) consbling ot u variety of 

Oioilildtiigs, supported by tlirec entire cotunuis, and a semicolunin 

fift each aifc. The capitidh are couijwsed of w real bed foUdge^ 

u u w^liicb proceed tlic heads of birds, and other auimals. One 

i«j0^ however, as well as seveml other capitals on this front, 

I trc rej^hr in tti conMruction ; and oidy differs froui tliose of 

Ilie Coriniltian Onler, in the forms of the leaves which surround 

^ it. 

K40 KENT. 

it The bodies of two of tiiese pillars are wrought into ^vdible> 
length statues of Heniy the First, (as is supposed,) and his Qneed 
Matilda : the former sustains a sceptre in his right handi and in 
his left, a book : the htter holds a scroll, probaMy embfematical 
of the grants made to the Priory by these Sovereigns; but the 
countenances of both are defaced. All the mouldings of the arch 
are decorated by sculptures ; the principal of them rqxeseating 
twisted bmnches, and curled leaves, with a variety of small ani- 
mals, and human heads, in rich open-work. The transom, whidi 
rests upon the unposts of the arch, is composed of eight stones, 
ingeniously dove*tailed together, the outer fiices of which are 
sculptured with the figures of the Apostles. In the space above is 
a representation of the Saviour, seated ; with a book, open, in one 
band, and the other raised, as'in the act of benediction : and on 
each side is an angd inclining towards hnn, together with the sym- 
bols of the Evangelists. 

From the other remains of the ancient parts of this front, it ap- 
pears to have consisted of four ranges of small arches, some of 
vriiich are mtersected ; having richly-ornamented moiddhigs, and 
exhibiting a vast variety in the designs of the capitals, and fiutings 
of the pillars, scarcely any two being similar. Many of the recesses 
beneath the arclies, as well as the ^ces between the diflferent 
ranges, are decorated with net-work, and other ornaments, as flow- 
ers, &c. and the bases of the lower range of pillars are wrought mto 
heads of animals, projecting, and looking towards each other. It 
seems also, from various representations taken in the beginning of 
the past centuiy, that tliis front had originally four octagonal 
towers, which rose above the roof to the height of two stories of 
small arches, and termmated m pyramids : only one of these is 
now standing ; that nearest to the centre, on tlie north side, was 
probably re-built in a different form, at the same time when a 
considerable portion of the middle of this front was removed to 
make room for the spacious pointed arched wmdow which now 
occupies it, and Which consists of sixteen larger lights, and nume» 
tons smaller ones in the ramifications of the arch above. The two 
•Iher octagonal towers^ which occupied the extremities to the 






ttoitb and »autti, htve been reitioved wiUiin tlie last foiij yean : t]i« 
jtortfirru tower wii5 iiuUed down to Uie foundation^ and re-built tm 
a ftt^ie ktilende«i to bear some re^oiblaiKe to the original, \^t ibe 
iiiiailitiide b but abgbt* A whole-lenglb stalue, however, of GuQ-t 
dtt^ibv tbc founder, standing on a slirine, in pontiJicaUbus, with 
Mi cit»r mcTom bi& breast, was carefuUv preserved, and fitted u|» 
to 6«Mil of tbe new tower, where it now remuins. His mitre has 
bMO f k^^ broken ofi*; and his right band, which is stated to bnvf i 
bcM ft iffM^escntation of a Church, is aUo drstroyed. 

Mk^ tievriog tbe west front, tiie whole retnauiirij; exterior part 
of tbe Calhcdi«l must l>6 considered as extreinely plain, if not si- 
iBfllhif dcslitute of oniauieut. The ends of the west transept, 
«m1 lite ChapeU of St. Mary and St. Etiwurd, are supported by 
|;EKdttailed buttve9Bes ; thb is not the case with the chou^, the pon^ 
roof of which tias been svit!ercd to depend aUlrely on the 
i of its walls, uideil by a colhteral support from the scvc* 
nl tonren of its tnuisept, and east end. 

ffOSi tbt west door is a decent of several steps to the nave, 
0m gfeoiltf part of which prescnes its original character. The 
fira liie eolumM on esch side, and half of the sixth, are in tbe 
tNoniMUi alyle, supiwrtini: senticircular arches, decorated 
1 Of^sig niouidiugs, ;uid having plain fluted capitals. The co- 
y vi; disiiinular, not any two ui the same lungc being exactljf 
irfike ; llHKigh Ibc oppo^te cohuuns in the rcispecllve ranges unt* 
finady correspond. Above the arches, sustained on these co* 
U a srcotid sloQr of arches^ corresponding both in size and 
The s|>aee beneath each of the hitter, however, is 
filled «p by two smaller arches, liaviug 2ig*zag mouldings, support*- 
tti on three short, thick colttmos, with fluted capitals. On the facei 
of thf im&l, Wtwcen the smaller and up|)er arclies, is disphiyed a 
gTKil varirty of curious net-works, with central crosses, quatrefoils^ 
tielbik, wreatlifi, and other omainenLs, Beneath these arches is a 
or gullery, which communicates witb tlie circular stair- 
In lh« angles of tlie west front. Above are two tiers of 
windows, eadi divided into ihjce lights, uudcj* Out pointed arches. 

642 KJSNt. 

The roof is of timber,* with knees^ sopporled on coib^ di# 
fronts of which are carved mto the figures of angets, suitaimDif 
shields, on which are pamted the Anns of the City, See, and* 
Piriory, of Rochester, as well as those of the Archbishopric mmI 
Cathedral of Canterbury. The west wall appears to have 
divided into ranges of niches, some of them crowoed with t 
arches, having plain and billetted mouldings, supported on small 
three-quarter columns, with fluted capitals. Others^ having och 
ther pillar, nor capital, are decorated with sig-aag mouldings^ 
continued down the sides of the recess. 'J'he traces of the innova- 
tion made hi Gundulpb's design, by the mtroductioa of the pro- 
sent west window, are clearly to be seen in the abrupt terminatioa 
of difierent ranges of these niches; some of them Invnig been 
cut through the centre. The two easternmost arches of the nave, 
on each side, exhibit a very different style of architecture to the 
preceding; these being in the pomted style, with rich grooved 
mouldings, rising from clusters of slender columns. 

The Greai Tower, which rises from the intersection of the nsLxe 
witli the west transept, b sustamed by four obtusely-pointed arches, 
resting on pieces of solid masonry : the latter are eovirooed by 
slender columns of Petworth marble, which are sounected with the 
piers by fillets of the same. The low octagonal spire above, being 
in danger of fidling, was taken down, and re-built in the year 
1749, under the direction of Mr. Sk>ane,t Architect to the Dean 
and Chapter ; who, a few years before, had superintended the 
alterations and improvements that were made m the choir. 

The IVest Traiuept is built in the pointed style; but, irora 
having been erected at difierent periods, the architecture is some- 
what dissimilar. In the upper part of the north end is a triforium, 


* On one of the beams is ihe date 1014 ; hut as the characters are 
scarcely two centuries old, this can only refer to a more ancient me- 
morial of some circumstance which this date was originally intended to 

^ ITie curious model made by this architect, of the wood- work of the 
spire^ is still preserved in St. William*s Chapel. 




WK imopt windows, each hating a screen iit front, 
i vUo three arches, of unequal heights : tliese rest on slei^ 
of Petworth marble, m\h plain capitals »m1 bascs^ and 
1 filltft round U»c centre of each. The VHultiiig is of stone, 
gnwiecl, wilh a plain groo^'eti moulding : alt the other mouldings 
r, exceplnig a bead of quatrefoib, which goes rounil tlic 
i of tl»e screens, Mrnt^p of the smaller pillars, and imposts 
are supported by corbel beads, chiefly of Monks, and 
! incxiwb: the strength of feature and expression which these 
show the art of design to have been iidvauced to consider- 
able maturity at the period when they were executed. In llie east 
will if 9 recess, under a large |iointed arch« iji which formerly 
sHmmI the altar of St, Nicholas, llje south end of tliis transept 
ptmcipafly varM Irom the other in its superior Uglitness: like 
ft has a triforium in tlie upper story, witli lancet windows 
Hie roof is of timber frame>work, iji imitation 
of ranlting. Under a large arch, on the west side, is an opening 
ioiii llie Cluftel of St. Mary, a structure of a much more rcc^t 
dolt; probably as late as the reign of Henry the Seventh* It 
mtaww II about thirty teet wide, and forty-iive in length. Tlie 
^Dtfth and west sides exhibit five spacious windows, under obtuse 
divided by muUions ; the piers or jambs which separate 
lietng ver^* ttarrow : in tlib Chapel the Consistory Court is 
On tJir cast side of this end of the transept is a small door, 
opefks into a strong, dose room, iJluminated by only one 
aOMll window* well secured : tiiisi apartment was designed for tlje 
«ye oiilody of the valuables which belonged to the altars in this 
put of the CatbedtaK 

Tlie CAoir isaacended from the nave by a flight o( ten steps, lead- 
jfig Uvongfa a pbin arch, in an unomainented stone screen, on which 
■art the organ gallery and Organ ; the latter is of handsome woik- 
Jianship; Ibt case, and the fronts of the guUery, arc of mahogany^ 
raived io imitation of the pointed style* The pipes of the organ are 
I into dusters of columns, and the whole is crowne<l with 
cJetand tinials, which produce a good and appropriate etiect; 
idtbough the mouldingi are by no means correctly copied from the 
Aorknr. From 

From the eotrance of the choir to its etttera eximakjp Ike' 
style of the building has a uiufomi diaxacter: it is ocaty lo^, and 
solid, though not heavy. The whole coosiats of two- stories of 
pointed arches; the lowermost, rising from slender colansnsof 
Petworth marble, with plain capitals, and fillets roimd the middk^ 
by which they are united to the contiguous pierk The archea are 
in general decorated with grooved mouldings, varied ooly in < 
arch by a single row of fillets, or of quatrefoils. Above the 1 
arches is a triforitwi, which traverses the whole of the choir, aii4 
« its transept, and opens to them by small arches, each having a 
single row of quatiefoil ornaments in front, resting oo cnliiMny 
of Petworth marble. Tlie space before each window is dividMl 
into three arches; that in tlie centre being rather obtosdy pointed, 
and those at tlie sides very acute. These also rest on slender 
shafts of Petworth marble, with plaia bases and capitals, and fiU 
lets, as before. All the windows, except those unmediately conti* 
guous to the altar, consist of single lights, of the hmcet form: the 
others, which are divided, by mullions, and are ramified above, ap* 
pear, fipom some small remains that ane still ezistingi to have baen 
once filled with painted glass. The east wall contains three of 
the latter kind; and over them, behind a ballustrade, pierced with 
quatrefoils, is a divided window, under a pointed arch, which e»> 
tends nearly the whole width of the choir. The ea$i transept ii 
divided hito two aisles, over the easternmost of which, in both di« 
visions, are apartments, ascended by circuUr wuiding stair-cases 
in tlie wall: in these were nightly deposited, the vestments, jeweisi 
sacred vcssek, and other valuables, which sqipertained to the altan 
and shrines of St. William, St. Paulinas, and others, which stood 
in the different parts of the chohr. The extremities of this transept 
were formerly shut out from the choir, by screens of Gothic woric, 
hung with arras, wliereon was depicted, the Entry of Noah mto 
the Ark. The northern part was, and still is, denominated the 
Chaptel qf St, William, from thie popular Saint of that vtOEm^ 
whose remains were there enshrined; and to the number and value 
of the oblations made at whose altar, the present dioir owes its 
origin. The avenue by which plgrmu entered this Chapel, was a 
. I small 



Mdl dark aisle> opening from the Dortb tranaept^ and passing hcr- 
I the chotT and GanduJph s tower. Acrois the middle of this 
Hi tlie head of a Higlit of steps, is a stone screen, openinj^ by 
t mall pointed arched door<way. The steps are almost worn info 
la faKiined plane, from which some idea may he fomied of the 
|Ei«at cootoane of visitors which the devotioti of that superstitious 
a^ ladfieed to come on pilgrimage to tlib shrine. The pavement 
Mow the arches, which divide this Chapel from its eastern aisk^ 
i« OfMiiposed of small tiles, wrought into a varitfty of geometrical 
forms. The square^ the parallelogram, the lozcnj^^e, tlic triangle, 
and tbe circle, are all displayed in separate compartments. The 
raiilljng. l»oth of the nave and transept, ii of stone, resting witliin 
the walls, on the ca]ntals of tall, thin sliafU of Petworth marble, 
Tlie choir was newly paved, and pewed^ about the year 1743 ; stalls 
for the Dean and Chapter, a throne for the Bisho|>, and an altar* 
fmff were at the same time ndded, in a neat style, though very 
inappropriate to tlie general character of the edifice. In the cen- 
lia of Ike altar-piece is a good imblhrg, from the pencil of West, 
af die Angel appearing to the Shepherds, The Altar, aa in other 
Cliiitbes In the Catholic limes, was plated at a distance from the 
tilt ivall ; and its txnci situation may yet be ascertained, Irom the 
triple sioTie icai under the third window, in the south wall : on the 
Iront of ihjd seat are the amis oi^ the See of Rochester ; of Christ- 
Church, Canterbury ; and, as supposed, of tlje Priory of Roches- 
lef: begnrath these were formerly the representations of three 
Biriiops, witlj mitres and crazier^; and tins devout sentiment^ ia 
aadcQt cbantcteia : 

O. Altituda dlvinaq Sapienck ei Scienck 
Dti qyam incomprchambilia Sunt 
jkdida €jm €i invest igfibUa vie cjuM* 

The Crypt, which extends beneath the whole of William de 

IJooa edifice, haft been tJiought to be of the Norman age; yet a 

cwilul eompanson between it and the superstructure, will convince 

aoylotetlifreiH observer, that l>oth were the work of tlie same archi- 

licf « The doors which open into Ibe crypt from witliout, are under 

Voii^VIL Oct. 1»05. Tt pointed 

645 KENT* 

pomted arches, as are the wmdows through which it wai %hted: 
tite btter are divided by inuilioiis, with ramified heads; and be^ 
fore they were stopped up, were capacious enough to transoliit sttfi- 
cient light for the service and ceremonials of the nine Altars, that 
foitnerly stood here. Some smalt' remains of painting may still be 
discovered m tliat part of the crypt helow ^t. WiUnmls (%apel'. 
In a circle is a representation of a tessel sailidg, with large iisfa in 
the water in front, and on one ude, the upper part of a Monk; 
with his hands uplifted as in prayer. Under this, on a shield, Or, 
an eagle displayed, sable, besdced and clawed, aigent 

The entrance into the present Chapter-House, which 
the Idbraryi and is a long room numing putaHel with the ' 
side of the choir, is near the south end of the east transept, b^ 
Death a very elegant pointed arched Door-toa^j which has been in^ 
judiciously walled up to tlie siae of a ^ common squato^hcadeA 
architrave door, inserted in the centre.* The scdptnre is vor^ 
mh ; and b continued from the receding base of the dberwqf on 
each side, over the whole front. In a large hidlow, bet^reen th6 
inner mouldings, is a range of buman heads^ and Howers,' in alter* 
nate succession. Beyond these, at the sides, and riiilig above 
each other in detached recesses, to the centre of the arA, art 
whole-length figures. The two lowenAost,* whkh are standing, 
have been thought to represent Henry the First, and his Queen 
Matilda; the fbrmer having the remains of a sceptre in his right 
liand, and a Church in his left ; the latter, a hook, or tablet, in 
her right hand^ and in her left, which is uplifted, a broken stafl^ 
with two appendant labels. Above, on each side, are two figureis 
seated, m episcopal or monkiUi garments: these, from their accom- 
panying symbols, Mr. Deuuc conjectured to represent the Bishops 
Gundulph, Eraulpii, Laurence de St. Martin, and Hamo de 
Hethe ;* to the latter of whom, the erection of thb entrance n at« 
tributed. Over the uppermost Bishops^ are angels, rising from 


^ CtuhuMfe Rnff\ p. f 76^ where atio ii an elevation of this door- way. 
Mf. Carter hai alio engraved it' u hii Spedmtni of Ancient Sculpture 
dod Painting. 



Iwo on each aide, appareiitJj^ si'ignig praises, and glorify- 
ing llie SvriouTt who is ftfircsciitect b^ a siuali Cigitrci ndiect, 
I lieiie*th a cmopy, in Uie cctine of the arcb. Tbe liOi!9«r 
! Ilicae figures, is perforateii witli holes» tJiraugb uhick 
b tnikecl k braucb of laurel ; ;uid above, mthm tlte iitucr mould- 
iiif, ere rmmgm of leaTes* Rich bninclios of vine leases surrouml 
the miier swtep of tbc arch, wbich rcsL$ on pien oniumerUed with 
gndsaftMl Inittreaics. 

Tlic Lil»^ory, ivlitdi Is cotitaiiicd in presses occ»ipv»n« the nortli 

oiie of Uk Cbaptcr-Koom^ docs credit to tiie ta:»te and Jeurning of 

Ibe meoemm Chapters \^ho have rontrit>uted to its selection. 

Amofi«; the Maouscnpts, and preHerved widi great care, are those 

mrioiiM and valuable compiktions, the Tcxtm Roffcjisi^, and the 

Cfiitvm&k HajjftnMtt the latter is said, bv Dr^ Harris, to have beca 

i^n, or collected, cbieOy by John de We^terham, who iiaa «• 

Naokt ««* Prior, iu this Church, in the time of Hanio de lietbe, 

and ivlte died in tt^e year 1320/ It was (inX pubhsiied from a 

tnii^pf tnadr b^ Dr/rhoq>e, by bis son, hi 17118, and occupies 

tlnrty-fin pa>ge»7 closely printed « of the woiL to which it gives title; 

** \\ oanbdiH inany curious particulnrs relative to the ancient 

tcnurtSy serrices rmts^ viltetnage, &c« of the Manors within ibis 

K ' ntjpd to the Priory; together with tlic valua* 

■ t . u:c p.ivuhic to the Pope from the Cathedral 

Gburcbes m England.'' 

The whole length of this Calhedrnl, from cast to west, is 306 

frfir iht length of the nave, from the west door to the steps of 

tiKcboir, \% 150 ^t; that of the choir itself, 156 feet. The 

leogtbof tbc west transept b 1:22 feet; that of the east transept, 

ninrty f«t. The breadth of tJte tiave, and wde alstej^, is seventy- 

iive feel ; the breadth of the nave only, between the columns, t» 

rhree teet; thnt of the choir is tlie same, Tlie width of the 

«vr^i jfoul i» ntnrly-fonr feet ; tlie height of the great tower, 156 

Tbe MaxrMENTS now remaining in this Cathedral, are i^ 
ipectable ^ tbcir aiitJC]uity, and curious from Uteir workman^lup^ 

T t 2 A vcr> 

* Uist. of Kcatj p. aii. 


A very pi am stone rhcsl, whtcli stands in the sontli-east comer nf 
the clioir, luia been su|I|k>$c(1 to cortUtin the remains of Bi SHOP 
6n?rouLPH, who died at tlie age af eighty^aix. Under IJic ail- 
jmning window, westwitrd from thw. b another stmw chest, on 
tbr If^p of wltirh, in htgh reUcfp hon^nth a trefoil arebed canopy^ 
h the |K>rtmjt of a Bbhi)p m poniificalihus, wttli his crozier in Ilia 
left hand, and \m head reclined on a pillow : his right hand b 
broken oft', but $cem$ to hnve been upheld in the act of licfwUc- 
Hon, The entire figure, and eanopVt are ciU nut of a sinfl^te block 
of Pttworth marble, highly |>alif>hed : lki» la snipposed to 
llie bones of Thomas db Itiglethorpb, Ifke ib«ly*fourtb 
of thin 9ee« In a recess op|Kisite to tlirs^ on the north side, is a 
third «^tone chetit, with a ft^ure in n similar habit^ under a canopy 
more highly ornamented : tliis is thought to contain tlie remains of 
Ristlop Laurence de St, Martin, who obtained ttie canotii* 
sesttion of S(. William, Tfic adjoining reix*?^, westwanl, contains 
a ^hrinc-iike monument, also of Petworlh marbk\ \vhich, nolwitb* 
j^titndrn^ the diimflerttim of Ilie Monks to tlie Bis{i«ip, GitD&RT 
)FE fiL.iNViLLE, i§ supposed to ha\^ been erected asaa honor^ 
ble tiibule to his memory. Tlie top, which b greatly defaced*, 
•appears to have contained a langa of e^nscopal heads in quatrefoiUi. 
'ainiilnr to tiiose on tlie tomb of Archbishop Theobald, nt Canter- 
*l>ury. In front Li a aerie* of seven |M>inted urdies, rising front 
short octagonal and riretilar colunui^, vvitli ornaments of axpandoA 
leaves iji f>cnii-rHicf, beneath the airfient In the soulU wall of the 
ejistcro transept, were two ^tsyw^ chestf of Petwiartb nivtrbte, (sujw 
fkised to coutulii the remains of two Fnors,) only aiie of which is 
now %ijtil>le, liaving u pbin cross sculptured ou the top. In the 
north \y^\ e( the custem transept, is another stone cbe^t, on whidi 
i^ sculptured across tleury; ^d in iront^ fuur circles, with leaix^ 
in the centres, and in the dividing angles* Tliis has been inuiguicd 
to be the SUrinc of Si, William; yet it is hardly probable thut the 
bonc^ 1/ thai Stiiut tvere ever dqiosiird in sf> pbin *\ ricoptucic; 
liartfcularly a» tJie pavennetit of thi^ Ctiajkel, al the pre^t^it mo^ 
:i)t, marks out the precise s|)t>t in here his shrine stoi^t, by a 
in the centre of ii sqiiare, lormcd uf vuriou^U ti^uM d mofiaics, 
I VVeslwaiil 



Wtftmud from t]uf> ou an atlaMomb, bene«tii a double pointed 
mdted ouiQpy, hsTiiig tinmb suiil piunacIeiSf oniuineiited H'itli vine 
laveSt tMk triiwi, and aconis, is a full-lengtli portmititre, iu red 
f^lDcd *T"Tr*-!- tf B -T'tpWALTRR neMBRTON, tlie cdeUrdted 
iummU > ' ;;c, ill Oxford* The MouutiiQiit of this 

Kop umi^Picculed sit Unioges, in Fimme, where the art of enn- 
Qlg, hI: r*; 7 Tcntfy contributed to om^imeJit rich tomb«, wus 
lllcii moot ijq. The whole e^piMifc of erecfing it, asap* 

pmn from mi iiccotint printed by Wurton, iji htai History of English 
•* % V 7-[, 145, (Jtl, Tl*e lower part wa^ almott destroyed 
I the Rcfoftnation ; and the prefcnt tiumumeut* 
ttbkh apfwan to b« fiitrmiiunted b^ the orif^iiiat canopy, wat 
, '. ' 'i , . 1^' " !!ie«x()ei)seof the Ma<}ter aiidFclloi%i 
wi ' ,, , I . from oiic of tlie iufcriptioii? in front 

1^ tlie fuiuli : tlie figure of tlic Bi&hop lies iiKrumbeiit, huving bi« 

■re on bif Ik^ > ' ' > i > on an oriniuented pillow, On tht 
IbcltiiMl is hi I : hi^ purse a» LonI Chiniccllnr Uc 

dtdl im the viieil of St. Simon aad St. Jude, 1*277- 

On the ftoulb «Jd« of St^ Williaufs Cliapcl i^ an aHar tomb ol 
^fty liant ^*y wiarhlc^ iu meniory of BisHot* Lowe. The endti 
-^aad 6«cii Jire dtvidetl mio Bquuren, emch coiUiuning a quatrefoil, 
^Aatif^a U^d iu the centre^ the iirst six in tiront hvh\*; iuscHhed 
^|(Li4 1!I^C. Cic. umnu mnw. D*«. gxii». On the la$t» nod we^erii*- 
Mi I, i$ Uie Bishops arms, viz. on a bend, three wolvea' 

.Ar<i«b: iUc same artus, impaling those of hk Sc4% ou a cantou 
«iaitcrt afipcar in a compart iiient at the west end^ uplield by oa 
^igeL Itouiid tlie edge of the up(»er slab are the worUs^ 

^^■U Or veiy Iji^li telicf; and onlabcl!i round the base 

Hk enftetn able of tins Chapel, which i^ unifo ^d with 

hhdk aod white matblc, and tepcunted from tht < m ^ nt by aji 

T t a iwn 

aSiBZxnt Dfu0 animrt JFn ^nJ^gnnm !UtDr» (Zlpijocopi, 
Ccrno t)iiirrr bona Dominj in tcna tJltcnciani. 

650 KENT. 

iron railing, contains the tombs of Bishop John Warner/ vadl 
two others of his family, who lie buried beneatli. The former, who^ 
among his other extensive charities, founded a College, or Alms^ 
House, for twenty widows of Clergymen, at Bromley^' in tliii 
county, died in \666, at the age of eighty-six. 

On the north side of St. Edmund's Chapel, near the entrance' 
into the crypt, is the remains of another qiiscopal figure, now' 
headless, and much dilapiduted, l^ing under a pointed arch in the 
waU : this is assigned as the monument of Bishop John dA 
Bkadheld, who died in the year 1283. In the narrow dark 
aisle which leads to St. William's Chapel, is the monument attri- 
buted to Bishop Hamo de Hethe. The lower part b a tomb, 
iiow greatly mutilated, having a range of nine trefoil-headed bUink 
arches in front, with buttresses at the extremities, supportmg k 
low pointed arch,' the inner moulding of which is wrought iiit6 
tliree trefoils, liavuig the spaiidrils filled up with leaves and human 
heads, of exquisite workmanship. Tlic mouldings above rise into 
a pyramid, ha\ing a quatrcfoil, and other ornaments, in fionU 
with ranges of vine leaves rising up the extremities, and uniting in 
the centre: in the recess helow'the arch, are the mutihited reihaluis 
of an angel bearing a scroll. This monument has evidently been 
broke open ; and it may be here obser^'ed, that all the ancient 
tombs within the Cathedral, underwent a similar fate during the 
government of the Parliament, nfter the death of Charles the First : 
most of tlie stone chests described above, were also broke open 
at the same time. 

In the south part of the western transept, is the monument of 
Richard Watts, Esq. who was Reconler of this city; and re- 
presented it in the second Parliament held hi the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. He died in September, 1579, ^^d by his will directed 
the fuundation of an Alms- House in Rochester, for * six poor tra- 
veller.*, or way-faring men, being neither connnon rogues, nbr 
proctors.' This monument, as appears from the inscription, was 
erected by the Mayor and Citizens, in 1736, and is remarkable 
for exhibiting a real Bust of the deceased, executed during his 
lifo-time, and aftenvards presented by Joseph Brooke, Esq. whose 




imd become possessed af Mr. Watts*s House, called Satis^ 
^'pvvdMoe. The Bust is ivpreacuted mth a bald liead, sbort huir, 
i a Um^ Ikmtiig beard, 

kgaioil the wall oi flic soudi aisle are the ntonumeats of the 
bum John, Loiui Uennikbr, aiid Dame Ann Hknnikbr, 
Vk Lady, who was duuglUer and co- heiress of Sir John Major, of 
Woriin^tioii Hall, Sufiblk. The mouiiiDent of Lord Ilctuiikcr ex- 
U»l> m sveopbagus, at ihe sides of Much are fuU-length figures, 
in iritiMclieYo, of Honour Btid Beucvoleiice ; the former being dis« 
tiigiililwd by apiTfopriate &YinboIs» Kiiui in the act of crowning the 
r, wbo ii» kiioviii by the pelican whwh slie bears in her band, 
; the aide of Benevoleooe is a aieddllioo of the deceased* with 
t, and utifoldcd patent of pcnige; tuid against the base, 
(nktdi aopportft the ^ircophagus, i.^ Im ami:i. Lord Hciuilkcr »uo* 
ceeded to the dignity of Baronet, on tiie death of Sir John Mnjor, 
in Fcbnfiiry, 1781; and wus ereated Baron Henntker, oi Stratford* 
I9KI»-Sisiiiey, iu Ireland, in July, 1 SOO. lie died on the cightenutji 
Aptil, 1^3t aged seventy-nine. This monument, whicli rises 
iIIj. , I m m 1 in, and is obt>nt si:i teen feet in height, was 
on, son of the late eminent sculptor of tiiat 
fi ft does credit to the good taste and correctness of his pro- 
^1 ' .1 Ttte monument of Lady Uenniker, who died 
in Juty^ I , ^ V rouglit in Coude s artificial stone ; in its ^IxCy and 

gcaetml figure, it c^sffespoads with that to the memory of Lord 

l^tlie other meoiorials for {persons of eminence in tliis &• 
brae, ife ixificrit>iion$ in memory of William Streaton, Est}, 
mUo wai nine Unites Mayor of Rochester, and died in 16*09; Dfi, 
AuoPSTti» C^SAE, wlio died in t6S3; SiR Richard He:ad, 
B«f« «iM> died at the age of eighty, in September, 1689; the 
Rev. John Denke, D. D. * Archdeacon and Prebendary of Ro- 
dieiter/ who died al the age of $eveuty*four, b August, 17<)7 ; 
«iil wii ^Jier to the late Rev. Samuel D^nne, tJic Iranied 
cocnflfler of the ♦ Memorbis' oi this Cathedml, inserted in the Cus- 
immaie RqfftH*e, In didereut parts of the pavement of tliis edi£ce, 
m9 Ibe Mrustlcss grave-stones of five Bisliops : three of these appear 
in hsffc Knd the effigies of the deceased^ tn pcniificalibus, with 

T t 4 mitres 

mitres and crozien, phoed under hig^ily-deeorated KKeat, brottg 
triple-headed towered canopies; and at the skies, varioas Saints at 
niches. Whom these were intended to represent b unknown; as is 
also the person designated by an nnmense slab in the west tian- 
septy measuring ten feet six inches ih length, and five 6et broad^ 
which has been inlaid with a small bust, and label beneath. 

The remains of the ancient GftiqMer Hauie and Cioitier, wUch 
acljoin to the dihedral on the south, and are attributed to Bisiio^ 
Enulph, exhibit a Veiy beautiful series of Norman arches and or^ 
naments, though now greatly mutihded. The west front of the 
Chapter-house, which is aA that is standmg, dispbiys, in tli^ 
upper part, three semicircuhir-lieaded wmdows, exc^dingly planii 
with shallow recesses in the wall between them, having borders 
of zig-aag. Bdow these, is a rich door-way in the centre, with a 
Very highly-ornamented arch on each side, supported on short 
thick columns, with flowered femd figured capitals, and diapbyiag 
an uncommon and elegaut variety of mouldrogs, zig-aag, quatre* 
foQy and billeted. The billet moulding, whidi goes round the 
outside, and forms the finish to the others, originally terminatMl 
in corbel human heads^ which are now broken away, bat were 
sculptured with the hair parted on the forehead, and hmging 
down in short curls; large peaked beards, and. mustaches of great 
length. On the inner face of the left impost of this arch, is a 
small regal head, with a long beard : a correspondmg female head 
has been broken away from I he opposite impost. The capitals of 
the outer columns that sustain the centre arch, and the fiiscia im- 
mediately below the billet moulding, and above the upper range 
of zig-zag, are decorated with various rude sculptures of animals, 
birds, and human figures; some of them in positions the most ex- 
travagant and outre*. Tlie mouldings of the southernmost arch 
unite with those of a smaller arch, belonging to the cloister, and 
these again with the mouldings of a second highly>«mich<ed door- 
way, the space between the transom of which and the iimer mould* 
ing, exhibits the remains of au hbtorical sculpture; but n too 
much mutilated to permit the subject to be traced : round this was 
a Latin inscription in Saxon characters, in two lines; but the very 
few letters that can now be distinguished, are msufficient to furnish 




rt witJi a due as to tts origioal |>urport. An arch riaing 
from two iJiree-qttarter coluatns^ aiid intersected by two otiiers, 
i|vtfigi0g from a coltiinn b the centre, connects tins door-way witli 
m third, also richly oman)cutcd» though less so than the former: 
bcjocid tJiis> extending soiithwdrd, is a range of semicircular inleiw 
aeetiag ardies, similarly ornamented. The area of the cloister h 
now co-nfiected willi a targe piece of groimii, and Ibrras part of a 
firebrfidiU garden. 

ItitincdKilcZy adjacent to the north Me of the Cathedral, and 
itandii^ between the tnin!»ept!i, is Gmulttlpk's Toutr, the masonry 
of mluch is extremely solidi tjie walls being ten feet m thickoess, 
though the nhole building lorms a square of onfy forty feet on 
ibe Oiitaide* The angles are strengthened by pilaster buttresses. 
l*l»c windows which are very few, and small, have semicircular 
arches. This was unquestionably erected for a bell lower* 
though an idea has been eutertaiucd, tliat it was originatly uitend* 
«d for tiie prefer vntion of records ; an hypotJiesb that was founded 
fin the circumstiirjcc of a fljing buttress, which proceeds from tlie 
tasteni trsmsept, and has its np{>cr part wrought into steps, being 
connected with the top of this tower; and, as supposed, being ori* 
ginally the only way by whicli it could be entered. A carclul ia* 
Bpectiou of the building, how ever, will convince any intettigent in* 
quirer^ tliat Uje present entriinee from below, is coeval with the 
fiibric it«clf, and Uiat the pointed arch, which it now opens under, 
k m inttuvatton of later times.. 

The pnatuciB of this Catheilral appear to ha%'e occupied nearly 
hsUHt tbe mm eootained wtthtu the w alls of the city. There were 

»(' : ' '' into it; the Cemetery gate, which ojxiucd from 

' towards ihe west end of Uie Churchy St, Wil- 

Imum gair, whkh led from the High Street to the north transept 
door; and the IVior's gate, which opened into the vinr>ard lo- 
_ w^rtU the south. This latter, which is embatded, and tlie Ceme- 
tify gate, are ^ill remaining ; both of them have obtusely pointed 
ardini* > riy thing rciUiiint^ of the various otHces of tlie 

dinolYed >i , -iv, but |>arts of wiills, which are now wrought 
1^ 81 other edilkes: the Porter'a Lodge^ is a auiall embattled 


€5i KBlffT. 

lower^ opening under t pointed arcb. The site of the BistepV 
Palace^ origioally erected by GundQlf^ and afterwards suoocf-; 
ftifely re-ediiied by the Bishops Gianville and Lowe^ ia now i 
pied by a neat and pleasant row of modem bouses, 

Od tlie site of the Prior's Cbambers staods the present i 
ery; the groun<fs ranging to tlie soolb-^ast of which, were ao- 
eiently the gardens^ &c. of the Prior and Conrent, who, aoMH^ 
their other pleasures, had the enjoyment of a Vineyards Hie 
wpace Hhich this occu|Medy is immediately without the city waUs, 
and is stili called the Vines Field ; it was originaUy granted to the 
Monks by Edward the First, together with p4>rmis8ioB to pnB 
^wn part of the dty wall, and fill op the ditch, on condition that 
they * erected a new stone wall, embattled, and sixteen feet high/ 
The foundations of the latter wall may yet be traced; and, with 
the ancient wall, which tlie Monks did not pall down, but eon- 
lented themselves with making a door through, includes between 
three and four acres of ground* 

In Rochester were formerly four Ckurchetj independent of the 
Cathedral: tliese were respectively dedicated to St. Kicholas, St. 
Margaret, 3t. Clement, and St. Mary: the latter is entirely de- 
stroyed, and its site forgotten: St Ciem^fs contbued to he used 
till after the Reformation, when Xhft Vtu'vsAk was united to that of 
St. Nicholas, and the Church itself was dilapidated: the renaimng 
walls arc still to be found in some houses on the north side (^ the 
High Street, near the Bridge. Si, Margaret's Church b pleasantly 
situated on a lofty eminence, to the southward : the tower is well 
buiit, and embattled. In the cliancel is a mural monument in 
commemoration of Captain Percy, a desc^idant of the Earls 
of Northumberland, who served ui the navy during forty-seven 
years, and esca|K'd from many imminent dangers in sea-fights, &c» 
between the years 1700 and IZ-^y the particulars oi which are 
recited on a marble tablet. 

The Parish of Si, ^icholasy though the oldest on record in this 

city, does not appear to have had a distinct place of worship till 

upwards of three centuries afier the Conquest. Tlie parishioaers^ 

however, had an altar in the northern division of tlie west tian* 

2 sept. 



, titit^ perhaps, an cxrlosive right to tlic pcrfommiice of divm 

jenricc In diat part of the Cathedral. Afler I he cauom^ratioti of 

WiUkiti, this armngeinent proved extremely inconvenient to tlie 

I :' > to the shrine of the sainted pUKrim leading im* 

I the tnnse|>t: an attempt was titerefore iimde t6 

rcmoirc the altar to the nave ; hut this was vehemendy opposetl by 

Ibc pnn^uoners, with whom the Monks, througti their own ciip»- 

»dil%', had not been in habits of agreement tor more thnn 200 years. 
TU«r disputes wer« at length termuiated by Bishop Young, and 
tejtil ' «^hichelcy, in 14^1, by whose awani, the parishioners 
Wm^ 1 to remove to a Cliureh which tht-y had then recently 

tompleled for theinselvesi m the: ceinetary on the north side of tiie 
CalfiednL* This fabnc in yet stttndin^, and c<jnsists of a nai^ 
lUes^ and chancel, with an embattled tower at the nortli-ivesi 
m^lc Ttic windows are large, and pointed ; each being divitled 
iato thretf lights, with crockets above. Over tlie west door is an 
AiKfibed tablet, pu importing, that tlm Church was rebuilt in ttie 
. j^ear 1^$4; and although this account is corroborated by an entry 
H^^Bli ff the appearance of the building itaelf, as welt as tlfe 

^^BRbl i^^b^^i ior its rcjiair, and other docnnients, evince its extreme 
^H^AKy. Tl)e btcrior is neat, but exhibits notlnng particularly nv 
^^^Hfabte, «^xcepting an octLingular Poni, on tlie faces of which is 
^^Hptisred the word CRISTIAN, in Saxon capitals, 
I The pHnclfial charitable establishments in thin city, are St. Ca- 

"^MERtNB^s Hospital, a fUrttfrnrtur Scho^>(, an Ahts-ifome tor 
^ijT nrtief of Poor Trapelten, and a Free Sckoof, The Ifospital 


^ twfiic rcitncitons nuci fcrxiccs were stiii, howerer^ imposea \iv tJie 

the puiriiibionen : they were especially bid under an obli^a- 

fo eo large tbc Church wrihout the pennission of the Coo vent. 

It hf iht ^ddiiion of a belfry : they were likewijic to repair the 

Viicett aj well of ihc Cemetary to the Cathcdralj ai to their own Pa- 

&h Churchy although the privilege of burying in the former wa» not 

^lainablc without a fee to the servants of the Convent* They were 

ho to give attendance at an annual celebration of mas* in the Caihe- 

''^ral tn St. Andrew** day ; and the hour* wtre fixed on which the bcfl» 

«ftbe Qcw'Cfaurch were allowed to be rung* 

<56 ICSKTv 

was founded and endowed m ibe year 1316, liy Sinoiid fotyn^ 
frho was master of the Cfowa Ion, and appears to hafe r cpw e eal * 
«d this city in seven Parlraments, during the reigns of Edward the 
first and Second. It was intended for persons afilicted with the 
leprosy, whether sale or female, * or sache t>ther diseases that 
longe to impotence;* who were to live under the government of a 
Prior, and be < subject to the correction special of the Vicaiy of 
St. Nicholas of Rochester, and the he^xes,* of the founder. No 
inmate of this ' Spittel' was allowed to be * oute of the same after 
the Sonne goinge doune,' unless ' for the profite of the Priottr;r 
nor ^ to hannte the taveme to go to ale ; but when theie have ta- 
ient or desier to drynke, theie shall bye theave drynke, and brynge 
yt to the Spitell; so that none of them bt 4ebator, baretor, dronb* 
«lew, nor rybawde of hb tongue, nor «f otlier misrule or evell go* 
vemaunoe/ The i-evenues of this foundation having been greatly 
diminished by the demised premises being leased out at an under- 
value for a long term of years, it was determined by a Commission 
t>f Inquiry, held at Rochester in IJCH, under an order from the 
High Court of Chancery, (hat, * the lessees should deliver up their 
leases to have them reuewed for a shorter term, and <pay lOOL 
towards repairing the Hospital &c. that in future, no lease, should 
be granted for a longer -period than twenty-one years; and that 
the Dean and Chapter, and the Mayor of Rochester, with the 
Vicar of St. NichoUs, should thenceforth have the entire patron- 
age/ The present Hospital, whidi was erected in 17 17 9 contains 
twelve apartments, occupied by the same number of poor peo- 
ple, who have a certain allowance of coals, candle, and money, 
annually, out of the proceeds arising from the original endowments, 
and from donations that have been since made. 

The Grammar ISk^HOOi^ was founded by Henry the Eighth, 
for twenty Scholars, to be ealled * King^s Schohua,' with an Upper 
and Under Master, to be paid by the Church; together with four 
•exhibitions to the Universities, each of the yearly value of 51. 
Thb School, according to the words of the charter, was established 
' Utpietas et home luera pcrpetuo in nostra eccUsid suppullescant 
tTcscam, et fiareant; ei suo tempore in gloriam Dei; et reipMica 


H ormtmemiiMt frueiificcm/ A bequest of 6CH. per 
connected wilh thb Scbool, a^id Yf\\h the Fr^ Scboul at 
was maile in the j^c«r iti IB, by tiie Rer< Robert Oufi^ 
^!B»tor of Titsev, in StirreVt ft>r tlii! umizitexiaDce of four Sclio* 
at Udvcrsi^ College, Oxford; to be mlmled from botii 
Schools dftd to be allowed ebattibers, and fitteeu pottods eacla^ 

Tbr /l/mjt-Hou^, endowed for l[ie relief of Fbor TrapeUert^ 
sUods on tbe nottla side of the High Street^ near tbe uppe? end, 
Ml appears to liave been buill iu die mgn of Qoi:eri ElisabHli. It 
im appropriated and linbbed uiider theWdl of Ric^Kird Watts, Esq. 
who lies baried in ^le Catiiedrml, aiut who devised liis prumipnl 
boose, called SaiUf* witli its appurtenaaees^ &c. to be sold for tlio 
ptirpoic of prorfding ^ six good nmtrices, or ^ock bed$i and other 
good and suflicknt ftiniiture, to barbor or lod^ poor traveller^ 
or wa J -faring mcn^ being iio cottiftion Rtiguttf tjor Procior$;f mvi 
ttie^> the said ii^y*fanng men, to barbQf and lodge tliereui ek» 

^ Mr* W'dtn had the hoaor of eniertainmg Queea Eizabetti la ihii 
Miinikie in the year 1^73, duri*ig fine of her Progressei bto Suisex and 
Kent. On ihk accaitOQj be h «id to ha?e apologized lo bii Sovereigi^ J 
at her deparlBTej for the »iiullneas and mcoiivenieiice of hh reiidencc;, 
to whicl) she replied only by the I^tm word 'Satis :' and this after- 
'lairdi became the appellation of the house. But little of the old build* 
lig ttmaia§, ihoogh the MansioD that occupies its site still bears its 
mmt.- h sonSs on Bollj Hill, at a short distance toothward from the 

f The leasoD' vulgarly asstgacd as Mr. Waits.*s mociTe fiar fiung that 
lMtifl§,sijgiiiaaA^ dlie legal professioo, is» that srhea on the Continent* 
be was afflicted with a severe illness ; and having employed a Proaor 
to make his Will, found, on bis unexpected recovery, that the villatnoua 
advocate, instead of recording th^ mteniioDs af his employer, bad made 
over all his estates, to himself. An ingenious writer, however, has sug« 
getied, and with much greater probability, that the word Proctor, or 
Froanvtor, was the designation of those itinerant Priests, who, in the 
aeigB of Que^ Elifabetb, had dnpematioiii frooa the Pope, to absohro 
I of that Prmcest from their allegiance. 

6i9 KSNT. 

longer than one uigfatj unless sidmew |>e tbe ftrther oiu^e tbeifof : 
and these poore folks theit jdnreUing^ to kaep the same fwcct, 
and courteously iutceat the said poor traycUen: and eveiy of Ibe 
said poor tiayeliers, at their first ooauog in, to iiaie fourpcnoe; 
and to warm them at the £re of the leaideu^ fiithin the said 
bouse, if oe^ be/ AU his other estates, and propccty, be bev 
queathed, after the decease of his widow, and the payment of a 
few legades, to the Mayor, and citiiens, for ihe puipose of snp- 
portmg the Alms4iouse, and purchasing ^ flax, hemp, yam, wool, 
and other necessajry stnjQT, toaet the poor of the city to woifc/ 
About six years aAer the decease of her husband, his relict was 
again married; and shortly afterwards, on some doubts arisbg at 
to the particular unport of certain jijnases of the.Will, was permitted 
to retam the estate and Mansion of Satis, on the payment of lOQ 
marks, and makiiig over, for the uses of the charity, other landi^ 
to the annual value of 2(H. When this bequest was made, the 
annual lental (oi the estates amounted to the sum of 36L ^s. 8d. 
only; but from the great increase in then: value that has since 
taken place, the yearly revenues are now upwards of ibOOl. and 
are continually augmenting as the leases (all in. One large estate, 
whkh now forms a considerable portion of the High Street m 
Chatham, was, at the thne of the bequest, and long afterwards, 
a marsh; but as the increase of the naval establishments occasioned 
an influx of inhabitants, it became progressively covered with 
houses, and its value has been enhanced in the proportion de« 
scribed. The Ahns-House is of brick, and consbts of three stories, 
having large square windows, with a projecting centre, and a gable 
roof. It was repaired at a considerable expense in the year 1771 ; 
at which time the Avowing inscription was affixed, in place of some 
others which had been previously inscribed on diflkrent tablets, in 
front of the building. 

Richard Watts, £iq'. 

by hU WiU, dated 22 Aug. 1579, . 

founded thii Charity 

for Six poor Travellen, 

who not being Rogues^ or PaocToas, 




May receive ' r one N tght, 

Lodgin. iinmeor, 

«nd Four-pence each. 

tn Tcsiimony of hit Manificencc, 

I A Hoaour of hti Memory* 

and (ndticemeiu to hts Evample^ 

Katb^Hood, lC*q^. the Prt.'«!nt Majof^ 

h2« caused this Stone 

gratefully to be renewed 

3ind in^nbed. 

A, D. IT7I. 

KQtwUhsla tiding that this lascription still retaius its place, tw 
tmtcllen are tiow lodged here: bat the groats are paid on appH' 
ation to tJie Mayor.* Tlic residue of iJie iocoine is appropriated 
in ml of the Poor's ratc3. 

TIk^ Fr£E School was founded and endowed under the wiH 

^^ Jo6e|th Willtamson^ Knl. who had thrice been a Member of 

'Wliament for t(us cify, in the retgti of WlJliam the Third ; aud 

**(»«, d)irtg in 1/0 1, bequeathed the sum of 50001. for tJie pur- 

^li%st of lands and teiienients to 5up|K>rt the new foundation^ Ttie 

«clioUrs ware lo be instructed by two masters, in reading, wrilittg, 

^XHi iiiatlieittatics, chiefly with a view to the tiaval senice^ The 

^diooi room is spacious, and, with a good house adjoiuing for tiie 

^^ailBr, WM buill dose to the east gate, and on the site of the 

«Uti^ n^cfa sartounded tlie city nails. Mr. John Colsou, ibe 

SwTB^t Ma^er of the School, and afterwards Mathematical Profea&or 

mM. Cambridge^ had tJie great Garrick under \m tuition whilst be 

c«:»iitimii!d in this city ; an<l many resjiectable chardcters, purticu- 

I^B^sli^ ia the navy, ftave received the early rudiiueuti of iu^ructioii 

\ tliii IbuuiLitiotu 

* L»ii tr-c nie ui order* made to the Provider, or olTicer who distri* 
t^t^^^ the grcHi*, ti ttic fgllovving remarkable one, bcarmg date in the 
y«9ar t077 ; *• Brother Wade : Pray relieve these two Genttentcn, wh<# 
^^^'^ the King's LcUtr* Recommendatory: and give them twelve -pence 
nd toutis a pcece lo tlte other fiTC. 

iolin Canny Maior 

03 . 0»**« 



Tlic Bridge over Uie Medwav at Rochester, ujipears ta faave 
been origiuiilly built of wood, resting on strong pilei, lo the 
reigu ot^ King E<i|^nir, vvlio, together with Dttmtan, Archbishop of 
Canlerburv, the Bisliop of Uochester, and other Rreat owners of 
estates in tlie contiguous parts of the country, contributed to de- 
fray tlie exi»en9C ; and also subjected cerium knds and manors to 
keep it in repair,* This Bridgt* crossed llie river about forty ysirds 
more to the northward than the present one, and in u direct tine 
with the princi|>sd streets of Rochester and Siroud. At the west 
end wdb a Dm w bridge and Barbican ^ and at tf;e eatit end« % 
Wooden Tower, built witli * marvellous skill/ ami bitended to se- 
cure Ihb entrance of the city. Stow records in tiis AnnaU, that 
King John attemptcti to bum this structure when he bc*^iege<l th^ 
Ca«t!c, but that the fire was * put out' by Robert Fitaj-VVaher. !ti 
the next reign, however, (anno 1'26'4^) the east end, \^iih the 
Tower, was burnt by Simon de Mgutfort ; and about seventeen 
years afterwards, in 1281, sevcinl of the piles were swept away 
by the ice durin<i a sudden lliaw. In the reign of Edward the Se- 
cond, it received some repair by order of tlie King, but was ncv^cr 
effectually restored, as appears from an Inquisition taken in tlie 
seventeenth of Edward the Tliird, in wlucli it was found, tliat 
* the Bridge ought to be made good by the contributory lands, in 
their accuslonied proportions/ Whether any new repairs were 
made in couscqucnce^ does not appear; but it is probable there were 
not ; as, soon after the laking of Calais, in the year 13^7 y it was 
reconled, ' that the traflic on this road was so great, and the num* 
ber of carriages and burthens so considerable, that the Bridge ap* 
peared insufficient to support them with safety/ It was still, how* 
ever, kept up, though at a vast ex{>euse, till the reign of Richard 
the Second, when the brave ohJ warrior, Sir Robert KnoUes, and 
John de Cobham, the third Baron Cobham, erected the present 
Bridge of stone» at their own expense. The former had acquired 


• These " laodf, commonly canted the Contributory Lands, were 
artenvards constantly asicsied to maintain and support the parts or por« 
tioni of the Bridge to which they were limited and assigned, at oite^ 
ai there was occasion/* CutiwfmU Roffcmc^ p* 148. 





ffklbtt by tlie plunder of towns and monasteries in France, 
tiK iifars of Edward the Tliirtl ; iinil rhb noble work may 
be regarded as the monument of his triuinph, as a considerable 
©f hb spoil WHS lliris expended, Tlie new Bndgc Mnn 
about tbe feveujiienth of Eicbarci the Second ; and m 
tbr twen^^serofid of llie same reign, a '' Patent was obtained, 
and afterwards confirmed by Parliament, in the ninth of Henry 
iIk Pitfllif §i»f mcoriiorattrig tite Warden*! and Commonnlly of the 
lands ; with hceiise to receive and hold b morlmain* 
tenetnents to the value of :i?00l, per anmm, in aid of 
the said Bridge/' Soou afterwards, John de Cobham 
perpetuity, for its luaiiitenance and repair, a farge 
C9late ; aod hrs example was followed by otliers ; so that the 

b^'*^ f ^^ IjijuIj anciently subjetJcd to deft ay the charcjes of 

r have, from tin's time, in a great measure, l>een relieved 

»iirtben, though tiiey are considered as still linble, 
III iiie rvign of Eliieabeth, the inattention and mal-praclices of 
thm Wardens, had oecasioned a great defalcation in the revenues 
af the Bnd^ estates; and the Bridge itself had been suffered greatly 
to deeay :• a Commission of Iniiuiry wm tlierefon? issued, consist* 
m^ of llie pricKipal OtiWers of State, and Knights and Oenllemen 
of Keat, on whose report, tbe leases of all the estates which tbe 
Wardeuji had granted without the consent of the Commonalty, 
wesie aiumlled ; and, through Uie exertions of Sir Roger Manwood, 
Chief BafOQ of the Exchequer, an Act of Parliament was obtain- 
ed, by which two Wardens, and twelve Assistants, were directed 
to tie chosen annually, to superintend all the concerns of tlie 
Vol. VII. Nov. IS06. U u Bridge 5 

• The niiaout ttaM of the Bridge abom ihit time, may be conjee* 
ssired (vom a curious paatage quoted by Harni, from a Manuicript by 
Sir Roger Maawood. ** In the year 14»t*," he observes, '* Rochester 
Bridge being lauch brokeu, and out of repair, John Morton, Archbishop 
of Clanterbury, published a remission from purjaiory for forty day»j for 
all mtnntr of Vint, to all tucb persom as would give any thing towards 
iti repair/* T\m pardon wa« not entirely ctTectual, as it appean from 
Lamtiard, that a "fifteenth wai af^envardt charged upon the county^ 
ltd supply ♦hii public want.** 




Bridge; and umler this Act, togcllicr mi\\ m explanatory one 
passed nine years -^Iter wards, the mamtciiancc of Hm fahnc b oow 
secuied. One balf of the Wardens and .\ssi^tants arc generally 
choiicn from aiuoiig tlie ino:>t respectable inliabitants of Rochester 
and riiiitham, and the other half iVoin among tlie gentlemen rest* 
dent ill the surrounding country. 

The attention that was imiuediatcty |)aid to tlie Bridge under 
the above Acts^ ended hi iu conijilete repair, the expense beingf 
partly defrayed by voluntary contributions. Since that period, the 
management of the Bridge es^atci has been so greatly improved^ 
that no assistance lias b<.'cn required from the contributory lands. ^ 
for many yearii. The Bridge itself has also been: much altered for. ■ 
the t^est; both entrances having been i\idened, and three of the 
arches new built. Tlie length of Uie Bridge is nearly 19O yards: 
the sides are defended by a parapet and balustrade : the whole 
number of arches is eleven. 

The Bridgc-Ommbcr^ or Record-Room, which stands opposite 
to tlie caj$t end of tlie Bridge, is a neat building of Portland stone^* 
with a |iortico Iteneath, occupying tlic site of the western porch of 
a Chapel, or Chantry, that was founded by the potent Barou 
John de Cobliaitt, at the time of the building of the Bridge, He 
deziigtied it principally tor the use of travellers, and appointed 
titree Chaplains to oi^ciate in it, who were to liave a salary of six 
|)ounds each yearly, payable from the revenues of tJie Bridge 
estates, and were to pray for the souls of the founder and bis 
lady ; of Sir Robert Knolles, and his hidy ; the other benefactors 
to tlie Bridy;c -, and of aU * faillifut jKople deceased/ This Chapet 
was called Allf'solvah or All Souls : it appears to have ceased to 
be a pbce of divine worship by disuse, rather than from legal dis- 
solution : for ** I find," says Mr. Thorpe, wlio mentions this cir- 
cunifitance,* ** by a plea in the Exclicquer, that in the nineteenth 
of Elizabeth, the Queen's Attorney General sued the Wardens of 
the Bridge for tlic sum of 5\'M. t>eing the auiouut of ISL per an-^ 
num (which used to be paid to tlic Chaplains) for twenty-eight^ 




* Custumale RuffcnsCj p. 150* 


KENT. 663 

l^^fcirf and m half^ tben last past; wliich sum was at tliat time pr«* 
wamed to be forfeited and due to tlie Queen, by virtue of the Act 
I Edwwd VI* for dissolvuig Chantries, kc. But it not apf>earing 
to the }fm% fhat any service had been performed there, nor stipend 
piid lo any Chaplain, or Chantry Priest, for ofliciating there, for 
five years oei^t before the passing diat Act, (according to the Uqik 
tatioQ therein specified,) a verdict was given tor the Wardent,** 
Hie Citap^l itself^ is now, and has for niany years, been inhabited 
B a dwelling*house. Over the centre window of tlic Record- 
Wtmn^ in which room are deposited tlie archives of the Bridge^ 
im die arms impaled of Sir Robert KnoUes, and John dc Cobham^ 
wA a lion |>assant guardant, Or, (port of the city anus,) in chief; 
ibofCy 19 a muml crown ; and below, the motto, Pubiica primUft^ 
laoiediafely beneath the window, is tliis inscription ; 

Cusiodci ct 

Communitas pro msientationc ct 

Ouhcrnatione N&ci PonHs RofensU 

legum atUhemtate cmiMuli 

Irmaurari /cccru ni. 

Anno 1734. 

Brlow thiiy on a kind of band, contlnncd along the middle of the 
buiklingy are seven small sliields cut in stone, in rcsembliince ^f 
the same number tliat stood in front of the ancient porch, and 
irefe too mucii corroded by die weather to be placed up again. On 
these fthields are the anus of Ricliard tlie Second, and of his imcle^s, 
John of G»iint, Edmund of Langley, and Thomas of Woodstock, 
. tn whose Unm the Chapel i*"as built. The annual rental of 
Bnilge estates is upwards of lOOOl. On the common seal of 
Wardens and Commonalty, is a view of the Bridge in its an- 
cient stale, with a draw-bridge in the centre, and Rochester Castle 
ftOf the east cod; on another seal belonging to them, is a curiot^ 
vefRttcntation of God the Father, seated in a rich Gothic chair. 
Of throne, and i5up|x>rting the figure of Our Saviour on the cross : 
round the verge are the words, 

ft^oiilu; 6m)ta;tQm: €ommiitatfis : l^omiji: Eoffrnsts* 

U u 2 Tli#* 



The only public structures that remain ta be described, are tltc 
Toivn-Hallf and the Clock- Ho use. The former shinds on the 
fkorth aide of the High-Street^ aiMl wm ercctetl about the year 
lt>87 : it is buitt with brick, and is supported on duplicsited stooe 
eoltimns^ of the Doric order. The Hall itself is a lofty room|. 
meastmng forty-scfeo feet by twenty-eight, and having n rich oroa^ 
mented ceiling, displaying the arms of the City^ and of the gallant 
Admiral Sir Cloudesly Shovel, (at wh^se tMpeaae it was executed^) 
amidst trophies of war, flowers, ^c. A^iiist the wall, at the up- 
per end, are futl-lengtla portraits of WitxiAM the Third, and 
Qdben Anne, by Sir Godfrey Rneller: at the ymet end am 
tliose of Sir Josefh Williamson and Kichaed Watts, Esq* 
and at the sides, of Sir Cloudesly Shovel, Sir John Jen- 
nings, Sir Thomas Colbv, Sir John LbakEp Sir Thomas 
Palmer, and Sir Staffobd Fairborne. All these pictures 
^re well executed ; and all the persons they represent, with tlw> 
exception of King William, aud Queen Aiioe, have a particular 
eonnection with this cily, eiUier as Representatives in Parlianient^ 
Recorders, or benefactors. In the space below the Hall, the mar- 
kets are held ; and adjoining to the back part of the area, is the 
City GnoL The Ciock-Hoviie occupies the site of the ancient 
Guikl-Hall, and was built at the sole charge of Sir Cloudesly 
Shovel, iu the year 170^: the front is of brick, and of e?LcelIenf 
workmanship, the joints being scarcely discernible : tbe Qock was 
tlso tJie gift of the same gentleman. 

Considerable remains of the City U^alh are yetstaudiag; togetheF 
with a small round tower at the north-east angle, the fiarapet and 
battlements ccnligiioiis to which are nearly perfect : the gales have 
all been pulled down; the last of them was demolished about the- 
year 1/70. The general thickness of the walls was about four feet* 
the area which they hicluded, was not more than a quarter of a 
mile from north to soialh, and about half a mile from east to west* 
Tlie foundations of the Bastion Tower, at tlie East Gate, were bid ■ 
©pen a few years ago, in digging^ for the puq>ase of erecting some 
Itouses on Uiat spot. 



has returned iwo Members to Psirliaiiient ever since 
the tPeot^third of Edwartl the Firet: tlie right of election h 
leHed in the freemen, who are in number about 630. Many of 
ibe ftepltssentatives have tieen eminent naval officers ; and one of 
tiif present Members is the brave Sir WiJiiaai Sydney Smith* Knt. 
whose schieveroent^ at the seige of Acre will be emblazoned b the 
IODbIs of this country to the latest ngcs. 

Varioits improvements have been made in this City sjnc« llic 
jtn 17(*9> when an Act was oblaiue<i tor paving, lighting ami 
wtitctiing the streets, Ace. the charges to be delrayed by a small 
ttte levied €hi tlie inhabitants and bindhirds. By the same Act^ 
Xht Commissioners were empowered to m»ke a new road from East 
Gate to Chatliam Hill ; and since this has been executed, the old 
fnsd, whtch lay tjirough the town of Challiam, has been entirety 
deserted by travellers^* The number of inhabitants in Rochester, 
II aacertatoed under the Act of l%00^ was 6^17; that of houses 
1150. l^fany of the latter are respectable buildings, fonnmj;r tJie 
priocipal or High-Street, through which pasiscs the grand tho- 
lou^hfare to Canterbury and Dover, This roadp being the chief 
avenue to the Continent^ is, in times of peace, much thronged 
^ with travellers, for whose accouunodatioii numerous iuns have been 
I erected m this City : some of the imis are large, convenient, and 
L iModiOme buildings. IVIost of the inhabitants are engaged kt 
^^Jdvdei and uiaritime occupations: and at a short distance from tlie 
^m U u a east 

^^ ^ Before ihe Act \va* applied for, the inhabitants of Chatham (as 
well at tboM! of Siroud, who accepted the invitation) were repeatedly 
mtiied to jota in the petition to i^rliamcnt \ but the intrigues of aa at- 
toraejr who hi-Kl not been made a pruicipai m the business^ occasioned 
them to refuse compliance, 'Ihrough ibii circumstmce, the Act was 
grapted CO Ruchciter and Stroud only; aad though the pt^ple of Chat- 
ham, ditcovering the fotly of tbeir conduct^ obtained a separate ace for 
paving;, Ice. their own town, with'm three yean afierwardsi the mti'- 
chief was then done ; for the new road made by the inhabitants of Ro- 
ctietter^ being far more coin mod ioii» than that which went through 
Chatham, occauoned all the trxaiu aad road trade to be carried to the 
former ciiy. 

666 «BMT. 

«i8t€ndoftii€biidge, oolbenoithflkleyisaooauMdioiisWlMitf; 
or Qaay> for the Mpgmg iff g0od$, &c. In tllb cky there is both 
an efteMahmcnt of the EKcise, md of the Cmtoai, 

The Oyster Fishery oa the seferal creeks and branches of the 
Medway, is man^^ed nnder the direction of the Mayor and Citi- 
lens of Rodiertery fay a Coaxpaay of Free Dredgers, established 
from time immemorial, who make die necessary regnhitbns for 
the siqpply and preservatkm of the brood and spat of oysters, and 
arho i»incipaUy reside in Stroud Parish* The tspatt is fipeqiieatly 
{nought from foreign parts, and being kid m the proper beds, sood 
arrives at maturity. Before the war, great quantities of the Med- 
way oysters were sent into Holland. . 


Is a large and populous, but irregular and ill-built, town, adjoining 
to the east side of Rodiester, and extending along the banks of th^ 
Medway, and up Chatham Hill. In the Textus Roffensis, it is called 
Cesukam; and in the Domesday Book, in whkh it is described as 
having * a Church,' and * m fislieries value twelve pence,' Cete^ 
ham. In the time of the Confessor, it belonged to Eari Godwyn, 
and afterwards to his son Harold, the unfortunate contender for 
empire with William, the Norman, who granted it to Bishqp 
Odo; but on his disgrace, gave it, with the Manor of Leeds, la 
this county, to Hamon de Creveccsur, or de crepito corde, a Nor- 
man Knight, the founder of the potent and illustrious family of 
the Crevecoeors, who frequently styled themselves Dotnini de Cet- 
ham, and made this the head of their barony, and principal re»- 
dence, till the erection of Leeds Castle by Robert de Crevecoeur, 
fourth hi descent from Hamon.* H» grandson joined with the 
Barons agamst Henry the Third, when this manor was seized on, 
vrith others of his estates; and though Crevccoeur himself was sub- 
sequently restored to the Kmg's favor, Chatham was retained by 
the Crown. Edward the Second, hi his eleventli year, granted it, 
in exchange for other lands, to Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, 

• Philipott'f FilL Can. p. 104. 


trom wliose fimiify it passed, by a co-heiress, to Sir Jolin Tijiloft; 

ind from Ihcni, also^ by a co-heiress, to Sir Philip k* Despencer, 

Mu^ger^Ty liis ikngbter nnd bciire&s^ marnecl Roger Weatworth, 

£jq, whose descecidtint, Sir Hio»ut3 Went worth, of T^ettlesled, 

«i Sitlfotk, hnd summons to P^rliHment in Uie twentieth of Henry 

the Eiglitfa. He died in the fiAh of EUJ^rard the Sixth, Hiien Lord 

Chmmbcrhuti of the King*s Bouseliold, And was succeeded by 

Thofoast Loid Wentworlh, who was twice appointed Deputy of 

C^ftliii% and who alienated thus Mnnor in the etghlh ot Elmbeth, 

which it has passed through various families by purchase and 

Tl« celebrity of Chatham has entirdv arisen from its DoCK- 
Vard and Arsenal, which occupies an extensive area on the 
0Offtli side of the town, meitsuriiig nearly a mile in lengftb, and 
defended on tlie land side hy strong fortifications, principally of 
Dtodem iiri|B^D. Thb Dock appears to have been tbrmed in the 
lime of £lizid>elh ; and Cdmden describes it us *^ stoR*d for the 
finest fleet the sun ever beheld, and ready at a nibiite's warnings 
built latdy by our mort gracious Sovereign £h'?abetlt, at great ex^ 
e, for the security of her subjects, and the terror of her ene- 
wilh a fort on ti*e shore for its defence." The original Dock 
ii now tiie Ordnance Whorf; to which purpose it was appropriated 
}ff Jimei the First, who finding it too snmli and inconvenient for 
the bcreaiHiig busmess of the navy, had the present Dock made, 
M»fnewfaat further to the north. This wus a^iu enlarj;cd, and 
p^Iy imttroved, by Charles the First ; and since his time many 
lltermtioQK have been tnade, and additional buildings erected, tf> 
aih|H it to the vast concerns of modem warfitre. Tlie Dock- 
yard i» iunounded by a hi^h wall ; the entrance is by a spadous 
ff flanked by cfulpittled towers. Tlie houses of the Com- 
r, imd principal officers, are large and hamlsome buildings; 
and the various o0iecs for managing the diircrent dcpartmenta of 
the Yard, are neat and commodious. The Store and Masl Houses 
ire of great extent: in the former, one of which is 2C0 yards in 
length, are deposited prodigious quantities of sails, riggit^, hemp, 
das, pitch, tar, loiin, and all otlier necessaries for the equip- 

U u '^ uieot 


nient and building of ships. The coils of cordaj^e, the heaps of 
blocks, and the innumerable oilier articles reqrnsite for the ser« 
vice, are arranged in e.\act order, so that in times of emergen* 
cy, they can all be taken out without confusion •, and ever} de- 
partment being under the superintendence of proper officers, llie 
busuiess is so much accelerated, that e\en a first rate has been of- 
ten equipped for sea in a few weeks^ The principal Mast-House is 
nearly 240 feet lon^, and 120 wide: some of the masts deposited 
here are three feet in diameter, and forty yard* in length ; the 
tiinbera to form I he masts are constantly kept floating in two spei* 
cions basons construrted for the puri)Ose. TJie Rope-House is 
1140 teet in length : in this building, cables of all dimensions arc 
twisted, the labor of making them being partly executed by nia* 
cbbes. The Sail-Lofl is nearly seventy prds long; and llie other 
workshops are of proportionable extent. The \\ et- Docks are fonr 
in number, all of which are sulHciently deep and capacious for first 
rates: here, also, are six slips^ or launches, on which new ships 
are constantly built« Tl.e Smi'hs Shop contains upwards of twen- 
ty forges, where anchors of all sizes, up to the weight of five tona» 
are regularly made. The number of artiiicers and laborers cm- 
plojiHl here is between 3 and 40U0. Tlie prinripa) officers of the 
Yard, are a resident Commissioner, wl»o bus three clerks under 
bini, a Clerk of ihe Cheque* a Master Shipwright, and lliree As* 
sbtanb, a Master Attendant, a Store-Keeper, a Clerk of the Sur* 
vcy, a Clerk of tbe Ro|)e-Yard, a Master Rope-maker, a Master 
Mast-in;iker, a Muster Boal-buitder, a Master Joiner, a Master Black* 
sfiiitli, a Master Mason and Bricklayer, a Master House Carpenter, 
a ^la^ter Painter, a Surgeon, a Boutsuuin, and VViirden« The Royal 
Sovereign, a first rate of J 00 guns, was built here just before the res* 
toratiouofCLtirks the Second, who visiie(i ihe Dock, tor the purpose 
of seeing tijut ship, t.t>on after iiis retiirn. Several first rates have been 
since built here, among whieh are the Ro\al George, and tbe Queen 
Charlotte, both of 100 gun.^; (the former being the first ship of 
that fort?e that was ever launched from a slij) ;) and the Villc de 
Paris, of 1 10^ Many second and third rates have also been built 
bcrc, besides frigates, ^c. The Impregiwble, of 98, the War- 






f"*^* J 






apltei i>f ?4, and the Iphigenui and Melcager, of 56 eacb, arc now 
l>uili]ing I five third rates, and several frigates and cutlers, are alM> 
uodergQing repair in this yard, 

Tbe Ordfuince Wharf, whicli is aot unfrequeutly called the Old 
Dock, occu]>tes a narrow slip ot" land lielow tbe chalk cliflT, be- 
tween tbe Church and t\m river. Here great quantities of navul 
Offdoaace are deposited in regular tlerB, and abunchtuce of cannon- 
Iwib piled tip in large pyramids^ Great numbers of gun-carriages 
are also laid up under cover: and in the Store-Houses, and small 
Armory, are vast quantities of ofl'ensive weapons, as pbtob, riit- 
lasses, pikes, pole*axes> he, Tbe princi|)iil otHcers iji this depart* 
Qieot^ are a Storekeeper, a Clerk of tlie Cheque, and a Clerk of 
tbe Survey; under whom are two extra clerks, and other servants. 

Tbe increastng importance of lliese establishments, occasioned 
great altention to be given to their security during the hist century, 
and particularly in the American War, and in the last war in tbe 
icign of George the Second. Previous to the latter period, the 
tlefence of Chatham was entrusted to the guard>ship$ stationed m 
the Hf^er, and to the several forts erected on its banks; but espe* 
cnlly to that al Sheemess, which, after the attempt of the Dutch, 
ni 1667/ had been enlarged by new forliticuiions, mounted with 
bcavj canoon. Two Acts of Parliament, indeed^ had been pssed 
in the reign of Queen Anne, for the better security of Chatham 
Yard, an<] other docks; yet har<IZy any thing more was at that 
tiuh* elfectedy than the purchase of some lands and houses, that 
were situateti immediately adjacent to tJie Ordnance Wharf. 
At length, in the year 17^8, when the country was threatened 
with a French invasion, a new Act was passed for the purchase of 
adilitionul lands, and the crcciion of nuch works as nn'ght be oe- 
ccisary to secure this important ar^Minal from tlie attempts of an ene- 
Joy* The e& tensive fortifications called Uie Lines, were imme- 
diately cofumeuceil, and \^ ere continued fiom the banks of the 
Mcdway above tlic Ordnance Wharf, round an obioiig plot of 
grouocl, measuring about half a mile iu width, and a mile broad, 
lo beyood the eUremity of tiie Dock- Yard, where tliey again join 


• Sec under Tpnor Caitle, p. 594. 

9r6 tjsnr^ 

wkhthermr, WhlnntiiiiTM, healimfbtm^aftM fwh i m^ 
we included the Upper and Lmoer Barracki, whidi Imve bem 
built for the garrisoD, the Church €i€Mbm, end the iModet cf 
BaoMPTON: tiie bttcr conasts of oeBrly 500 houieSy "voy pfc»^ 
Motly situated on the sommit of the higb gnmnd to the sooidi-eBst 
of the Yaid; and ahnost all of wfaidi hafe been erected wiAb 
memory. Thel/mer BanracfcaakeipncioasaDdrfinifermbaidfags' 
of bride, indosiDg a lai^ge qnadiaDgoIar area. The Upper Btf- 
lacks, which stand near Brompton, areaboof brid^andextreme- 
h/ spacious and cooYeraeut. They rise one above die other on the 
acclivity of the hiB, and having inclosed conitSy oec upyiug m coik 
aidaable tract of ground. The garrison consists of five companies 
of sc^diers, and n battalion of artfltery. The lines are strengthen- 
ed by ramparts, pallisadoes, and a deep iMoad ditch; and are 
^Iso defended by a strong redoobt, made on the summit of the 
hill towards the south-east. This was eontmcted during the Anie* 
rican War, when the f>ftificatiott8 -were repaired and aagnieuted 
at a gr^ expense. Various impottant additions have been since 
made; another Act having been passed ibr the purchase of hmds^ 
end the lurther secufity of this^^p^, m the year 1782. 

From the variety of Roman remams tiiat were dug vp in form* 
ing the Lines, &c. it seems probable tet the Romans had a Cos* 
tnim MsiivttfH in this vicinity: that they had a BuriaUplace here 
is certain. Mr. Douglas, who vms a Captain in the Engineer Com- 
pany at the time of making the ioitificatjons, opened upwaids of 
100 graves, and made drawings and notes of hs discoveries, of 
which he afterwards gave particulars in bis Kema Britanmca. Ma* 
ny of tlie graves were found near tfie sooth-eastem extremity of 
tlie Lines, towards Upberry Fsrm; and the qipearances of seven! 
of them excited a suspicion that the ground had been originany 
covered with small Tunrnli, vrhich, m subsequent times, might 
have been levelled by the plough. In these graves many human 
skeletons, of both sexes, were fomd entire; together with swords^ 
spear-heads, beads of various colors, the umbo of a shield, different 
pieces of armour, a bottle of red earth, an uin filled with ashes, 
l^eat numbers of Roman coins, the impreasKMis mostly obliterated, 
2 and 



mmk other antiquities. On t)»c hrenkinfr up r>f the fiproiiml« for 
c O B rt raclHUg tbe redoubt already nicutioned m 1779^ tlic workmefl 
aiet with a «troiig tbiindntion of a building, in some fmrts not 
XM3ff« tlmi four or live inches b«ta\v tfi« biirfMce, but in oUien 
wMutmlmi more: its dt'ptli wHi j«bout M?i feet and u half, and 
lis width twelve. On removing the esirth« tlm was discovered 
to he the outer wall of a rans^e of snwll aptirtments the lar<je9t 
Miot eKccedio^ ten tect square : the lloors Wi*re about four fci^t :md 
m lalf bcbw the surtace of tlit* grovimL The ituier walls were done 
mytciC4i^ with red, blue and jjreeii sjjots: and anions the rubbish 
wef)e fcagtneoti having broad red stripes, and oUters with narrow 
sttipe» of difierent colors. The foundations of a lai7»e buiidin*; 
west also discovered on die west-south-west side of the ftirmer; 
tbesp ifcre traced within the redoubt, as far as the ninijjurl thrown 
vp froiu the ditch would penult, but nottiiiig particular wai 
Ibuod. Among the rubbish dug up in forming the contiguous 
worJL% numerous Roman couis were met \nth, one of which was 
of the £mpre^ Faustina, and anotJier of llie Emperor Clauduis^ 
in good pre^rvation. An AUienian coin of silver was aiso found, 
Inmg on one side, a curious head of Minerva, armed with a sliulU 
Oip ; and on the reveri»e, au owl, with a sprig of laurel, uml tho 
letters A&E, for Aifienet^ or Athena. Pieces of Roman tile, bits 
«f iron, ao iron ring, spear-heads, human bones, and many fra«- 
nttols of UfUi*, patent, lachn nmtories, and other vessels, were aU 
to dug up: the urns, &c* were fomtedofdii^erent kinds of earth; 
ftome of tlicin lieing of a fine coralline rerK others of u lead roUir» 
md the larger ones of a coarse black earth, mi\ed with sea-5;ind, 
as i|ipcare<1 from fragments of shelh still remaining. ^ 

The CJiUTch at Chatham, whiih «stands on the clialk cliff 
mai% above the Ordnance Wharf, and is ckdieated to tlie Virgin 
Mai^t was almost entirely rebuilt in the year 1788; the expenses 
llciQg partly tiefraycfl by brief, und partly by parochial contributions. 
Hie micient Church, mentioned in the DonjcMlay Book, is supposed, 
by the btc Mr. Thorpe, to have been enlarged, or rcHfliiled, by 
she CfttccccuTM ;" v^Uidi improbably tlic fact; but it is certain 


AnticjulEiei in Kent ^ P. I* p* ZH 

9rf xEvt. 

tbat the whole bufldmg wu nearly desfenrfed by fire jn the begin* 
imig of the fourteenth century. In the year 13l6» the Bi8bo|k^ 
Thomas de Woldham, bequeathed ten shillings towards the chkigea 
of rebuilding it ; yet the inhabitaotB seem to have been too poor 
to aecomplish the work ; as, in the year IS5% the Pope gnnted 
n yearns relaxation of penance to all persons who should beoooie 
eontributors.* The edifice then built, was enbiged and repaired 
about the year l6d5, at the expense of the Conmiissioners of die 
Navy, it being considerably too small for the nicreased number of 
inhabitants at that period. The present Church is a neat edifice 
of brick, nearly square: the west wall, though greatly altered and 
modernized, formed part of the ancient Norman Church, and still 
exhibits, on the inside, some remains of semicircular arches, with 
sig-zag mouldings. In the old chancel, on the south side, wa^ 
one of the most elegant triple stone Seats that has yet been no« 
ticed.t The covings of the arches were ornamented with trefoils 
and quatreioils, beautifully sculptured with laurel, oak, vine, and 
rose branches. The whole back part of the easternmost stall was 
vrrought mto oak, vine, and other branches, intertwmed; the 
leaves and fruits being executed in a very superior style: various 
small animals were represented devouring the fruits; and am<mg 
them appeared a goat, a dog, a parrot, a serpent, and a man in 
• tunic and girdle, as if watching them from between the branches^ 

* Regut. £. de Siepey, fol. 257, h. 

t An Engraving of these Seats, but coming far sboit of the beauty 
of the original, has been published in the third VoJume •€ the MomL' 
mtfda Vciiuta, 

X In pulling down the old Church, among the materials with which 
the east window bad been filled op, were discovered several beautiful 
iiragmenu of sculpture, richly painted and gilt, of free-stone and mar- 
Ue. Among these fragments was a headless figure of a Virgin and Child, 
having a mantle fastened across the breast by a fibula, set with glass in 
imiution of precious stones. This was, m all probability, the figure of 
Our Lady t^ Chatham, who, m the Roman Catholic times, was highly 
celebrated for her mirades \ aod of whom Lambard gives the folkiwing 
miriousrelatknb <«Ithinke 



Uo\t af the monaniciils, and olhtir $e)>ulchral memomh, that 
were io the old Churchy were re-(>lacec) wlten the new one was 
encted : there ate but few^ however, that require particular no- 
licf. Among these is an inscription for Steven Borough, one 
^(\\ie four principal Masters in Onlinary of the Nuvy in the reigii 
«f EUixabeth, He was bom at Northam^ in Dcvousbire> in Sep* 
Mlber, 1525, and he died tn July, 1584. In the year 1553, he 
iKscovejred the uortliem passage by St Nicholas to Russia, toge- 
lb€f with •* the coasts therto adjoyning, to wit, Lappia, (Lapland,) 
KotaZemhla, and the country of Sauioyeda^ At his settuig f(>urib 
of England, he wag accorn^vanied witli two other aiiippes. Sir Hue^K 
Willohie beinge Admirall of the fleetc^ wlio, vith all the company 

** I thinke 11 not arolise ( Perambubtion of Kent, p. 2S6) lo commit 
kithfiilly 10 writing, whai 1 have received credibly by hearing, concern* 
bg the idolt, iometime koowcn by (he naxnei of our Lad^, and the 
* of Ckai/mm, and of GUUngham. It happened (say they) that the; 
tad corp* of a man (lost through shipwracke belike) was cast on land 
the Pariihe of Chathann, and being (here taken up, was by some 
riuble penom committed to honest burial within their Church-yard : 
i tiling wa$ no sooner done, but our Lady of Chatham, finding her 
o^etided therewith, arojc by night, and went in perion to the 
1i0u«e of the piriuhe clearke, whiche then was in the strcete a good dif« 

Ere from the Churche, atid making a ooysc at bis window^ awaked 
L This niaii, at the tirst, a3 commonly it farcth with mtn disturbed 
their re«t, demauaded somewhat roughly, who was there ? But 
tn he undentoode, by her own aunswere^ that it was the Lady of 
Chatliam, lie chaunged hti note* and moite mddety asked y* cause of 
^^ercomming! she toldc him« that there wa» lately buryed (neere ta, 
^Hbe place where she was honoured) a tin full person, which so otltnded 
ber rye wtih his ga»tly grinning, tliat, uuics he were removed, she 
I not but (to the great griefe of good people) vvithdrawe her selfe 
that ptace, and ceasse her wonted miraculous working amongst 
em: and therefore she willed him to go with her, lo the end tliat, by 
i helpe, she might take him up, and cast him againc into the river 
he clerke obeyed, arose, and waited on her toward the Churche: 
111 the good Udie (not wonted to walk) w,\xt.-d weariq gjf the Ubour« 
i and 

674 KEKT4 

of the Said two shippes^ were frozen to death in Lappia, the sftkf 
winter." Another inscription records the memory of Sir John 
CoXy Knt. an eminent naval commander agaiuat the Dutch, whc^ 
was captain of the Duke of York's ship in *' tlie expedition agidost 
the Hollanders^ m the year l672; and there, in fight with tbo 
said enemy, on the ^""^ of May, was unhappily slain by a great 
sliot, in the forty-ninth x'ear of his iige.* Agabist the north wall 
is the. monument of Sir Edwakd Gregort, Knt. a Commis^ 
sioner of the Navy, who died in Se^ember, 1713» m his seTenty- 
Iburtii year. He be(|ueathed 1001. to the Minister and Churdi- 
varckfus of this Parish, for the use of the poor. With this lum, 
Souib-Sea stock was purchased in 1714 ; smd six years afterwards, 
the trustees havuig sufHcieut discernment to secure the advantage 


and therefore was inforced, for very want of breath, to tit downe in a 
Kushe tiy the way, and there to rest her : and this place (forsooth) as 
•Tso the whole track of their journey, rctnaming ever after a greene 
pathe, the towne dwellers were wont to shew. Now after a while, 
they go for\vard agatne, and comming to the Church-yard, digged up 
the body, and conveyed it to the water side, where it was first found. 
This done, our Ladye shrancke againe into her shryne ; and the clerke' 
peaked home, to patche up his broken sleepe : but the corps now 
cftsoones floted up and downe the river, as it did before : whiche thing 
being at length espyed by them of Gillingham, it was once more taken* 
up, and bur-.ed in their Church-yard. Rut sec what followed upon it ; 
not uncJy the Roode of Gillingham, (say they,) that a whyle before was 
busie in bestowing myrades, was now deprived of all that his former 
virtue; but aNo y* very earth and place wher this carckase was laide,' 
did continually, for ever after, seile, and sinke downeward. — ^This tale,' 
receaved by tradition from the elders, was long since both commonly 
reported, and faithfully credited, of the vulgar sort ; which, although 
happely you shal not at this day learne at every man*s mouth, (the 
image being now many yercs siihece defaced^) yet many of the aged* 
number remember it welt, and in the time of darkenesse. Hoc crat in 
tola uoltmma J'abula murnhh'* llie statue of Our Lady of Chatham 
had probably stood under the entrance arch to the north porch of the 
M Church, where there was a niche and bracket, wiih angels at the 
%ides, extending their wings, as if over the head of the \'irgin, and 
<«th.ers bending prostrate towards her. 



llie^lMd ohtaoned by the general itifatuation^ sold out at the very 
aihnced rule of 7 SOL An estate of lliirty-lwo acres, called Rett's 
Farm, tn tbe Faiish of Barbanij was tticn purchased, the rent of 
«ycb is snnaally dtstnbated among tbe necessitous \ioou In dlgpaf; 
Apmrnm the Charch-yarH» in the year 177 ^> a peirificd Ilumajtr 
Hmnd was found, grasping tbe brass bilt of a sword. Tbe band 
was putly mutilated, and all tbe otlier fmrts of the body u^ere 

J, as well as the bkdc of Uie sword : it ivas afterwards de^ 

m tbe Leverian Museunu 
As HosptTAL was founded at Chatliam, on tiie south side of 
«liat ts now the High Street, by tlie celebrated Bishop Ouo^ 
dolph, in tbe year 1078, lor the reception of poor and leprcMi» 
llGfions of both sexes. Tbe endowments were but small ; au4 
chough lliey were afterwards augmented by different benefdctonv 
tbe proceeds were seldom sufikjeiit to support the inmates, who 
were aecuslofned to be suf>plied "wiib provisions from tbe Priory 
at Rochester. Tlie obUtious made at tbe altars of St. JamiK and 
91. Gtle8» in Rochester Cathedral, were also traiisferrtd to the la- 
|ici»; and tbey bad likewise tbe privilege of receiving alms trooi 
; who dined at the Archbiihop^s table ou the day of his iiishal<> 

and the doth wliich covered the table U^'cauu^ their per* 
quMle. These Lepers, though thus dependant on the Monks oi 
SL Andrew for support, appear to have formed a dislioct corpo^ 
rate body^ and were ()0%sc6^cd of a common sc;iJ, ujid demised 
tbcif estates in a corporate capacitj'. About tbe time of the Di*. 
fiolulion, their revenues scarcely exceeded i3U per annum; but^ 
by goofi fortune, they escaped the gcueial ruin; }et various at* 
tempi^ ivcie made to deprive the brethren of tlicir estutes ixi tlie 
feigii of Eltzabetb. In particular, in tlie year 157^1 a suit was 
iu the Exchequer, agaiust the Hospital, for conceal- 
E; itough tliis plea was totally unfounded hi truth, as tbe ii^ 
\ue of its possessions had been cerliti«fd hi I he Court of Augmtiw 
talionsL tbe proceedings, however, appear to have been stopitcd 
tlirongh tbe iutercession of Bishop Yonge with the Lord Clrancdlor 
Ikjririgb, to whom he addressed a letter,* in which he obsened, 


♦ This Letter is printed m Strype's Anttalsi Vol. IJ, p. 588. 

9r0 KJSNT. 

that '< tbe suil would be to the utter spoil and uadoing nf rfiiaji 
poor kzarsy aud other poor and impotent pei^BOos then residail. 
here; and not ouly of them, but of sochlike, who aught ataad 
ill need of the same in time to come." In the time of Janea tin 
Firstt new attempts were made to depme the hiethien %£tUm 
estates; and . that despicable Monarch made a grant of the kIMl; 
which had now greatly increased in value, through the progKae^f 
the naval establishments^ to different perH>n8, at the m«iuntiBn«f 
James, Viscount Doncaster. Thki grant was contested Mk 4in 
charge of the successive Deans of Rochester, who cbdtoedlhe 
light of patronage to the Hospital; and it was at length 
od, by an arbitration, ordered by the Court of Chanceiy, , 
beginning of the re^ of Charles the Fnrst, that the right i 
the Hospital; but that the principal daimant under the grants 
should receive fifty pounds, and be allowed some other advaniagea, 
on condition of relmquishing all chums to the lands in qoestieii.* 
The expenses were aflerwards re-imbursed by fii>es paid by the 
tenants on renewmg their leases; and since this period, the rentt 
have been enjoyed by the Deans of Rochester as patrons of the 
Hospital. The Hospital itself has been long demolished; hat 
there are still four persons, styled Brethren, two of whomare in 
orders, supported by the revenues.t The east end of the.C9^p<l 
originally built for the Lepers, and dedicated ta St. Bartholotaoew, 
by Hugh de Frottcsclyve, a monk of Rochester, in the reign of 
H^nry the First, now forms, part of a Chapel of ease, which was 
enlarged m the year 1743, at the expense of William Walter, Esq. 
one of the Justices for Kent. The eastern and more ancient part, 
forms a small circular recess, lighted by three tenoet windowS| 
with round heads, and zig-zag mouldings. 

Nearly opposite to this Chapel, is an Hospital for decayed 
Mariners and Shipwrights, originally founded about the year 1592, 
by the brave Admiral Sir John Hawkins, whose services against 
the Spanish Armada deservedly entitle him to the veneration of 


• Begistrum Rqffense, p. 29A-^Q2(l 

t Haited'j Kent, Vol. U. p. 7fi. Fe. 



Iks eotuiti^. In 1594, Queen Elizabeth, at the r^uest uf the 
'IbolKkr, tocorponitecl this establishiiient hy charter, vesting iU 
nufflagement in tweat^^x persons^ staled '* the Govenior» of the 
'Hoapitiai of Sir John Hawkins, at Chathura/* who were empowered 
ta receive or purchase lauds to the yearly vahic of J 00 marks; 
bring within a few shiUing!^ uf the annual amount of the est^iles 
which Sir John soon afterwards conveyed to them for the pur|H>seji 
oi^ the ch4nl\.* He died iu the following year; ^ind the Gover- 
non liavirig framed a set of ordinances for the conduct of the peiH 
MOerBf twelve persons were admitted into the Hospital; but the 
^iDili {irotuig insutiicient for their proper su)>port» their nvnuber 
waiRdnocd to ten iu the year 16O9, and has continued sucli till 
Vol, VU. Nov. I8O6. X x the 

* Sir John Hawkins is generally regarded, on the authi^rity of Cam* 
deo» CO h^ive be«n the means, in conjunction with Sir Franclt Drakf^^ of 
ttve eitaiiltshment of the Ciuii at Chatham ; a very noblt- chaiity, hue 
whfjch, having been gready miimanaged, has been recently removed to 
Gf^enwich, 00 the recomniendation of the CourmiMioncrs of Naval In- 
qatry. It appears, from ihc second Heport of the Coromiisioners, thai 
the origina] writtea Constitution of the Chest, ii suppu^ed to have been 
loft during the uiurpation of Cromweli From the record of a decree, 
liowrrer, made i(i consequence of an Inquiittion held at the Caule at 
Socbcitcft in 1617, by virtue of an Order of Council of the preceding 
year, tt appear* that " ihi» fnstitution was eitablished about the year 
1390, when the masters, marinera, shipwrighii, and sea* raring men, 
terrtng m the ihips and sea-airairs of the then Queen^s-Majesry, find* 
iBg, by experteoce, that, by frequent employment hy sea, for tlic defeoce 
of the kingdom, &c. divert, and sundry of ihem, by reason of hurts and 
mmimi received in that service, were driven into great poverty^ exire- 
fiiity, and want, did, by the incitement, persuajiion, appnibation, and 
good-hking, of the Bight Honorable Charle* Eari of Noitingham, then 
ijoffd High Admiral of England, and the then principal oBceri of the 
Navy, voluntarily and charitably give and bestow, and cousentcd to 
feave defalked out of their monthly wages for ever, the following sum*, 
wa. Out of the wage* of every mariner, *eaman, and shipwright, receiv* 
■ig lea thilling* per tnonth, or more, 6d. per month 5 out of the wage* 
of erery grummet receiving seven •JiiUings and sixpence per month, 4d, 
per moatbi and out of the wages of every boy receiving five •hilliog* 


the present time. Eacii pensioner has a small weekly anowaiicey 
with a cliaWroii of cm*!* aimually, &c No person b ejtgible to 
this clmrity, who, whiKl in llie service of the Royal N«vy, has not 
been maimeil, db^bled, or olLienvbe brought to poverty* The 
present Hospital is a respecttiblc and convenieiit biiildini^, ereclMl 
on the site of tite old one about twenty years ago^ with a Ijequeat 
of 500L left by a former Governor for the purpose. The origin 
nal eiKiowinents were rnrreased by a Ic^cy made by Robert Diivis, 
** an honest, upni;;ht seaman, who was slain in battle in \6^2;^'*' 
and who, by his Will, left the whole of his effects to this Hospital; 
the produce of wlii^'b, uinonnting to si?ity pouods^ was pai4 by lus^ 
sole executrix, Dnme Ehic^betli Narborough^ afterwaid^ tlie wife 
of Sir Cloudesly Shovel, 

. The 

per month, 3d, per month; — fur the perpetual relief of such tnarinen^ 
teamen, ihipwrightf» aud sea-faring men, as, by reaKm of hurts and 
Di^ims received in the service, were driven into great distress and want*" 

It was also agreed that the sums thus collected, sbouJd be distributed* 
from time to time, under the superintendence of tbe principal tea^ 
officers; the overplus to be deposited in a strong C/iea#, with 5ve iocks^ 
the keys of which were to be kept in separate hands. The benefits of 
this arrangement btcoming the more strikingly apparent, with the lapse 
<»f years* Charles the Second granted to the Chest twelve acres of 
marsh lands, called Dtiee, situaied ntar Rochester j and before the year 
1672, the funds were increased ** by the four-pcoces, and iwo-pcoces, 
deducted from the wages of all seamen, for the pay of Chaplains and 
Surgeons of the navy in such ships where none are borne ; and in \6%B, 
the fines and mnkis imposed by naval Courts^mariial were added by a 
grant of James the- Second/' 

Upon this bash the concerns of the Chest have been csrried cm, vriih^ 
out any material alteration* till its recent removal to Greenwich^ ex- 
cepting thai the shipwrights, ' no longer contributing,* were e^Khtded 
from receiving any benefit from the fund. Ihe average number of pen* 
sioners deriving relief fr^m the Chest during the last twenty years, 'a 
about 50Q0 yearly ; the annual amount of each pension being regulated by 
a kind of scale proportioned to the hurt susuined : but where the htut, or 
wound, has not been so severe as to deprive the party of the power to 
obtain a U?ehhood« nor been attended by the loss of hmb»or depriratzon 

The 6n\y public wb'fice th«t remains to be noticed i« the Vic- 
tualing Office, which stands nc;4r the eatrancc of Ike town 
kmm Roeholef. Thi^ is foni[K>sc<l of severdl extensive ranges of 
ippfopriated to the various important concenift of vie- 
b» R«|iil shipping lyiti^ sit Chatkani, at Slieerness, and at 
tlie Nofe, The gtoend tirraiigenie»t is siniiJar to tbiit ftt De|ft- 
flmli and tuckidn ^panaom dftii^teriog «n(i ciiriiif-hotiies Ibr beef 
■mI porii, a bal»4ioiiie, a cocKperage^ &c. The |iriiidpal otficers 
ire m Agent-Victualler, and a Store-Keeper. 

Bcydod tiiis^ on the 9^x0^ side of the Hij;h Stroett b an ancient 
Mamwnt now let ottt tti retieinents, which formerly belon^eil to the 
Iteft the cefebmlcd sbiiMmilders ia ttie rei^ oi James the Firsts 
Chulat the First, and Charli:* the Second, Tlie cliimncy-piece iu 
tbt principal room 19 of wood, curious^ carved, the upi>cr piirt 
; dkided into compartnicnts by caryatydes; rJie centnl com* 
: contains the 6iniily urnis, viz. on u feise, a lion pas^iant 
t^etneen Uirce ^K*Ui;t». On the back of the grate i» a 
X X 2 cast 

of «|«-itgbt, a fum of money it given in fuH latiifaction wf the injury 
received* called Smart Money* 1 he pnxea q\ obuiamg relief of any 
lystSf U t>y U»e claimant procuring a cenificatc, or Smiirt-tickct, from 
the Surgeon of hi* »hip, countcT->»gncd hy the Captain* and other offi- 
cers «ating hii n^me and age, with the grounds of hit claim, &c, which 
beu^ preiented to ibe Governor! of the Chesty the party is examined, 
and the relief awarded as al><jve* The principal abuses on which ihe 
GoBuniiUonen rec^Jtn mended the removal of ihc Chc^i to Greenwich, 
attd the fiUcieg it under the direction of the Fint l^rd of the Adwiirahy^ 
ilic Coraptmllcr df the Navy» and the Governor and other officers of 
'' " ^" ' *c* destructive svM , Uy 

deprived of a ». ii:of 

• in r a*(ow^i]ccs. Ihe estate* of tiie Cheit were aUu let at considerable 
iindcr vJuc, and in s«Q)e insiancei proved a real loss instead of contri' 
butipg lit augment the fund* : |ht'*e, therefore, the Cummh»ioncrs re- 
commended to be w>Id, and itic produce to be vrstrd in ihe funds. Hie 
wncknow befonqing to the Chc«it m the 'Ihrce-per-Ccnt. CoruoJidated 
Annuiiiet, amuunti 10 nearly 300,0001. of wlikh 10,0001, wa* given a 
few jnr% ago hy a perion unknown, who at the same time bertowcd a 
iikc Hioi on CnceawLdi Hospital. 

6m KBirr. 

cast of Neptune, standing erect in his car, with lUtons blowib^ 
donches, &c. and the date l650. 

The paXh fbr foot panengen on the south side of the Higb 
Street, is raised between twenty and thirty feet above the carriage- 
road, in three divisiona, called Si. Margarets Batiki, from bciqs 
within the parish of St. Margaret, and liberties of Rochester* 
These banks comniand a iFcry beautiful pr e^ie d of the Rifcr 
Medway, the shippbg- lying in the harlMMury and the acyaccnt 

Chathaniy like Rochester, has been fi^qnentiy listed, by «ur 
Sovereigtis. James the First knighted many gentlemen here ia 
July, l604; and on Sunday, August the tenth, m l606, he agaift 
visited this town, accompanied by his Queen, Anne of Demnaifc, 
her brother Christian the Fourth, Prince Heniy, the Chirf Officers 
of State, Privy Counsellors, and many of the nobility. The diip 
named the Elizabeth-James had been magnificently decorated to 
receive the Royal guests ^h^ <l^ied on board; the prov isi a aa, 
beiag dressed in a ^ great hoy, called the Kitchen,' which was sta- 
tioned in the midst of a bridge of masts, about six feet wide, that 
was continued from the ship to the shore, a distance of 240 yaids^ 
On the departure of the Royal visitors, a tremendous peal was 
fired from nearly 1200 pieces of ordnance, all discharge on a 
given signal. 

Before the passing of the Act, in the year 177^9 for the pavings 
lighting, &c. of this town, it was one of the most disagreeable ia 
Kent; even the High Street being full of annoyances, and the road 
dangerous. Many improvements have been since made; but the 
streets are still irregular and narrow. Most of the houses have 
been erected since the reign of Elizabeth, as the progressive in* 
crease of the population, arising from the naval establishments, 
rendered additional buildings necessary. The inhabitants are 
chiefly employed in the Dock-yard, or m trades connected with 
maritime pursuits. Their number, as returned under the late Act» 
was 10,505 ; but this does not include tb^ soldiery: the number of 
houses was returned at 1729. 




'15TLLINGHAM, called Gtlingeham in tlie Dome^diiy Book, ii 
.1 pleasant village l>etween oii€ and two miles iiorth^a»t from 
CJiatham, principUy inhabited by persons belonging to the DocIl- 
yard, and its appendages^ or by those wlio have rclircd from the 
icrvtce. Harris, k his History of Kent, records, that the annaU 
of St. Austin mention thnt n sltarp battle ii«3 lought here between 
£dnii0id Ironside^ and Cannte, the Done. This place, though now 
deprived of its consequence by tl»e iiK^rease of Cliathani, apjiears 
lo have ^Hscn formerly of greater note; and in the Survey of the 
Maiittme places in this county, made in I he eighth of Elizabeth^ u 
retumed as having t«ur quays, and twent%-seven ships and boats: 
the largest of these vessels, however, was only of twenty tons. Ou 
liieerlge of the marshes skirting the Medwyy, lielow the village^ 
n small Ibrt was built for the detence of the river in tlic reign of 
Charles the First; but this, thougfi enlarged, and senietimes dignified 
with ibe name of Gil ting ham Casttd, was never of niarerial f*eivif«. 

Hie Manor of UillinghHiti formed part of the ancient posses* 
aiodft of the Archbishops of Ccinterbur%% who had a splendid Palace 
heie, and one of whom, John Stafford^ iu ilje tenth of Edward the 
*niird, procured a sraiit of a weekly market^ and an eight dnys* 
mmtual ^ir; but these have been longdiscontimied. Queen Elizabeth, 
in her third year, made a sort of forced exchange with tfic tlien 
Archbishop, for this and other M;inors bflongin<; to the 8ee of 
Canterbury; and shjce that period, Gillingham has passed through 
virions hands, and is now held under Lord Saniers, by Multott 
Lambard) Esq, of Sevenoaks, in this county. 

The Anhicpiscopat Palace^ whidi adjoined to the 90titb side of 
ihc Churdi*yard, was an extensive building; but scarcely any rt*- 
■saios arc left, excepting foundation wulk, »nd ^vltat is supposed, 
from itsexlent, to have been tlie Hiill, unci is now iihcd m a bam 
and granary. This is chiefly built of flints, and has pointed wiiw 
clows; its length is ajM^ards of 110 feet, and its width abont 
llirrty; be^iidea a kind of oblong recess^ t^ojecting trom the ea^t 
Bide, which nietisures alK>ut tueoty-eight teet by hva>ty. 

The Churchy which is dedicated to St, Mary Magdalen, is a spa- 
onus fwibricj cousi&tiiig of a nave, aisles, and djanccl, with a Cha- 

X X 3 jicl 


pelotttack Mt ilSb biM, «iilft M]oate towe^at Hiemitcod. 
The eart window is krge and handsove, hemg diVidei hj itol* 
lions into fiye lights, with ninificatieiis tbow. Ofcr tiie foiMtod 
aith «f the west entrance, is the niche m whidk atoad te sMiih af 
our Ladfjr <f GiUingham, whose fiune Wat so gnt in the <Cii> 
AoUc times, that many ptlgraniages wene made to her* Moil df 
the wkdoits weve ibhtierlj adoraed with rich fiahdiiil ^M^ tiie 
gift of the tkmtlj of Beauiitz, Lords of Twydhdtt, m tins Faririi, 
mHay of whom lie buried here * AmMig the veiy A?w Atg* 
neQCi that esdiped the ravages of the faMtics in the time of the 
Parlianient, are the remains of a Bishop in the noith-east window. 
The chancel dii^ilays some small, but not nnkiteieatkig itemainB of 
Norman architecture, and ornaments. The Font is Mso Nommn, 
and suficietitly capacious for dipping: it is of a droidMr ftiui, and. 
is surrounded by semicircukur arches, risbgfrom single piUan, widi 
graduated bases, and below them a zig-ag moulding: the 8cil|i* 
tui« of the rim appears to represent a double tier of brick-woric. 
In each of the Chapels is a Piscina^ wider a trefoil-beaded arch. 
On a slab in the north Chapel, are Brasses of a Knight and his 
Lady, that were formerly under pointed canopies; but tbe brasses 
of the latter are ^onc, together with the inscrqptiOB round the 
verge, which recorded the memory of ^ohn BeAUFiT?, and 
Alice, his wife; the fbimer of whom ched in 1^38. He is re- 
presented standing on a lion, m complete plate armour, with 
jointed gauntlets and roundels; round his head b a cimplet of 
roses: his Lady is in the dress of the age, with her haur braided, 
and ornamented with jewehy. In the 8f)ath, or Grange Chapel, 
are several memorials for the family of Howard, or Hayxcard, 
formerly Lords of Grange, a Manor in Giliingham Parish, Seve- 
ral of the Banmt family also, who alienated the Grange Manor 
to the Hawards, lie buried here. Jw/nr , wife of Richard Bamme, 
Esq. and daughter of John Martyn, a Judge of the Common Pleas, 
b represented by a Brass figure enfolded in a winding sheet.. 


• A very particular and curious description of these paintings, and of 
the monuments in the Church, it inserted in the Rtgistrum Roff}nue, p. 826, 
830, from the Manuscript CoUeclioni of Baptist Tufion, who was Pvish 




r WllLlilM OF GiLLtKGHAM, SO natDcti ftoui Uic place of lis 

i IvtJi; WHS a karued Beiieiiictlne Mouk of Canterbury in the time 

-^ RklMircl tljc StTOfKl, ^ ha wrote a UbtOF^ of Biilaii), aiuJ auo* 
i ^:^^er of his own Mooii»let-y» from which ht acquired con^idemble 
[ ^<itlchfUy> Another native oi Giiliiighum, was William Ai»A.\ts» 

r..,«i^B9 CDlerpHsiiig seanian, and '* tiie fim of aii> Eiiglbhrn^D who di»- 
\ ^pyered JnfMBi eAectutiily, to wlitch remote Likiiid he begpD his 

—voyage in 15^8: he died about iGia:** 

Lambard, iu hi» Peraiubuhitioti of Kent, aud under the head 
^^^^im^am, has given a very curious accoujit of the ' Navie- 
^tojrall,* whidi was stationed in this ' Harboro\«%' in Wis days.-^ 
■^^ Whether you respect the ricbesse, heaulie^ or i)eoeiite of rJie 
^nmc/ h<^ ob^rves, ** no towtK*, nor cihc% is ihcre (I dare say) 
mm this whole sbyre, comparable iu vkilue with this our ^etc : nor 
-iliippiug any where ch in the whole world to be found, eitiicr 
more arl^ially uioaldecJ under the water, or more gorgeously 
decked above. — Of tbesie, siicLke excellent ornaineuU of peace^ and 
fnttftr ^idet in ^-arrc, I might tniely ajfinne, thai ihey be for 
weatthe^ ainioste so many riche treasuries, as lliey be single ships: 
for beautie, so many princely Palaces, as Lliey be sevendl pcices ; 
and for itrenglh, so many moiing Castles, as they be siiudne 
^rlMig vesacb. Tl^y be not many, (I must coidesse^ and you 
finy see,) and therefore in that bchalfe, natlung aunswerabte, ei- 
ther to that tiavie whiche fought <igainst Xerxes nt Siilami^, or to 
ntany other auncieat flceles of foreigiic kiiigdome% or of tliis our 
^msmbknod: howbeit, if their swil'tucs in sa>hn<^, their furie in 
cfaiding, or force iu defending, be duly weigheii, ihey slu^ll he 
fomi as farrc to passe all olJier in jxiwer, as they be inj\ riour to 
my in number — For looke ^Init the armed Iniuke is in the aire 
ttMMigit tl&e I'eareful byrdes, or whul tiie couragimislyon is on the land 
IMMlgst the cowardly catleU of the l^eicl, the mine k one of tiiese 
at the sea, In a navie of conniion vessels, Uebig j»ble to make tuivocke, 
to plume, and to pray upon the beat of them at her owne pleasure.* 
*' I am provoked," coutinues our author, ** at the conteniplattou 
of tliis triumpliant spectacle, first, to tliaiike Ciod, our mercifuU 
Fither^ and then to thiitke duetifnlly of our good Quccne Eli/a- 

X X 4 betit, 

* Hatted*t Kent, Vol 11. p* 87. Fo. 

at* VOPt, 

• bctiiy by WiMMe v^plmt iwnwtUBfcy €ii€| tod pwififciMtfi (dnm^ 
iiigy as it weie, the net for us, wfajfieit ne- akepe,) not ooly the 

• dro9W of •opentitkNiy and baae nioaies, nwe fint abofiriiedi the 
feare of outward wah« removed, ratlie araMwr leieetedt and vol* 

.ten shipping dispatched out of themrf ; hat also» in pboe theieof^ 
' Tdigion and coyne lestoied to puritie, the dowes rt r a l l and fo r w i gn ^ 

• affiures of the reahne maoRged quietly, the bmd fiumished with 
new armour, shot, and munition, abonndantly, and tiiis river 
'fraught with these strongand serviceable ships sufliciently. Whicbe 
so apparoit and inestimable benefitesi the 19w whereof thkieabBe 
never at any one time (and mudie ksse, so long time togetfaei) 
hathonoyed, ifanynianpeioeavenot, heismorethenbiockisbe; 
if he consider not, heisexceedbgcarelesse; and if he acknowledge 
not, he is to-to nnkinde, bothe to God, to her Maieitie^ and to 
' his owne countrie.* 

It is eztiemdy interesting to ranaik the contrast between the • 
< Triumphant Spedack,' which had thus esdted the enthqsnsm 
of the worthy Lambard, and the Royal Navy of the present dayw 
Scarcely any single dup of Eliaab^'s time, could be capable of 
withstanding the foroe of one of our forty gun frigates; and 
the whole number of *■ shippes^ which composed Elisabeth'^ 
fleet, and of which Lambard has recorded the names, amounted 
to no more than twenty-one ; whilst the present total of our Navy 
is very few short of a thousand sail J To the former number, how> 
ever, we should add '> three good galleys," which, says our au- 
thor, " lys here on the side.^ 

'' Amongst, all these^ (as you see,"^ he continues, after gh4ng 
tlie names of the great Mppes^ * there is but one that beareth her 
Maiestie's name ; and yet all these, the Philip and IM^Ufie, which 
beareth her sistei^s name, ondy excepted, hath she (as it is sayd) 
siuce the beginnuig of her happy reigneover us, either wholy built 
upon tlie stocks, or newly reedified upon the olde moaldes. Her 
Highness also knowing right vell| that, Non nUnar est ^irtus, 
quam querere, porta tueri; 

Like vertue it it» to save what n got, ' 
As to.get the thing that eant the had act, 

hath pbnted Upnw Castle for the defence of the smt." 


f ntm tlie CTisoiog words, it wowki seem fhnt tli* If aH I 
life/ Medwav wan Hie on\y stalbn which the fleet had »* e ft 
fbal Lambsird wrote his FrmmtiubtiiHi, *^ As toiichti i« 
l)Orow it sclfe, 1 hmc heani mmn^ wjsIh*, lliat for ihe I 
<lJtioQ in lime ait &ei^ict% mmt |*Hrl of ihis nm'ie «»ghl rid- i 
«>lber haven, the rather because it is inany timet very long b 
a tlp|i cso be gotteB out of ihts river into the w^/* He siterv 
mnlkiiii the Roman cn$totii of libeributing their ve««el« 
fereBt harbours, ihnt they fnifg^ltt Ihe more rendily m%\ to If 
fiarls where " occiisiw] required." bat, ** for Jtll fhut," he i 
cttide^, in that humble spirit o( reverential suhmisiiion, und I 
def otioti of tentimentt which Eli/nbeth bad eontrivcfl to impin 
tn all chi^t^ of her subject j^ ; ** but, tor all tlial^ whether the sac 
order be ticcess^rk- for us, or no, jt is not our |i»rt4-^ to di§pi 
to llietr office to detertnme, whoe, for tbeir gieat wiiidoine i 
food liftle^ both ratt and will provide ihinges totTvenient, m well 
for tii# n^tie of the navie, as tor the service of the mifme. And 
ibeietbrG lefii iog all thia matter to the ct>nftider4tii>ri of those that 
■vrfrdl oeeypif^d at ihe helme, let us apply our o»rei^ that we 
nmv nowe leave the water, and rome to the hu^de at Ctilltngham/* 
Tlie Manor of GEANGE, anciently called Gnnch, which he* 
■houl half a mile cfist^vard front GilliDgham Church, and ioehidei 
about 120 acres, has been accounted a member of the ancient 
Cinque-port of HastiRgs, in Sussex, from the earliest times: though 
the jurisdiction of that place is sjiid to have now become obsolete.t 
From the certificate of Stephen de Pencester, Constable of Dover 
Castle, and Warden of the Cinque Ports in the reign of Edward 
the Third, that this M^inor was obliged to furnish one ship, and 
two able and wcil-mnicd men, towards the quota which the port 
of Hastings was bound to supply for the King's service tor forty 
da>-s. Tliis Manor was held by the noble tinnily of Hastings dur« 
ing several centuries, by the tenure of grand serjeantry; and Mat- 
thew de Hastings, who died in the fifth of Eldward the First, wa!i 


^ Peramb. of Kent, p. 274, 278. Edit. 1576. 
t Hasted*! Kcni^ Vol. IV. p. 569. 8vo, 

fwDd to hai^poflBeflsedk by the aerfioe<kf finding one mririka* 
ever the King ahoukl sail towards the port of Hutingk Itw«» 
afterwards the property of the cdebrated Joha Philipott, Eaq* 
lord Mi^or of London in 13/8, whO| for the attive part whkh 
be took in the death of Wat Tyler, in Smithfield, and other aer? lee^ 
bad an faonorahieaiigmentation granted to hiseoatotf anoaby Kob> 
«rd the Second. He hiiiita amail Chapel h^e, part of whkb isyol 
Jtandii^, though used as an oot-house. On his death, he bequeathed 
k to his second son, John Phil^iott,. Esq. who e»:hanged it for 
Twyford, in Middlesex,* with Richard Banune, Esq^ son of Adam 
BamnSe, Esq. the bencYoknt Lord Mayor of London in ISffl, 
who imported large quantities of com to supply the peopk dusiqg 
a great dearth. 

RAINHAM Paikh k chiefly tlie pn^>erty of the Ttfiam, EaiU 
of Thaoet, whose ancestors possessed lands here as early as the 
leign of Henry tlie Third; hut the * prkicipal of whose estates in 
Rainbanr, have been obtained either by asarriage or purchase sinee 
the time of Elisabeth. The Church, whkh k dedicated to St 
Margaret, has been the principal burial-phice of thk fiunily siaoe 
the time of Charles the First; and no fewer than eight Earb and 
six Countesses of Thanet lie interred here, together with many of 
their children and relatives. The body of thk fabnc consists of a 
kind of double nave, separated by octagonal colunms, and pointed 
vches; and two chanceb, divided by a Screen of wood, having 
cinquefoil-headed arches, the spandrils of whkh are curiously or> 
namented with foliage of different kinds, human heads of swgular 
character, .various species of animals, asdragons, rabbits, parrots, 
and fish ; a harp, a bugle-horn, &c. In the principal or south 
chancel, are three graduated stone Sialls, with pointed arches; 
and on a slab in the pavement, is a singuhur Bras$ of a mak figure, 
in a short furred gown, with large sleeves, and a scrip, or purse, 
appendaut to bis girdle. Beneath k an inscription, recording the 
sepulture of William BlooTy Gent, who dkd in 1529» and whose 
6mily resided at Bloor's Place,* in thk Parkh, for several 


♦ Part of this mansion, which had been rebuilt by Christopher Bloor, 
£tq. in the reign of Henry the Eighth, k still remaining, though con. 


\he- ioscriptioii is singular, fmm f^rm\ be title 
*fMlMhieotl0^ to Henry IW Eigblli, cmi lAlmn it ui Itern 
tmtkiw^i by Pope Leo the Teutb but a few years beforr. la tlie. 
oortla cbmcel, mhkk bel<Migf to the Earb of Ttuuict^ arc tjie inoai^ 
iDetiis of NictloLAsTurroN, ihetliJrd Earl, ^id ibc tlvjtioftilile 
GcoKGK 'ItirroK, the lixtli ^oo of the mxoml E^rt. T^ic 
is a figure of tbe Earl in his parliaiBi^iitMTy miMs, itauditig 
pededaJ ; oa the Jrout of wliich are ttie iinxia of Tufton, 
Bfldingtoa; this nobleitiuii iinviDg tusirrifcl tlie LiAly £1U 
aAieth^ daughtifr of Ridiard, Ejirl of Biirliiigtou ainl Corke : be 
iM m% the age of fort^'^mne, iti Noveuiber^ 1(179^ 1^'b^ lipnora* 
Me Q. TuftoQ IS ^o repeaeoted by a figure tu a Roman ba- 
bit, icaled on a mit of armour: on tlie [wdmH] are uisrriptioiw m 
Bn^jhki aoii LatiD, troni wjudiit appears tbat lie reoeKed an iih 
COial^v wound tu tbe Bbhopne of Spires, in Oemiany, m OctolM^r^ 
ySSiSi but laegiibhed m great pain till I be tijne of \m death, ta 
Deeestber, Ki7^» io bis tweQty-linr year: be died in Loiulo% at 
Tbatiet IftHise, Ui^n the town residence of tbe family. 

In Lower Dank Field, ia tlie Pamb of Hurilip^ ivbieh ad« 
j/mm to ttiat of Ratinb^m on tbe iiOutJt, tlic rrttmius of an ancirtit 
Wldbg, about Mtty feet loug^ wa^ laid opeji betwt^n My muI 
riiiy yean ngo, wkkh, tliougb priiidpaliy coiti|jOsed of large Hmtt, 
had on tbe upper part of the walk, two rows of large Roman tiles, 
pboed dose together. In one of tbe apartments, several busbeU 
of wheat were found, some of wliicli appeared as if it liad been 
pardied by fire. Many foiuidations ot* other buildings have been 
occasioiiaily discovered iu ditlcrent [rnxXs of tbe adjacent grounds * 


verted into a Farm House. The Interior displays several low pointed- 
arched doorways, with scraps of sculptured devices: one of the rooms 
is waioscotted with oaken pannels, exhibiting good carvings of parch- 
iiieitt-tcroiit, Sec. 7 he estates of the Bloors became vested in the Earls 
of Thaoet, by the marriage of Olympia, daughter and co-heiress of the 
rebuilder of this seat, with John Tufton, Esq. of Hoihficld, wl.o was 
created a Baronet, by James tiie First, in the year 1011. 

• H^sicd's Kent, Vol. 11. p. HO, Fo. 

68S KENT. 

NEWINGTON, written Newctone id the Domesday Boiolt, fan 
from its name, and the many Roman vatigia that have been 
fbmid, or remain in its neighbom^hood, been supposed to occupy 
the site of a more ancient town, or else to have been built in its 
hnmediate vicinity; and Somner, Battely, Sliliingfleet, and one 
or two other antiquaries, presuming on the incorrectness of the 
Itinerary, in this instance, with respect todmtance, havephioed 
here the Durolevum of Antoninus; but, judging from all the 
circumstances that have yet been advanced as to the identity of 
that station, the probability is, that it was really at Judde HiH, ia 
the Parish of Orspringe. That tlie Romans actually occupied th^ 
country in the vicinity of Newington, is, however, suffictendy 
proved, as well from the names of contiguous places, as from thie 
antiquities that have been discovered. The Wading Street unques* 
tionably crossed tlie Parish, either over, or closely adjacent to, 
the spot now occupied by the village: about three quarten of a 
mile fnrther eastward, is Key-Col Hill, from Caii CoUis: about 
a mile beyond that is Kty -Street^ from Caii Stratum; and scarce* 
ly half a mile to the south, from Key-Col Hill, is Standard Hill, 
which, from its name, must be allowed to have an undoubted 
connection with some military position. Add to this, that the le- 
cond field on the north of the high road from Key-Col Hill, which 
is also called Chesnut Hill,t has been long celebrated under the 
appellation of CrocAr-field, through the great abundance of Roman 
vesseb that have been dug up there ; that in the field adjoining to 
this, on the south-west, is a large artificial mount, with remains of 
a broad and deep foss; and that among the woods and cop- 
pices in the adjacent grounds, to the north and north-east, many 
traces of entrenchments may yet be discovered, though thickly 


* The name of Key Street was also given to the high road in the 
neighbourhood of Faversham, at least as early as the time of Edward 
the First, as appears from an ancient perambulation of that date, quoted 
by Jacob, in his Hist, of Faversham, p. SO*. 

t Hasted'! Kent, Vol. II. p. 561, Note, h. 



Itippearfi ftom llie leained Casauboirs notes to his transIatioD 
of tbe £mpcror Marcus Antoniauss Medilatiotts, that m^iiy hun- 
dnrdf of Roman Urns, pots, ami otiier vessels of drift' rent kinds, 
iMlofill KJDrs and fashions, were d\x^ up iit Crack-Jtctd about the 
beginoing of the refgii o( Cliartes the First. Not only, he renmiksi 
ma the dbcovery of such great numbers of vessels^ in so small a 
compos of ground, remarkable, but also the manner of their \y- 
iog in tbe ground ; *' for those who bad been present at tlie digging 
•f (iiein up^ observed f that where cue great um had t)een found, 
rmil lesser vessels hud been likewise; some of them within the 
ps^ cute, and others round about it ; each covered either with a 
pfopr co?cr of the like earth as t!ie |>ot8 themselves were, or else 
more coarsely, but very closely stopped up with other earth. In 
ill Ibese unis, of every m.e^ nothijig has hitherto been found, but 
horn wad ashes; aud «»omc4inie5, indeed^ only clear water /^ Hound 
the upper part of one of the large urns, of a globular form, waa 
air insrription, partly defaced, but of which the words SEVEKIA-* 
[>CS PATER could still be traced. Another vessel, that was dug 
here, and afterwards came into Uie possession of Dr. Batlcly^ 
I sutiiciently capaicipus to contain six quarts: it had four handles 
' the mouth, from which circumstance, and from the inside be* 
I gkzed, the Doctor imagined that it had l>een intended to con- 
wine. Some of these urns had only one bundle, others two. 
Hit the greater part was without. ** The great numbers of urns/* 
'wyn Halted, *^ and the fragments of th^m found at this place, 
from time to time, liave been dis}>ersed among the curious through- 
out the country; many of whom have, through curiosity, aud a 
for antiquarian knowledge, dug here for that pur]:)0se. 
last Earl of >N inclielsea searched here ^tiveral times for them 
pilli aticoes^ and had a numerous collection of tliem." From the 
't€iy great quantity of tJiese vessels that have been dug up in this 
lidd, many per^on^i have sup^msed that the Romans had a Pottery 
here; yet surely, that is su^ciently disproved by Casaubon'si asser* 
lioiif that ** of the many hundreds of the lesser sort, scarce any 
have been found of one and the same ujakiiig/' This wrilcr him- 
self concludes^ that it was •* a common Buria!-piace for tlie Ro- 

<^ KBNT* 

: U the time bf Edwaiid the CoiAmof, tflb JMEttior, which » 
aubordinate to tliat of Mflton, b do aged to EcKtlMiy Us Qttecna 
but at the time of mduDg the Dometdsy Survey, k was heU of 
the Conqueror by his Chaplain, Albert* Som^ time afterwanb^ 
it formed parcel of the posseasioiii of a N.UNMKRy tbirt waa 
founded here ; but the Prioresa ka?ing beeu stranglad in ber bed, 
as supposed, by one of the Nuns, the Manor was seiatd by the 
Kbg, and the remaining Nuns r emofed to Ihe Isle of Sbepey. 
After which, says Hasted, *' Henry the Second, by the | 
Off Archbisliop Thomas Becket, placed in their room beae, 
Priests as Secular Canons, and gave them the whole of the ] 
and as a further increase of their niaintenaDoe, twwty^eigbt wiafgbt 
•f cheese from liLs Manor of Middleton. After this, one of tiieae 
Canons having been murdered, four of his brethieo were Ibund 
guilty of tlie crime, and tlie two others acquitted.*** The manor 
was then divided; two parts being granted by the snrvhriDgGttiQiia 
to the Abbey of St Augustine, at Canterbury; and the lemaiaiqg 
five parts, which afterwards obtained the name of the Manor of 
Lucies, to Richard dc Lucy, Chief Justiciary of Engtaod. Ob 
the Dissolution, the l^ianor of Newiagtooybecame vested io the 
Crown. William the Third finally granted it to the Lord Keeper 
Somers, in whose representatives it is still vested.. In the tioK of 
Queen Elizabeth, a weekly market was held here; but this baa 
been discontinued beyond memory. 

The Chtirch is dedicated to St. Mary, and stands oo a rising 
ground about half a mile from the viUage, in a kind of bay, sur- 
rounded by hills, finely covered with woods. At the west end is 
an embattled tower, tessekited with squared flints and rag-stone, 
and forming a good specimen of that mode of masonry. The 
principal diancel is separated ftom another on the north, by two 
plain ])ointed arches, the pier between which exhibits an interesting 
example of the architecture of the Norman ages, and of the -mixed 
style which immediately succeeded it, in its mouldings and capitals. 
In the south chancel b a very curious coffin-shaped tomb of firee- 


^ Ilasicd's Kent, Vol. II. p. 550, Fo. 



, covered witli a slab of dark grey marble : each sitle disptays 
! <ieeply-rece59ed pointetl urches, wilb trefoil heads : one of the 
b open tbrowgh the tomb: for whom this was erected is 
Several of tfie Ha^tds, of ihc fknnU of (he laborious 
I of this coonty, lie buried here. The Font has an oehtgo- 
j»l coreriag, which b reniarkable from bcrng of the bcaufet kiod, 
^Icw only of this fomi now remamrnqj, 

^ The Chtirch at LOWER HALSTOW, k a small mean edifice, 

«laodmg: m h mound on the borders of tfie M;irsheft, and only re- 

-^Dukalik from the numerous pieces of Kotnan tile that arc worked 

^ in the tower fmrts of the watts. In this pari^^h is STANDGATE 

-^^REEK, the lower end of which, near its junctioti with the Med- 

way, b the station which has been assigned by Government lor 

"the performance of ^uaraniint. Here all vessels arriving from fo- 

ie%ti countries infected with the plague, or other contup'oiis di»> 

•ordersy are obliged to stop, and to comply with tJie necessary r^«* 

latioiis made to pre\'ent the spreading ol' infection. The Hospitiil 

ihip§ are the hulks of two large fbrty*four gun ships, called Luza^ 

ratof, on l>oard which tlie goods and merclmndife sus[>ected of 

iMrbotttki^ the putrid miasma^ are removed and aired ; tiie res[ieo- 

tif« cfewtt of the detained vessels arc prohibited from going 011 

iibore^ till ttie expiration of the time assigned by tlje proper oflkexs 

ibr tlie duration of quarantine* 

BOBBING, a subordinate Manor to Milton, was forn^rly held 
hy the ancient family of Savage, or Le Sauvage, who possessed 
Itfge estates in this part of Kent, and of whom Ralph de Suvngc 
tecompanied Richard the First to Palestbe. lu tiie fifth of Ed- 
ward the Second, Roger de Savage obtained liberty of tVoeAvaffen 
fSsr Ibtt and his other estates in the neighbouring parislics. In hk 
A s em d mts it continued till the deulti of Sir Arnold Savage^ iu the 
rcigii of* Henry the FiOh, when it was conveyed iu marriage, by an 
lietr female, to William Clifford, Esq. of a younger hianch of the 
Lofds Clifford, whirh had been previously settled at B^ihbing 
Plaiee, in this Parish. This gentleman was Sheriff* of Kent m the 
Ibtirtb and tliirteenlh of Henry the Sixth, as were srvrral of his ilc- 
toendaiots in dilierent reigns : the heirs of this fknuly alienated it ui 
2 the 

692 KENT. 

tlie reign of James the First, since which it lias had' many pnatti 
sors. Robbing Couat, the ancient residence of the Sanige% 
has long been m niins.» The village con&bti only of a few hotnesJ 
The Church is dedicated to St. BartholomeWy and, among other 
ancient meniorials in the principal chancel, has a ihd> mhud widi 
two curious Brasses, under rich canopies, in memory of Sir ARf> 
NOLD Savage, Knt. and Joane, his Lady: the former is in plate 
armour, standing upon a lion, and wearing a lielmet, gauntlets, 
sword, dagger, and spurs. He died on the vigil of St Andrew the 
A|x>stle, (Nov. 290 "' ^^^^ J^^ 1410, having been Sheriff of Kent 
in the fifth and ninth years of Richard the Second: in the sateeoth 
of the same reign he was made Constable of Queenboroogfa Cat- 
tle; and in the reign of Henry the Fourth, he was twice appointed 
Speaker of the House of Commons; he. was likewise a Privy Coun- 
sellor to that Sovereign: his Lady is in the dress of the age; and 
at her feet are two lap-dogs, phiviiig with the folds of her drapeiy. 
In the south wall of this chancel is a Piscina, and a triple Sioneaeak^ 
with trefoil-bedded arches, the extreme mouldings of which, on 
each side, tcrmuiate in corbel heads of a Bishop and a Monk. In 
the north chancel is a Brass in memory of Sir Arnold Savage, 
Knt son of the above, who is habited in complete armour, timilar 
to his father, and b also standing upon a lion, betieath an elegant 
triple-headed canopy, the vaulting of which is decorated with 
escallops. Round his neck is a collar of SS; but his head, which 
appears to have been supported by a helmet and mantle, has been 
forcibly pulled up: he died on the < festival of the Nativity of the 
Blessed Virgin,' 1420. In the south aisle is a handsome monu* 
nient in memory of Charles and Humphrey Tufton, sons 
of Sir Henry Tuflon, Knt. of Maidstone: the former died in l652; 
the latter in 16*67. The deceased are both represented by Bustt 
of white marble, well executed. The notorious Titus Oates, tlie 
discoverer of the Popish plot, in the reign of Charles the Second^ 
was Vicar of this Parish ; to which he was mducted in the year 
1672, but afterwards resigned. 

1 lie Church at BORDEN, which is dediciited to St. Peter and 

St. Paul, has a massive Norman tower, with a circular arched dooiw 

I way 



irtfUttbc we^ »de, with a mg-tsLg monUing: this tower aliio 
fifm to Itie oa^e by a round arch, similarly ornamented. Iti this 
Cluvdl 10 the btiriaUpIfioe of the family of Piot^ whose ancestors 
not! settled tii the tieigtibouring P<«rish of Stockbury in tiie reign 
oTEdwtrd the Fourth, and of whom Dr. Robert Plot, the 
eMrated natural hlitorlan of Oxfordshire and Stafford shire, was 
boTD, iod died, in Borden Parish, in tlie Manor-House of Si;t- 
Tox Baron, wliicb estate had been purchased by hii grandfather^ 
10 ibe tecoad year of Qtieen Elirabetfi. 
Da. Plot was born in the year l^lrJ, and having received the 
Its of lin edncation m the Grammar-School at Wye, in this 
Hy, be was etjlered a Student al Magdalen Hall, in 0\ford, 
iMt dtegwi pds removed to University College, in the same city, 
Heie Ui iipf^icafion to study being unremitted, he commenced 
BHbckir^ mniA iifierwnrds Doctor of Laws in l67l. His repula- 
lioi for Icariiiifg having obtained him many friends, he was elected 
iettnetary to the Royal Society, and lie published its ' Tntnsactions* 
fionNo. 143 to l6(), inclusive. In l683, he was appoiotcd the 
init Keeper of the A^hmolcan Museum ; and at the same time he 
mi aomtnated the first Profe^or of Chemistry in the University 
ofOiford* In l688, he was made Royal Historiographer to 
hmm Ibe Second: in 1695, he was apj>ointcd Mowbray Herald 
E^lnM>rdinar>' ; and two days afterwards, was made Re^stiar of 
the Court of Honour. He died of the stone, on the thirteenth of 
April, in the following year, and was buried with his progenitors 
bftorden Church, where a neat nmral monument has been erected 
10 b memory. Besides hb published works, he left behind him 
•wnal Tsluable wriltngs, which are still in manuscripf. His 
bovrkdge as a naturalist was very eminent ; though some of his 
ttnHtioas appear to hai*e been made on insufficient evidence. 

BitBDGAR gave name to an ancient family, who resided in this 
Pimh Hi tiie time of Henry the Tliird, and one of wliom, Robert 
dc Bredgar, who was Rector here in the sixteenth of Richard itiB 
Secxmd, ami others, founded a small College in the Church, for 
tCbi|i)a^ and tv»'o secular Clerks, or Con-freers. This continued 
till tU Dissohition, when the endowments were seized by tlie 
Vol. VII, Nov, iao6, Yy Crowa; 

Crown; and Queen Kllxabelli aflemards granted them, with other 
possessions, to the Sec of Caiilcrbur>\ in lieu of other estates. la 
the north aisle of rhe Church, h a *lab inlaid with a Brris<t, in me- 
morv of Thomas tW<r, * aiionUm cuBtoUte cotfr(jii m KiinitSLi t>c 
^reHflare*, who died in Deremberi 1515, and is represented hold- 
injj a rhalice over liis !*rea5t. The west door-way of the tower has 
a Saxon arch, witl» zig-zng om^^ments, and singular sculptures «f 
humfiii heads on the capitals of the pillars. 

1*UNSTA!>L was anciently the properly of Osw'ald, a Saxon of 
rank, who had large possessions in Kent in the time of Edward 
the Confessor, and was also Sheriff of the county. Williani the 
Conqueror griinled it lo Bishop Odo, of whom, at the period of 
making the 0onies<1a\ Survey, it was held by the potent Hugh dc 
Port, Baron of Busin;;, in Hampshire, w ho, after the disgrace of 
Odo, became its chief Lord, and 4itlached it to his principal Ma- 
nor, to which it continued stibordinate for several centuries. TUe 
estate itself, however, passed to its mesne Lords, of tite name of 
Arsic, one of whom sold this ^fanor, about the end of the reign 
of King John, to tlie celebrated Hubert de Burgh, Chief Justict ©f 
England, and Earl of Kent. His grand-daughter, Margaret, con- 
veyed it in marriage to the famous Sir Sle4>lieu de Peuchester, 
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, wliosc daughters, one of whom 
had married Sir Henry de Cobhani, of Randel, and the other, Sir 
John de Colunihers, became seized on the death of their niotber. 
Sir Henry de Cobham having purchased the nKiiety belonging to 
bis wife's «iis»cr, the entire t*!e became vested in hb iainily; but it 
was afterwards alieuatcfl, and passed in marriage, with tlie daugh* 
fer of Tlionias de Bfotlierton, Earl of Norfolk, mid Mareschal of 
England, to Sir Walter de l^lanny, who was made Knight of itie 
Garter by Edward the Third, for his eminent services during the 
wars in France. At^er his decease, it descende<1 to Ann, bb 
daughter and heiress, then married lo John, son of Lnurence Has- 
tings, Earl of l*envbr<7ke, *roni whose family it passed, in default 
of tlirect heirs, lo Re*rinald, Ltjrd Grey, of Rulhtn, who afterwards 
Bold ii to Sir Robert Knoilys, KnL and by him it was conveyed to 
Sir William Crowmcr, or Cromer, Knt. who was Lord Mayor of 
2 London 



KEKT, 89s 

LoqJoo in tl*€ yenm 1413 smci 1423, ^^llliatn Cromer, Esq, his 
soQ ^nd hdr, who vvas Sheriff of Kent in the Iwenry-lbtrd of Henry 
tkSixlhf inarried Elfzabeth, only daugbtef of Sir James Fi^noes^ 
Lord Sav and Sele^ an aUJance that proved lite occasion of hii 
imh ; for tbe insui^ents under Jack Cade beheaded him at Mile'^ 
ct4 m Jdly* 1 450, and afterwards rarried \m head upau a poI«| 
together with that of the Lord Say, hb father-in bw, (whom they 
bd barBarouiily massacred in Cheapside,) b procesJiionp and at 
leagtli &ted them npon London Bridge. In hU descendant s. se* 
veral of whom were Sberifii of Ketit in diflt^rent reigns, it contj- 
naed tiU after tlic znarriiige of Chri^stian, voungest dangbter and 
co-heiress of Sir James Cromen to John, eldest son of Sir Edward 
Hiles^ Bart, in the year 1 6:2 4-, and in I lis family it stiU continues. 
The aocient Manor^boixse of tbe Cromers, whicls stood about a 
i|Dnter of a mile ^m tlie Church to the souths was begun to bf 
je^Molt by the last Sir Jatxies Cromer, on a very magnlticent plan | 
but on hi5 deatii, the work %vas stopped, and the materials are 
Slid to have been purdta^ by Sir Robert Vyner, for tlie purjjose 
of conveying tliem to London, to erect his dwelHng^ house (now 
the GeneraJ Post-Office) in Lombard Street.* 

Tbe Oivrchj which is dedicated to St. John Baptist, was tl:e 
htrrial-filac-e of the Cromers, as it has since !icen of the Hales ta- 
mtly ; and Uie windows contaju various coats of arms of Uic for- 
mer, and their alliances. Among the monuments, are those of 
SiE James Cromer, Knt. who is represented, together with 
in wife, and their four daughters, praying before an altar; Sir 
£oWard Hales, Bart, who died in October, l654, in his seventy- 
eighth year, and whose figure, in white marble, arrayed in arniouri 
ii icpresented reclining on his left arm, on an altar-tomb; and 
Doctor Robert Cheke, of tbe ancient family of the Chekes, of 
Blood Hall, in Suffolk, who died in July, 1647. 

Edward Rowe Mores, M. A. and F. S. A. the author of 

* tbe History and Antiquities of Tunstall,* and of several learned 

Y y 2 works 

• Tlie above particulars of this Manor are condensed from * The Hist. 

axid AntiquUies ef Tunstail/ by the late Kdward Rowe Mures. 

«9S kimr. 

voikf on aii(M|iiily and topognplqrt 

libraries, was b(mi at the lUctoij HoMe ife tUi F^^ 

1730. He received the eaiiy part «f !■§ adnoaiiaa ^MmAtm M 

IViylon' Sdiool; bat b June, 1746, was adviltod a CoaaMMH^:^ 

Queea's Colk^ Qifofd. He becaae my earijr dMvMtil A 

(br his learning and applicatiaa, and waa iodeirtigaMi 

collections; though, in the latter paitof bislife. Ids 

dustiy gave way to pursuitB gf d i s s ip a tkw, which aia ai||pMll^ '^ 

have shortened hb days. He died at his faonae al Loar Ltj^m, k 
Essex, (which be had himself ercscted on a w i iiBBskal pian^ imwtk 
estate bequeathed to him by his father,) m Novembert 177S« fee- 
was descended, on the female side, Aom Sir ThoattM Bmt% Liiii 
Mayor of London in 1568. The Eqoilable Socistj ftr Ammamm 
on Lives and Sorvivordiip, the office of whieh is now as Bmifj^ 
Street, Blackfiian, owes its eiisteace lodiis genl 
it having been previously suggested by Mr. JatnealMbottp 1 
aiatical Master at Christ's Hospital« 

SnriNGBORNE isa hvge and respectable porttowo, \ 
im the high road to Cauterbuiy, and contahring 
inns for the accommodation of travellers ** The 
says Hasted, '^ boast much of John Northwood, £sq. of Naitii- 
wood, having entertained King Henry the Fifth on his 1 
xetum from France, at the Red Lion Inn in this town; and I 
the entertainment was plentiful, and befitting the royalty of Ua 
guest, yet such was the difference of the times, that the whole cs» 
pence amounted to only 9s. 9d. wine being then sold at two-p«Doe 
a pint, and other.articles m proportion.*^ Several oth«B of oar 
Kings have also been entertained here; and, at « respecbrible &- 
mily house near the middle of the town, since converted into an 
liiD, but then the property of the Lushingtons, of Rodmorshaaiy 
George the First, and Second, constantly lodged, during their pi^ 
gress to, and return from, their German dominions«t 

Queen Elizabeth, by charter, dated m Hbr sixteenth year, incor- 
porated Sittiogbome under a principal officer, called a Guardian, 


'* Hilt, of Kent, Vol. VL p. 152. 8vo. f Ibid. 




^■bnd * \ht fifce tensmts tbtfcof :* at the same time she gmntecl tfi^ 
^■^baiUJtaols S w^eeklj Aiarket, atid two fmm anuudtfy. Atiother, 
BItel -MOPi ample dunter was bestowed hy thh Sovereig^n in her 
fert^-flnl year, wtiicb chaDged the style of the corj>orate otficers 
iiilo timt of * a Mayor aiid Jurats ;* and» anioiijej otiier privilej^es, 
fmpowered tke Mihabitants to return two Members to Pariiiimeiit. 
From Bomc ciuse, thnt does not eppear, ttic pririleges of this 
dwrt^r were never exercised ; aiid tlie itiarkel itself, after a few 
"j^eais, was discontinued. The fairs aie still Jiehl : ilie Hrst on Whit- 
l^onday, and the two foHowiifg dayi^ for linen and toyj; the 
^tl^r^ em the tenth of Octotier, ^nd four days succeeding^, for 
■IhlU, clothes^ woollen, hanlnare, &e. fjart of the second day is 
approfvrialed lo the hiring of senrants.* 

The Church is a spacious edifice, de^Jiciiled to St. Mkhael, mn- 

prineipalty of three aish-s, a chancel, a north and south 

and a tower at the west emi. Tliis fabric, with lhc€xce|> 

^m «f tht tower, has been rebuilt since the year 17^'2, when au 

^mfcntal 6 re, occastoned by the nei^lect of some plumbers, who, 

ktWIc lepairing ttie leads, had lefk their fire burning during dinner- 

foftstuned all the other parts of the Church but the bai-c 

The expense was partly defrayetl by a brief, and |>nrtly by 

Hm vehiatary contributions of the inhabitants, assisted by the gilt 

if dAy |»UB(k from Arc :hbii*hop Seeker. Most of the monumeuts 

nm diatroyed^ and tl>e grave^stones on the tJoor broken : even 

tbose that cscapcfl damage, were afterwards so capriciously reniov- 

td by the workmen, that, with the exception of the nieuioriaK of 

the LushingtonSf in the south-east chancel, scarcely one of them 

CM iie saki to cover tlie remains of tlie person whom it was in- 

'Iwled lo cominemomte. In the north wnll of Hie north chivfiel, 

alWi belongs to tlie Manor of Ba^fonl, in this Parish, is a curiou* 

•iicitnt Momtmefit, consisting of a table-slab of Betliersden njaible, 

lijifiiij^* over it an obtu?iel%^pointed arch, ornamented with quiilrefoil 

cotupurtflieots, contaiuii^ heads, shields, iteurs-de-Hs, tScc. In 

^ necn beneath the table, is an emaciated figure of a female, 

ry 3 iji 

Iliitory of Kent, Vol* VL p» li>3, Svo, 

69B K£irr. 

b a winding sfaeet ; one hand is placed upon ber kft breast, wUdi 
if greatly enlarged ; and acroass her body lies an infiuit swatted: 
at her feet are two skulls* For whom this figure was in 
unknown ; it is probable that the pecuUaiity of sculpture 
to some particular event, or disease* which led to tbe death of 
the jK-rson represented. Among the monuments destroyed by the 
fire, was that of Sir Richard Lovelace, who was Marshal q|f 
Calais in the reign of Henry the Eighth. The Font b octagonal, 
the angles being ornamented by buttresses. The upper compart- 
ments are decorated with flowers, or foliage, and shieki$ in alter- 
nate sucession : on tlie first shield are the emblems of the Cruci- 
fixton ; on the second, the anus of Canterbury, impaling the anna 
of Archbishop Arundel; and on the fourth, a cross patonce. 

Henry de Sandford, Bishop of Rochester, in the reign of Hen* 
ry the Third, whilst preaching in thb tow;n, in the year 1231, 
" braste foorth," says Lanibard, from the Chrouides of Rudbome 
and Matthew of Westminster, ** into great joye, as a man that 
had beene rapt into the third Ueven f and averred, that it had 
been then, fur the third time, revealed to hunself and another 
man, that of late, three persons had, on tlie same day» been freed 
from Piq-gatory: and that those persons were King Richard tbe 
First, Archbishop Langton, and one of his Grace's Chaplams! 
The population of Sitthigbome Parish, as returned under the 
Act of 1800, was 1347; the number of houses 200: many of the 
latter are handsome brick buildings. 

Lewis Theobald, the poet, and dramatist, whom Pope, 
with more wit than justice, ha« satirized in the Dunciad, was the 
son of an eminent attorney of this town. His edition of Shake* 
^are, with all its defects, displays great knowledge of the sub- 
ject; and though Pope censured his attempt with all the aqpetity 
and petqlance of his own character, considerable praise u due to 
him, for his able elucidation of many parts of Shakespeare's text, 
and for his manly aim at restoring the purity of the whole : he 
died in September, 1744. 

At BAYFORD, near Sittiugbome, on the north, are some re- 
ina'ms of an ancient Entrenchment, which King Alfred b stated to 


KENT. 099 

%l«f« thrown up wlicn engaged in repressing the incorsiotis of 
llaBCitig9« the Panish Chief, about tlic year 893. Tiiii pJace be- 
ClOK afterwards the sile of a Casde, uhidj, in lt»etimeof Edwsird 
fbe First, was tUe M^at of Robert de Nottifigham, who dates se\^* 
fal of bis deeds apud Castdlnm $uum dc Buj/faid apud Goodneston, 
Bm detcetidant, Robert de Nottingham, was Sheriff of ibis county 
b tbe forty-eighth of Edward ibc Tbird; Tiie «tale of Biiytbrd 
Oitle is DOW a tknn. 


Ancieiitl^ called Mldlctun, and Middlclon, is a town of remote 
Oligtn, wliidi fonifed panel of llie deme:^nes of the Saxon fChigs, 
and the fee of which cxiutuiKed to belong l<> the Crown till tlie 
rrign of Charles the First, It is prinriplly situuteil on the accJi- 
lifjf of a bilJy about half a mile from tlie htgh road, sloping down 
to a small credt, wbicb falls into Ific Swale, iil*out two miles to 
ike norlb-weivt. Tbe strt^ta t^rr imrrow, and badh paved: the 
ihla^tants are chiefly empk>\ed in ntaritinie pursuits, or engaged 
« tlie oysler, and other fisheries. 

The vicinity of thii town to the Swide, wlirch sf*|njTiifes the Isle 
cyTSbepey from tbe main land, was tbe cause of its being frequ en t- 
filunflered by tbe Danes, during their piratical incursions in The 
lib century* Here also^ it whs, that tli< ir velenHi ttiief Hast- 
<ende;i%*oured to estabh4i him&eif in the time of the brave 
; and the remains of* bts Encampment, or FartrcsWf is sdl) 
be «cen in llie tnarshes of Kemsley Downs, between Milton 
Chixfcb and the ntouth of the creek. It consists of a higli ntmpart, 
Old bfOftd dkehy inclosing a square area, I he sides of which are 
nearly ptrallet with the cardinal |K>inls of riie compass. It mea- 
sures about lOO feet each wxy, and has obt'^iined the name of 
C4»mlf' Rough, from its having been long overgrown with trees and 
1 Oiiderwood* 

I Milton is supposed to have originally stood in tlic neighbonrbood 

of iU Church, which is consiilcrably to the north of tbe present 
town; and near it the Saxon Kings appear to have liad a ihilace, 

S" was bunit, together with the towo, by Earl Ciodwyn, dur* 
V y 4 ing 

{TOO *KKlrr. 

NotwkiiitaadiDg this, BiiltoD ipfMHi to Iwfe bear t ite^ofMiK ' 
Aleiableiiiiportaiicelbrthetiiiif, Id tiie<farft«l'WiKHDtiMfC«ik 
qoerar, who, io the Doaietday Book, it leeordid lo 1mm ibm- . 
bddthcMmor, inwhkhwm «" thm bwlMrt arf oIm tiUH^ 
wbh aeYeoty-foiir bofderen, having om bawliod md tksif um^ 
drtes.'' There were also «< n inib of ddrty iiliilhigi JiUjIjIk 
sevea salt-pits of twenty-seven sfaiUings— 4hi|C]F-lw# fUbeiim 4(t 
twen^two shillings and eigfat-peiice-*«iid wood for the pannage 
of one hundred and twenty hogs.* It is probable, however, tint 
ip this statement are com|ndMnded the retains of the sevenl ad^ - 
jacent manon that were subordinate to Biiltoo; a coigeoture ibat» 
is corroborated by the sentence, ' JEcclas if decmas h^f m* imf 
abb* S'AuguUim:''^Tht Abbot of St, Augustine holds the Omrehn 
and tythes of this Manor* 

Though the fee of this Manor, as above stated, l anw i nfd vest* 
cd in the Crown till a late period, it was freqaently granted, for 
terms of years, or for continuance of life, to difierent personi ; 
and latterly, to the several Queens of this realm, in dower; ot 
others of the royal blood, who procured various privileges ibr Iho 
inhabitants. The grant of the mariset was obtained in tbetfaiiw ^ 
teenth of Edward the Second, by Queen Isabella, together with 
the liberty of holding a four days fair annually. In the survey oi 
the maritime places in Kent, made in the eighth of Elisabeth, tho 
number of houses were returned at 130; and of ships and vesstls» 
twenty-^x of which were under ten tons, and the krgest of the remain* 
der did not exceed twenty. The town is governed by a Portreeve,^ 
who is chosen annually on St, James's day, by such of the iobaU* 
tauts of the Parish as pay the church and poors' rates. The 
Market Bouse and iSAAf9<6/e« stand near the middle of the tiown;, 
andiit a small distance northward is the Cotari House^ an old tim* 
bered building, where the manor courts are kept, and other pub* 
lie meetings held : beneath the latter is the town Guol, 

The Church is a large and handsome fabric, dedicated to tbo 
Holy Trinity: it consists of two aisles, and tvio chancels, with a 
Qiassive embattled tower 9t the west endi^ which, together with Ibo 


is cQiiipowfl of flquvn^ii ibtt, bid i n 

tiK «u£ wiadow) are brge^ ami poiiittrd; tt^t of tbi m « 
rd is divkkd iuto fivr llglits, with niititfroiti rrorJiet 
other h>s four trefoil- ticii<kd Ughts beiow, witii tii iqp 

i|iatve&4l Ugbt» aboi't. In lb« loutJi iliaiK^l, or c i 

^fl™'y^ to the ancki»t fiitniiy of Nurthu;**o4if i^ a /'tJEriii«i, i 
^gm £ftop»e fcats, uiukr tb^ eaatautnoil ol' wkkili Ji n moiiiiiu«oi 
Pftwortk mMhht, witli BratxM of llomat Attfc^ ^ho dif^ 
l^il^ isd tib wife Margurei* iiere b ajio an aitcivsti U 

nffOQfid«d wilb sqiarc eomi — ' 1>, coiit"^"' '-* ds of » 

SI qiBlTi*fail!i : Uii* was pro lor Sir joun I^ortoh, 

dkd ia Lbc ^ear 1534. On m in tlie mifldk of ifii* clii 
ahu, ttfC Erases of a Knigh n nis Lad^ : Urn ^rmcr is in 
wamsmtf ftaodiDg on a gr^ytiound, and hai ou it tabard of 
di^il^yillg, ermioe, a cross cngraiJedt sable : from them ar« 
ii pfobabk, that tbif lutinonal was iuteitdcti ior Sir 
KoETUWOQDf KaU Hbo wa& CoDitrable of Qui'eubomugh 
m tilt ^nt of Edward llie Fontlbt nud wbo wai buried b«f « in uw 
tviclAb oli* Heni7 tbe S«T€iitb. 

The miiuber of bouKK la Uiis Famlj, as mtunied midcir tbf Pa* 
fKilatiAo Act, was 32^; tiial of uibabitanti, 2D56, The %jf^ 
J\ '. / fuEuiJies the jiriucipal source of trrapki\iiieut to I he liillrr^ 
and has done so ibr many centuries. In the reign of King John, 
the right of this fishery, in the Manor and Hundred of Milton, ap- 
pears to have been granted to tbe Abbey at Faversiiaiu, to which 
it appertained at the Dissolution ; but becoming again vested in tbo 
Crown at that period, it was granted, with tbe Manor, in the tenth 
of Charles the First, to Sir Edward Brown, and Christopher FavelK 
From them, both the Manor and Fishery passed through some in« 
leimediate possessors, to Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and 
Montgomery'; and from that period they have both descended 
llurough the same owners. Tbe Fishery, however, is held ou 
lease by a company of Free Predgers, who are governed by their 
own particular rules, or bye-laws, made by ancient custom at the 
Court-baron of the Manor. Tlie oysters produced from the 
grounds within tiie limits of the Fishery, are in great request, un- 
d«r tbe name of JNaiive Miltons: their flavour is particularly rich. 



702' KENT. 

There are four wharfs belongmg to this town ; and coosideraUe' 
quantities of com, and other produce of the neighbouring coootiy, 
are annually shipped here for the London markets, goods of cfeiy 
kind being freighted in return. 

In the western part of this Parish, ** are several hondred acre^' 
of coppice-wood, which adjoin to a nmcfa kuger tract of the like 
aorty extending southward for the s|iace of five miles. These 
woodsy especially those in and near this Farish, are noted for the 
great plenty of Chemut stubs interspersed promiscuously through- 
tfut them, and which, from the quick and straight growth of ttb 
kind of wood, is very valuable. These are so numerous as to oc» 
casion the woods to be usually called cbesDut woods; and in a pre* 
sentraent made of the customs of Milton, m 1575, it b nientioDedy 
that the occupiers of the three mills holdeo of the Manor, should 
gather yearly, fox the Lord of it, nkie bushels of * ehaienottet/ in 
ChesnoU Wood, or pay eighteen-pence by the year to the Queen, 
who had then the Manor in her own hands, and was possessed of 
300 acres of cbesnutt wood within this hundred. Many of the 
chesnuts interspersed throughout this tract, have the appeannoe of 
great age; and by numbers of them, which now seem woia out, 
and perbhing^ being made use of as the temtim^ or boundaries, as 
well of private property as of parbhes, it b plain that they were 
first pitched upon, in preference to others, for that purpose, 
as being the largest and roost ancient ones of any then exbting : 
and as these are hardly ever cut down or altered, they must Imve 
stood sacred to thb use from the first introduction of private pro> 
perty into thb kingdom, and the first divbion of it into parishes.** 
In the Marshes in the north-west quarter of thb Furish b a Decoy 
for Wild fowl, great numbers of which are taken annually, and 
principally sold in the London markets. 

NORTHWOOD, an extensive Manor m MOton Parish, whidi 
had also the addition of Chasteners, from the great quantity of 
chesnnt trees growing indigenous in the adjacent woods, was 
granted to Stephen, son of Jordan de Shcpey, who lived in the 
feigns of Richard th^ First and King John, and being desirous, 
^ys Philipott, to '< plant himself out of the Island (Shepey) io 

'» Hist, of Kent, Vol. V I. p. 170. 8vo. 

pbce not ^r distaut, built here a I^tumiati-tioiiit, moafi 
I, and a goodH iw^ll- wooded |mrk, nii^riHl wilh fiteyty of df>er 
aiKL wfld hoar^; and h)id licrn^ tToin liie Arc ick|» of' Qiiiii^i^ 
bim\ aiHd religious iwen of CKrist Cliujrch, ta < ii :c Cli 
^hkii s^nie old people lierea}H>ttt, ulio rtfttietii i h 

cliiiiiig ngc, described lo m^ tliiher to tic a euj »iu<i piece 
tcctitre for form and beaury/'* Tliis Sleplwn ji$«iiine<l iii« 
D€ Northiood, or Northwo<U; and Roger di; Nurtlmood, lii 
occttr? in tlie Ihl of Keotisb gctiilemeit who *i |ei 

Rkk&rd tbc First at tb . h 

lies buried io Ihe Cburcl ^t^ , .^i I « 

Im wflc:, by VI horn be b ^ de Norlhwooil, i 

adbeTEOl to Henry the Thircij aitii wit", ui the fort>*fir»t til 
£oTerei§i]f procured ihe tenure of \m biidii in Kent, to be d 
6offl] GaveJ-jdnd to Knight s service. His son and sue 
John de NortEmood, accontpankd Edusird Ibe First t^ 
«ad w^kfi kniglited at the de^ of CarlH^erock. He wai 
Jkoft, in the twentieth, fwenty-eigtitbp thlrty-tlnrd, aL» 
fouttlif of the same reign ; and in that of Ed want the ^c^m 
Gclied summons to Pdrtianient from the i»iKlb to tlie twet] j^,^ 
^f tbe la tier Sovereign: several of his defendants bad ai&o ibe 
same booor: but at length tbe male line of ihb bjuneb of the £^ 
iPiK becoming extinct in the reigu of lU'un llie Eiglithj tfiis IVI^ 
nor was allotted, on a division of tlic inberitancey to a co-iiciresi^ 
thta the wife of Sir John Norton, Knt. who became possessed of 
it in ber fight* Thb gentleman was knighted in tiie Low Countriei 
by tbe Emperor Charles: be was SlicrifF of Kent in the fifth of 
Heoiy tbe Eighth; and on his death, iji 1534, was bmied in M3- 
tOD Church. The last of this family that resided at Northwood« 
was Sir Thomas Norton, Knt. who was Sheriff in the seventeenth 
of James tbe First: three years afterwards, he sold this IVlanor to 
Mana&ses North wood, Esq. of Dane Court, in Thanet, who was 
descended from a collateral branch of its ancient owners. His son 
sold it to Sir William Tufton, of Hotlifield, Bart, in the reign of 
^pharies the First; since which it has had a variety of possessors. 

• nUarc Cantianwn, p. 238. Edit. 1776. . 

yO« KBNT. 


X H E ISLE OF SHEPEY, with the two smaller Isles of Etrn^ 
fy and Harty, which it mcludes, is about thirty-two mites in cir* 
cumference, and contains the six Parishes of Minster, Queenbo- 
rough, Eastchurcby Warden, Leysdown, and Elmly. The nar- 
row arm of the sea called the Swale^^ which separates it from the 
main land, and is still navigable for vessels of 200 tons bortheo, 
was m ancient times considered as the Kifest, and as such, was the 
usual passage for shipping coming round the North Foreland into 
the Thames. When the Wanisume, which separated the Isle of 
Thanet from the rest of Kent, was also navigable, this channel, 
besides being the most sheltered, must have been likewise the 
most direct way from the Downs to London; but as that water 
became progressively choaked up by the sands, and as the increase 
in the size of ships enabled them the better to withstand the violence 
of the waves, the Swale was gradually deserted, and is now only 
used by the vessels immediately employed in the trade of this part 
of Kent. 

The Isle of Shepey was called by the Saxons Sceapige, as sup- 
posed, from tlie great numbers of sheep that were constantly fed 
here. The southern skirts are low and marshy, but the iuterior 
is diversified by small eminences. The cliffs, which extend to the 
direct length of about six miles, are principally composed of a 
loose friable marie, abounding in Pj/rites; and fossils, both native 
and extraneous : their greatest height, which is on the north side, 
is about ninety feet. At the east end is a long Beach, called Shell* 
yiess, from being entirely composed of the fragments of shells tlirown 
up by the sea. The cliffs belong to the three Manors of Minster, 
Shurland, and Warden ; the owners of whicli let .them to the cop- 
peras-makers, who employ tlie poor inhabitants to collect the Py* 
rita, or copperas-stones, which are continually washed out of the 


* This water, which it about twelve milet in length, appears to have 
been once considered as a part of the llamcs. 

dtt bj tlte foree of th€ waves; and are of fario^ fonns^ a£ i^te* 
r* botnoki, obtotig, <Scc^ Tlieir external covering is m ferru- 
coat; uritbin ihey are of & atmted lejittorc^ commoiily m- 
from a centre. Tti€ Ludi Helfnaniii also aboutid in tEieii 
b; tliej a?* b general af a compi^ssed fomi, from twelve iiicJm 
lo Civo ^t aod a lialf long, and covered with a thick crual of y^ 
day.* When I he chy h most letiaciau!!, Selcmta are 
of several varieties. Large noilules o( petrified w&od^ ro- 
tJse appeaniaoe and grain of oak, are hkewise met willi itt 
tlie ^iS^ Bod on the shores; as ivell ai a vast uumbcr of hruitii^ 
ntitfif l£c. hut as the^e ate always ^tumted with [>yrtticai matter, 
they -very ^loou fall to piec^.f Ammai remains have alao bco* 
fcKiad here of many diiTerent kinds; as the tljigh-boaes, tuski^ 
mad grinders of an elepbant ; t^o jipecies of tortoiaes ; the Ueadip 
tula, and peiates, of &»h ; the teeth and vertebras of sharks ; eral»ito 
lobster?, sheik, ^€4 

Tlie humidity of tlie atmospherei aiid tiie noxious vapours that 
sometimes urbe fioin the maz^bes, render the living In this Isle 
venr unpieasant^ except in the uphind parts, where tlie country u 
agreeably diversified by hill aad dale. Fre^h water is also extreme* 
ly i^aice, hardly auy part of Shepey having any supply but from 
ibe clou (Is; Sheerness aii<l Queen borough excepted, where tiie 
iohabitaiits are supplied from deep wells, excavated with great 
labor. The roads are good, owing to the large quantities of fine 
gravel, procured from the pits on the sea beach. The Isle is en- 
tered on the land side by means of three Ferries, two of whicB 


* These Pyrita were first used for the making of copperas in the 
time of Elizabeth: about the year 1579, one Matthias Falconer, a Bra- 
banter, •* did try, and drew very good brimstone and copperas out of 
certain scones gathered in great plenty on the shore near unto Minster.'* 
Many hundred tons of copperas are now exported annually. 

f One of the best ways of preserving them, perhaps, is to coat them 
over with a small quantity of the purest glue. 

J An account of these was published at the end of the Piantcs Favcr' 
sJmmi€nse9, by £. Jacob, Esq. of Faversham. 

t t 

Toff CBur. 

are for foot passengers and cattle ; tbe other w for carriages^ iioM% 
ftc The latter b called tlie King's Ferry, tud is the pumgt 
commonly frequented, it being cost-free to all traveUerii except^ 
ng oo Siuidays, on Pdni-Monday, Whil-Moiidi^, St StmeA 
Day, and Miclmelinas Day; and after eight o'clock «tii%iit The 
^expense of nmintaining it, together with the sea-wall, and whaif, 
and the higliways through the marshes^ is deAi^ed by aimisiMuU 
sade OD tbe occupiers of laodsy &c. The feny-boat is mofetf 
Ibrward by means of a cable about 150 fathoms in length, whidi 
crosses tbe water, and is fastened on each side. The Feny4eeper 
Ims a house to reside in, and has the exclusive piivflege to dvM^c 
far oysters, within the distance of sixty fathoms, oo each side tbe 

The very convenient situation of the Isle of Shepcy for the de- 
vastatuig pursuits of the Danes, occasioned it to be made tfaenrao- 
customed place of rendezvous; and they sometimes wmtered here 
during the course of the ninth century. The iiihabitaDts were thcQ 
but few, and chiefly congregated in the ndghbourhood of Moister, 
where Sexburga, wi<low of Ercorobert, King of Kent, had found- 
ed a Nunnery, which, atler being several times plundered by the 
mvaders, was at length, in a great measure, destroyed, and the 
Nuns dispersed. The large Tumuli in the lower, or southern, 
part of tlie Isle, and which are termed Coterds by the country- 
people, are supposed to cover the remains of difierent Danish 
diiefs, who were slain in battle during their piratical incursions. 
The years which lla^e been particularly recorded as those wherein 
these marauders were most active here, are 832; 849; 851 ; and 
854 :t in the year 1016\ King Canute is said to have collected the 
scattered remains of his army in this Isle, after his defeat in the 
Ticinity of Olford, by Edmund Ironside. SHEERNESS, 

^ For some particulars of the Agricuhure of the Isle of Shepey, tee 
p. 440, 441. 

f " The whole Isle," says Lambard, " was scourged by the Danes, 
whonic I may well call, as Attila, the leader of the like people, called 
himself, Flageilnm Dei, the whip or flaile of God, three limes within 
the space ot iwentic years, and a liitle more." 




The princi|val place in the Isle of Slicpcy, lliougli anly a cba- 
pelry to Minster, is now an important maritime and market town. 
It i$ stttiaLted at the extreme southern [loiiit of the Isle, and in t!ie 
fe%Q of Charles the First> was no more than a watery swamp, or 
morass; but being afterwaixls judged essential to the security of 
the river Mcdway, the entrance of which it eifectuaUy comnianda. 
It was fortified soon after the Restoration of Charles the Second* 
Go the breaking out of tlie Dutch w^r, as the Med way was tlien 
the grand station of the Royal fleet, tlie genei-al discourse tun*cd 
on ibc hnj>ortancc of this spot ; and the King is stated to have 
liiiiisdf uTidertaketi the erection of a strong Fort here ;' for which 
purpose, be made two jouroies hither in tlie beginning of the year 
/667, and having seen the work coinmencedf left it to be com- 
^J^ed under llie superintendence of his chief Engineer, Sir 3Iartia 
,0i«rkRian, and one of t)ie Commissioners of the Ordnance. From 
^t^^mt cau«? or other, however, the new works were still in a very 
t^»9i6nished »tate, when the Dutch made llidr memo ruble attempt 
tjms'^ti die shtfiping in the Med way, in the montli of June following, 
f__^ Illy tweKe guns were then mounted, and tlicse were soon si- 
I^ET-'Miced, and Ibe works beat to the ground, by the enemy s fleet; 
v«^ Aidi iinitiediately landed a uundier of men, who took |>ossessioii 
c^.'C the fort^ whilst tl>e fleet again we^^hed, and proieedcd up the 
^-2^^er. Had the activity of the Dutch been equal to their courage, 
|_:^^ fer greater mischief would bave been done than was really 
£::^9ected; but after destroying tlie shij^iing as high up as Upnor 
^"Taatle^ ihcy abaudooed the enterprise, and on their return, re-eni- 
%^^u1(ed the tmops wliich they had land^fKl here, and made sail for 
%%9€ co^sU of Essex and Suffolk, whicb they kept in alarm for some 
f itne. This event rendered the oecosity of a strong tbrtificatjon on 
tbis spot extremely apparent, and a regular fortress was imruedi- 
afH^ tmilt^ and mounted with a line of large and heavy cannon: 
at tlie same time, several smaller forts were constructed on the 


» Halted*! Kent, Vol IL p. 65%. fo. 


different sides of the Medway^ higher up, for its better defiaioew 
Since that period, the Fort of Sheemess lias been greatly ai^;iiieiit- 
ed and strengthened, new works have been added, and maoyioH 
provements made; so that no enemy's ship can now pass, without 
the haiard of being sunk, or blown out of the water. The garri- 
son is commanded by a Governor, a Lieuteoant-Govemor/a Fort* 
Major, and other inferior officers. The Ordnance bmnch estab-> 
Eshed here, b under the direction of a Storekeeper, a Clerk of the 
Cheque, and a Clerk of the Survey. 

Adjoining to the Fort is the Kintl^s Yard, or Dock, which was 
aot made tUl some years after the former had acquired a^great 
portion of its present strength. This Yard was principally in* 
tended for repairing ships tliat were but partially damagec^ and 
for building frigates, and smaller vessels, from forty guns down- 
ward. Tlie principal officers, are a Resident Commissioner, and 
his two Clerks, a Master Shipwright, and two Assistants, a Master 
Attendant, a Clerk of the Cheque, a Cleric of the Survey, a Stora- 
keeper, and others of inferior rank, as m the Dock-yard at Chat> 
ham. The Chapel is a modem edifice, erected at the expense of 
Government for the use of the garrison; but all marriages, buriabt 
and other ecclesiastical rites, are performed at the Church of Miii> 
ster. The civil jurisdiction, however, has been entirely separated 
from that Parish. The number of inhabitants within the Fortress 
and Dock-yard, as returned under the last Act, and independent 
of the soldiery, was 1422: the whole number, perliaps, including 
those who reside in the houses without the Fortress, and in the 
old ships of war which have been stationed on the shore as break' 
waters, maybe estimated at nearly 2000: the hulls of the shipa 
just mentioned, are occupied by about seventy or eighty families^ 
and altogether present a very singular appearance, the chimniea 
being raised of brick frem the lower gun-decks. 

For a long |ieriod, the garrison and inhabitants of Sbeemese^ 
experienced a great scarcity of fresh water, tlie chief supply beiqg 
brought in vessels from Chatham; but it was at length determined 
by the Board of Ordnance, that an attempt should be made to 
sink a fVcU within the Fort; and the execution of this was entrust- 
1 ed 



ed to Sir Thomas Hyde Page, an able engineer, wlioie sliitl and 
perseverance were found fully equal to the trust that had been re- 
posed in him. The preparation of the materials, and the boring 
to ascertain the different strata, were begun in April, 178 1; and 
the sinking of the Well was commenced on tlie fourth of June 
following. The land springs, &rc. whic!i greatly interrupled the 
progress of the work during the first 100 or 150 feet, were ex- 
cluded by regularly steking the inside of the Well ; till, at lengthy 
the workmen came to an immense stratum of chalk, which, pre- 
venting t!ie further necessity of steiniiig, enabled tlieni to proceed 
with 1&S inconvenience. They went on, however^ with great cau- 
lioti; and having dug to tlie vast depOi of 3*28 feet, the augur, 
Mrilh which they were trying the strata, dropt down, and the water 
rushed up with such velocity, that the workmen could hardly be 
drawn out with sufficient haste to escape drowning. In six hours 
it rose IS9 feet, and in a few days was witliiu eight feet of tJie 
rop; and has ever since produced a never-failijig supply; for, 
^ though constantly drawn out, it has never been lowered more than 
200 feet. The quality of the water is fme and soft, and its tem- 
perature is somewhat warmer than that commonly obtained from 
Oiber WclU. From this Well, conjointly with that at Queen* 
borough, not only the garrison, and the bhabitants, are supplied, 
but also the shipping ntucb he at anchor at the eutrance of the 

QUEENBOUOUGIf, a small borough-town, about two milei 

and a half to the south fronx Sheemess, was anciently called Cy- 

ninghurg, from belonging to the Saxon Kings, who had a Gastlb 

bere, near the western entrance of the Swale, whicii was afterwards 

denominated the CastU <\f SItcpcy. On or near tiie site of thU 

fortress, Edward the Third commenced a new, more extensive, 

and roagni^Gent Castle, in the thirly-sixth of his reign, and it was 

&iished about six years afterwards, * being raised/ as the King 

iiiruH' If informs us, in his Letters Pateut, bearing date on the tenth 

^f" May, iu hb forty-second year, * for the strength of the realm, 

ackd for the refuge of the inhabitants of this Isle/ The architect 

WittA the celebrated William of Wykeham, afterwards Bishop of 

H^^'iiicbcstcr, whose abilities, like those of Bishop Gundulph, of 

ToL. VII, Dec. 180^. Z % Eochester, 

710 KBSt. 

Rochester, were eqiiiilly adapted to the constructioo of wariike tm 
of ecclesiastical buildings. Wlien the Castle was completed^ Edr 
iivard came to inspect it, and resided in it several da3rsy during 
which time he made this a free Borough, and ordered it to be 
called S^ueen-boroui^h, in honor of his own Queen, Philippa of 
Haiuaulr. By his Charter of Incoq)oration, which bears dtitt in 
1366, he conferred sundry privileges on the Buigesses, and em- 
powered them to elect a Mayor, two Baili£, &c. annually, whidi 
officers were to take their oath of allegiance before the Constable of 
the Castle, and to act as Justices of the Peace within the liberty 
of the Corporation. He also granted them tlie h*berty of holding 
two markets weekly ; and three years afterwards, as if for tbe 
purpose of maintaining his own establishment, he appointed Queeiii- 
borough a staple for wool. 

The Castle does not appear to have ever been of particular 
use ; vet it was repaired in the second of Richard the Thud, and 
again ui tlie tune of Henry the Eighth, in the year 1536. It seems 
probable, also, that some further reparations were executed in the 
time of Elizabeth ; as Mr. T. Johnson, in his ^ Descripiio Itineris 
Plantarum InvcstiguiionU trgo suscepti in agrum Cantianum/ men- . 
tions that tlie top of a noble large dining-room, or hall, which he 
saw in the Castle, had round it the arms of the nobility and geii> 
try of Kent ; and that in the middle were those of Queen Eliza* 
beth, with tbe date 1593, beneath some highly panegyrical vctms, 
addressed to that Sovereign. 

In the survey of the Castle, made by order of the Parliament 
in the year l650, it is stated to consist of << twelve rooms of one 
rtinge of buildings below, and of about forty rooms from the first 
stor}' upward ; being circular, and built of stone, with six towers, 
and certain out-houses ; the roof being covered with lead : that, 
within the circumference of the Castle, was one little round court» 
paved with stone ; and in the middle of that, one great well ; and 
without the Custle, was one great court surrounding it : both court 
and Castle being surrounded with a great stone wall, and the out* 
side of that moated round, tlie whole containuig upwards of three 
acres of land.** It was also stated that '' the whole was much oat 


EEXT* til 

of fcpaift and do wb^ dtfeoure of the Caiiitnotiwealtk, m Uic 
bind OD ^bkh it £tcKi<lf being bttiU m the thne qf botog and ar* 
fmm; md that as no pbttbrm for t}it^ plantioj^ of cafinon could 
be Cfected on it, and it Iisviiig wo comujand of ihe sea* silthougb 
ttrar lutto it, it was not fit to be kept, but deitiolisbed } and th^t 
tiie maMcmh were worthy belies the charge of taktug dowti, 
t#9£L ra|4.** The Caslle was sooti »ilervrard^ sold, aiid imme- 
diaiilj cWmobalied ; but the moat tliat 3urro»JiiiJed it, aod the 
^£U, itill remaiu to point out iLs sife. Tbe latter, iwliicb Imd been 
putlj lilkd up mill rubbish, was roopened b^ order of tbe Com* 
mmmomrf% of the Naw in tlie year J725^ on ac<:ouat of tbe aear^ 
d^ of miar I bat exbted at Sbeemess, where uot any could tlien 
W obtiUDecl for domestic uses, but what was brought from Cbat- 
hagm^ On eleariog out tbe well, it wai found to be nicely steined 
I «i£b Portland stone to tbe depth of 200 feet, the diamete? being 
I imt feet eight inches^ Having fixed a truuk about four feet be^- 
: lov that, tbe workmen commenced boring through a very dofte 
cky, and, after tbrq« days and a halfs labonr, the iuguf 
ta it the depth of eighty-one feet niorr, when llie wnter 
itelj bnrst up, and kept gruduHlly rising dlJ, on tbe eightli 
d»t ^ ^^ attained to the height of V/^iHt: the quality waa 
^LcdleDt, smd it has Inniyied a very abundant supply erer since* 
li bas been computed that the bottom of this Weil is l66 feet, 
wod of tiiat at Sbeemess, upwards of 200 feet^ below the deepest 
part of tbe adjacent seas* 

This Borough affnrds a cujious proof of llie inequali^ of our 
Pafgamentary Representation ^ and how ill understood, or, if un- 
ikmood, bow much disregarded, the principles of popular right 
nnst !imt% been^ when it wus first summoned to return two Mem^ 
bers to Fajbament* Thii» took place in the thirteenth of Elizabeth^ 
sitQUl whidi time tbe number of " bouses Inliabited tti Queenbo- 
iMttb was only 25 ; and of |>ersons lacking habitation^ one.'* 
tD^ler tbe charter granted in the second of Charles the Mrtt^ the 
t^bl of electiofi was vested in the inhabitant Burgesses: but 
In «i icsolntiofi of the House of Gouimons, made in April, 17^9j 
it VM dcckrcd tb^t it re^^ided only in the Mayor^ Jurats, and 

7. z '2 Common- 


712 KBHT. . 

Common-couDcil. This resolutMo, however, is not vam observtd} 
and tlie Members are at present returned by the lllajfor, Jniii% 
Bailiffs, and Burgesses, whose number amounts to abbot 150: tbef 
patronage is in the Admiraltj and Board of Ordnance. 

llie Qkurch is dedicated to the Holy Trinity : it consisla of s 
nave and chancel, with a tower at the west end, of more ancieiit 
date than the body of the building: the mterior is neat It wav 
originally built as a chapelry to Minster, but has kmg been made 
parochial. The houses in Queenborough form one wide street^ 
principally of modem buildings : the mhabitaat^ are chiefly fisbei^ 
men, and oyster-dredgers. 

MINSTER derive» its name from the Minsire founded here fer 
Nuns by Sexbmga, widow of Ercombert, King of Kent. It was 
completed about the year 573, and richly endowed through the 
mterest of the foundress, who placed in it seventy-seven Nuns, and 
became the first Abbess ; but afterwards resigned that office to her 
daughter Ermenilda, and retired to Ely, where her sister Ethd* 
dred presided. This foundation was greatly oppressed, and at 
length nearly destroyed, by tlie IXmes ; yet, after their invasioiis 
liad ceased, it was again tenanted by a few Non8» and contiimed 
to exbt, though in a very mean state, till the year 1 ISO, whcs 
Cbrboyl, ArchUshop of Canterbury, re-edified the buildiogs, and 
dedicating them to St. Mary, and St. Sexburga, replenished then^ 
with Nuns of the Benedictine Order^ In the eighth of Richard 
the Second, the possessions of this Nunnery were valued at 139L 
] 4s. 8d. yet at the period of the Dissolution, its whole annual in- 
come was estimated at no more than 1291. 7s. l(4d. it then con- 
tained a Prioress and ten nuns only. Two years aAerwards, the 
site, and all the estates of the dissolved Nuimery, were granted* 
to Sir Tlioraas Cbeyney, Lord Warden and Treasurer of the 
King's Household, whose son Henry, afterwards knighted, and 
ereHte<l Lord Clieyney of Toddington, exchanged the Estate and 
Manor of Minster with Queen Elizabeth, who re-granted them to 
Sir Thomas Hoby, of Bisham, in Berkshire. His son, Sir Ed* 
ward Hoby, Knight, was made Constable of Queenborough 
Cnstle, where he resided, and died in I6l6 ; having previously 



b Manor to Mr. Henry Richards^ who bequeathed it to 
[briel Livesey, Esq. of Hoflingbonie, wliose soii^ Sir Michaitl 
y% conveyed it to Sir John Hayward, of HoUingbome-Hill ; 
9od he dyii^ in l630, left it» by will, dated in ihe preceding year, 
Iruit, for charifable uses. 

Scarcely aoy remains of the conventual buildings are now stsyid' 
:, but a Gate- House ^ and f^art of the Church: the !«llcr coii- 
drta of two ables, a chancel, and a neat chapel, uith the lower 
nf a square tower at tlie west end, crowned by a kind of 
It-house hyxte^ and opening to the north aisle by a pointed iirch. 
The entrance into tlie Church from the south porch, is under a 
li-circular arch, with Norman mouldings* In the sonth wnll of 
cbuticel is an ancient tomb, under a high pointed arcli, luiving 
a range of cinquetbil arches below the iimer mouldings^ risinj^ 
^m short columns, the bases of which are lions couchiint. Up- 
the tomb is the effigies of a Kitigfu Templar, recliiiinj^ on 1 115 
r and sliield, with his hand resting on a helmet, and Hi ^Is 
feet an armed page, much mutilated. Behind the Knight, to- 
wards, the back of the recess, is a fierfect horse's head, emeri^inor 
frotD tbe waves, as if in the action of swimming : the pinnacleiii and 
fiaiab, which crowned the upper part of the tomb, are broken off. 
k monument is stated to have been erected hi conmiemoration of 
a RoBEitT d«Shurland, Lord of Sluuland, in tbe Parish 
Eft^church, who was created a Knight Banneret by Edward 
First, for his gallant conduct at the siege of Carliiverock, in 
land. His tomb, says Phihpolt,* « is become the scene of 
h falsehood, and popotar error; the vulgar having digged oni 
[nf his vault, many \^ ild legends and romances, as namely ; that 
buried a priest alive ; that he swam on his horse Iw f» miles on 
sea to the King, who was then near this Isle on ship bnnrrli to 
hase his parrlon ; aiKl having obtained it, si/i'uin buck to the 
here l>eing arrived, he cut off the head of his said horse, 
it was atHrmcd, he Iiad acted this by niagirk ; and that 
^lidiag a bun ting a twelvemonth after, his horse stumbled, and 

Z z 3 threw 

horn s 

F feet a 

Villare Cantianum^ p. tli^. 

yi4 KKBT. 

threw htm on (be skull of hk fimner hone, which Mow so bruised 
him, that from that contusioD, he oootiacted an mward impogfu- 
^ration, of which he died." This tale of Phitipotfs has 8e?end 
variations, the principal of which is, ^ that, after the Knight i^ 
turned from obtaiumg the King's pardon for his crime, be lecok 
lected a prediction, that the horse which he then rode would oc- 
casion hb death, and, to prevent this, he drew hb sword, and 
slew the fdithftil animal that had carried him through the waves; 
but Aat long afterwards, seeing the bones bleaching on the ground, 
be gave the skull a contemptuous kick ; and having wounded his 
foot by so doing, the wound mortified, and his death followed,** 
That the horse's head on the tomb, alludes to some partkular 
circumstance in the Knight's history, is extremely probable, though 
these wild relations obscure^ the tnitli. Philipott imagines it to 
have arisen from his having obtained a grant of various tibeities 
for his Manor of Sburland, among which were the right to 
^ vrrecks of the sea ;' which right ^* is evermore; esteemed to reach 
as far into the water, upon a low ebb, as a man can ride m and 
touch any thing with tlie pcmit of his lance."* It should be ob- 
served, that the figure of a horse's head is also displayed by die 
vane on the top of the spire of the Church. 

On the pavement before the altar, are Braues of a Knight and 
his Lady : the former is in armour, and cross-legged, with large 
spurs, a long sword, and a lion at his feet : the latter has Aree 
bars, wavy, on her mantle ; and at her feet, a talbot dog : tlie in- 
scription is gone, but doubtless recorded the memory of S19 
Roger ps Noilthwood, and Bona b» wife, who died in the 
reign of fienry the Third .f 

Beneath the ?irch which separates the Chancel and North Cha- 
pel, b the altar-tpmb of Sir Thomas Cheyney, Knight of the 
Garter, and i,ord Warden of the Cinque Ports, who was first 
buried ifi an adjoining fiibric, supposed by some to have been the 
Chapel of the Nunnery, but afterwards removed hither ; he died 
in Deceniber, 1559. Ip th^ north wall, under an obtusely pointed 


f ViUare Can(ianuiti, p* 38^ f See un^er Northwood^ p. 703. 

KENT. 715 

'ardi, b awothfr altar-toinb* on ulitcli is n recuinWtit figure in 
mtite marble, dre&sed in the iiniioar of flie sixteenth century, 
nm has foog beeii said to represent a Spunbh Amba5s;)dcir| 
but by an entry in t lie Pansh Rcgiitcr, it ijppi.*ars to be the eIHgies 
of a Spanbli Gcneml w ho was taken prisoner by Sir Francis Drdke. 
most probabLy on tbc defeat of the Invincible Amiada : the entry 
tfr IS follows : ** Senior Cttinrmo ; Taken by Sir Francis DnikCt 
1588 I died prisoner on board a Ship at die Nore : buried 159 IT 
EASTCHURCH deri?ed its tiaine from its situation ^ith respect 
to Minster f and consisl» principally of tlie tJjree Manors of SMtJR- 
l. A li D , No 1 T H w o a D , and K J N o s B o Ro u G H. The tonner ga?e 
name to the ancient family of tlie Shurlauds^ of wliom Sir Jeffrey 
de Sburland vfm Constiibltf of Dover Gaslle in the ninth of Heur^ 
the Hiird. Hb son, Sir Kobert, who^ monument is in Minster 
Cburchi was Lord Warden of the Cinque Forts, mtd *^ having 
improved liis repntatioii,** say% Pliilipott, *'* with inany noble and 
worthy actions, left that only to perpetuate his name to posterity,** 
be having died i%itliout male^issue, Margaret, lus daughter and 
k»ess, nianied Sir Wltliain de Clieyney, of Patrick^ibome-Chey* 
mjFf m wliose descendants^ many of v^i^im were Knigbts of tlie 
SlMFe, and Sberiifs of Kent, this Manor remained vested (ill tiie 
fcjgn of Elizabeth. Sir Thomas Clieyney, Knight of the Garter, 
who lies buried at Minster, re- built the old Manor House of the 
Sfaurlands, with materials said to have been brought from Chilham 
Castle, wherein be had previously resided. The remains of this 
new Mansion evince it to have been a large and splendid edifice : 
it was sKuated about half a mile eastward from the Church, and 
was built in the form of a quadrangle, the front of which, now 
nodeniized, and converted into a tarm-house, with the north- 
side, and some of the out-buihiings, are yet standing. His 
afterwards Lord Cheyney, exchanged this Manor and Seat 
with Queeo EUzabetb, who leased tiieni to Sir Edward Hoby, 
Constable of Queenliorough Castle, for the term of his own life, 
and that of bis wife and brother ; but the entire fee continued 
tested in the Crown till James the Second granted it to Philip 
Berfocrt, after^vards Earl of Pembroke^ to whose collateral de- 

Z z ^ scendant) 

fcendants thii Manor itiil bdongt. NorthvfoodvnsXhewacieat 
estate and leaideiice of the Northwoods,. who afterwards residefl 
at Northwood, in Miltou ; and one of wfaom aliwated this M^Dor^ 
about the latter end of the leign of Edward the Fourth, to WO" 
liam Wanier, Esq. His grandsoQ again sold it to Sir Thomaa 
Che^fney in the time of Henry the Eighth, whofc suooessor, £li* 
zabethy having obtained it in exchange, it continued m the Crowii 
till it was granted, with Shnrland, to Philip Herbert, and hap 
«mce descended in the same line as that Manor. King^H)ftnigk 
waaamdent demesne belonging to the Crown, till Queen Eliabetb 
granted it to Henry Caiy, afterwards Lord Hunsdon, who dis» 
posed of this estate, in the beginning of the reign of James the 
First, smce which it has had a variety of possessors. 

The Church, which is dedicated to AU-Saints, is a spacious and 
handsome embattled edifice, having a square tower at the west 
end. It formerly belonged to the Abbot and Convent of Boxley, 
who, in the ninth of Henry the Sxth, had a piece of land granted 
them by the King's Letters Patent, to erect a new Church here. 
In this fabric is a handsome monument in commemoration of Ga* 
BBIEL LivESBT, Esq. who was Sheriff of Kent in the eighteenth 
of James the First, and his wife ANNE, daughter of Sir Michael 
Sondes, of Throwley, both of whom are represented by full- 
length figures lying on the tomb : tlie former died in the yeaf 

The Churches of WARDEN and Elmlt are now in ruina^ but 
display nothing remarkable : that of Leysdowtn is a small, neat 
modern building, of one pace, standing a little to the east ci the 
remains of the former tower, which having declined nearly seven 
feet from the perpendicular, was taken down to withm eight feet 
from the ground. 

The cliaimel of the water, ovjieei, which divided the ISLE OF 
HAKTY from that of Shepey, is now almost filled up, and, ex- 
cepting at high tides^ or over-flows, may be easily crossed. The 
land rises gradually in the centre of tlie Isle, near which standa 
the Church, which is a small neat structure, dedicated to St. Tho- 
mas the Apostle. The inhabitants scarcely amount to twenty, 
X ^4 



art cliirfly employed ut lending the sheef», which are con- 
tly fed here to the number of 4000. Hie Manor of ihe 
in this Isle, affords, in the account of its dcacent, one of 
last instances in which Trial hy Battle was demanded, and 
warded, on a claim of right. Tliis occurred in the reign of 
lllizabelb, in whose third year John Chevin, while a minor, sold 
llku estate to Mr. Thomas Paramour ; but, on his arrival at full 
ip, again passed it away to John Kync and Simon Lowe, who 
JUTing brought a writ of Right to recover. Trial by Battle was 
dettMiiKkd by Paramour, and it was determined that it should h% 
fought t>etbre the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas^ m 
Totbill Fields, Westminster. At the appointed time, the cham- 
pions of the parties met in the field, properly accoutred ; and, 
iftcr much formal ceremony, and in the presence of several thou- 
flod people, proclamation was made for tlie appearance of tlie 
dtknaots^ Kync and Lowe, who not answering, a non-suit was 
jMigred, and allowed, with costs of suit, on the part of Paramour, 
Tbit baiik ^vas not joined, was owing to the interposition of the 
Queen ; yet ail the requisite forms were gone through, that the 
ddfendant s riglit might be ascertained. 


TENHAM, or TEYNHAM, as it was formerly, and is now 

occsisiooally, written, w as given in exchange for other lands to 

ibc Monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, by Cenulph, King 

and it continuefl parcel of the possessions of that 

t~ -4 'till a few years after the Conquest, when, on ihe di- 

visiou made by Archbishop Lanfranc, it was allotted, ^ith other 
bndi, for his own maintenance, and that of his successors, Arch- 
Wiops of Canterbury. These prelates had a Palace here, in 
^hich Lbcy frequently resided in great pomp ; and in this Mansion 
died Archbishop Hubert W alter, in the lime of King John, who^ 
on bearing of his death, *' brast foorfh into greet ioy, and sayde, 
tbt be Has never a King (in deede) belbre that houre/'* In the 


• Lambard't Pcnmb* p. 191 , from Marthcw rarii. 


ferCy-finirth of Heniy tbe Third, Arblibitbop Boniface pro t u r rf 
the grant of a market weekly, and a three days annual fair, Ar 
.this Manor; but the former has been discontinued far beyond 
memory. In the month of February, 1349, Stratford, tbe then 
Archbishop, entertamed Edward the Third in his Pahce here, du* 
ling some days ; and several Letters Patent of that Sovereign bear 
date from Tenham in that year. ' Tbe Manor continued to belong 
to the See of Canterbury till the reign of Hemy the Bgfatb» 
with whom it was exchanged by Archbishop Cranmer. In the 
fifth of James the First, it was granted to John Roper, Esq. of 
the adjoining Parish of Lmsted, who, in the fbuiteenth of the 
same reign, was created Lord Teynham, and whose descendant 
the present Lord Teynham, is now owner. 

The Church, which h dedicated to St. Mary, is situated on a ri- 
sing ground, at a short distance from the marshes : it is a huge hand- 
some building, bnflt in the form of a cross, with an embattled 
tower at the west end. The east window is divided into five tre- 
foil-headed lights, with numerous smaller ones above : the other 
windows are in the lancet form, or have obtnse arches. In one of 
the chancel windows is the figure of the Viigm Mary teaching the 
infant Saviour to read ; and in tlie eastern windows of the transept 
are several legendary representations, as George and the Dragon, 
&c. together with some episcopal remains. On a slab in the pave- 
ment of the chancel, arc Brasses of William Palmer, (the 
Sonne of William Palmer, of Homdon, in the County of Essex, 
Gent.) who died in June, l639, and Elizabeth, his wife, who died 
in February, the same year. They are both In the dresses of the 
tunes ; the former has a ruff, sliort cloak, and doublet, with veiy 
large bows at lib knees and shoes, a pointed beard, and lai^ 
whiskers. Above is an escutcheon of arms, vis. quarterly, first 
and fourth, three escallops for Palmer ; second and third on a 
chief indented, three martlets, impaling a fess dancette, lietween 
three eagles, displayed. In the south end of the transept, which 
is called the Frognal, or Frogenhall Chancel, from being appro- 
priated to tlie Manor of Frogenhall, hi this Parish, several 
of the Fiogenhalls lie buried ; and among them John Frogen- 



^i^LLtEsq. who clietl iii November, 1 + 44 : he h represenfed hr a 
^™^ff in cotnplcat plale-aimour, witli a coUar of SS. round hU 

Tcnbam is stated to have been the place where Richard llnrryM, 
FniileTerto Henry the Kglith, pl:iiited 105 acres of rich liuid, almut 
year 1333, ' witli cherries pipins, and gohieii-reiinets/ wliirli 
bad procured at great expeiiJie and trouble from bevoiid sea ; 
the former fruits of tiiis kind, I hut had been introduced itiTo 
Britain, * having lost their native excellence hy lenglh of lime/ 
Ffom hence all tlie cherry giirdens and apple orchiirds of Kejit 
tnok their rise ; and this neiglibourhood, particubrly till a \eiy 
:eiit period, was abundantly stocked with tfiese frmb; but sincjc 
cultivation of hops has been more iilteiided to, niujiy of the 
and cherry planfutlons liave been grubbed U|i to convert 
fclrt bop-grounds. 
The CAi^rcAc* of MURSTON, TONG, and BAPCHILD, thougli 
11 ediiicesy are all of higit antiquity, and exhibit some interest- 
specimens of the architecture of the Saxon and Nomian ages, 
exterior wails of Tong Chnrch iire all of more raodc-ni date 
Itttii the inside of the fabric, the three aisles of which are sejm- 
nited by plain semi-circular arches^ fipringrtjg from four jMjnarc 
mmve piers, and one round column, all of them havui;* plain 
luited capitals. Bapchild Churcli con!iists of a tmve and north 
aisle, with two chaueeU, and a scinare tower, hnving a sluuglcd 
ipiie, rising from the middle of the south side. The arches be- 
Ifceii the nave antl aisle, are semi-circuhir, and spring from nias- 
^■pire columns ; two of which are ocragoiial, and one hexagonal; 
^Hksc also have fluted capitals. The chancels, which are of a 
^Tlhore tecent dale, are separated by obtuM?ly-j>ointed arches, rest- 
I ing on circular columns, with capitals of foliage. The north 
dnncel appears to have belonged to the St, CIcres, some of whoso 
figures remain in the windo^ys, with the names Joka 
Widred, or Withred, King of Kent, is recorded to have asscm- 
a Great Council of the No]>ility and Clergy, in the year ^j94, 
Bceunctldf or BAPCitiLDi us tiiat tiamc hits hecji supposed to 
•^ MK-aii 

^20 . KXKT. 

mean by sereral antiquaries. Another CameU is also staled to 
ba?e been held at Bccanceld in the year 79S> by ArchbisiMp 
Athelard ; yet the truth of this latter statement has been mods 
questioned. Bishop Gibson supposes the Durolevum of the Itme* 
laiy to have been at Bapchild ; yet his opinion does notappear to 
be founded on sufficient evidence. 

The Parish of Tong is traditionally said to have derived its 
name from Thwang-ceastre ; the appellation given to a fortress 
reputed to have been built here by Hengist, on receiving a grant 
from Vortigem of as much land as he could encompass with an 
Ox-hidic; and which he afterwards cut mto Thwangt, or Thomgs^ 
and with them surrounded the spot whereon he erected his Castle. 
Lelandy with most of the Kentish historians, support the local ap- 
plication of this tale in respect to Tong, in Kent ; but Camden, 
Tindal, and other writers, assign it to Thong Caule^ in LincdiH 
shire; and on better grounds, perhaps, if we consider that the 
first victory obtained by the Saxons, after their arrival in Britain, 
was in the latter county. It is probable tiiat the classical reader 
may entertain some doubts of the whole rdation, as Virgil's story 
of the foundation of Carthage, by Dido, b evidentiy its counter- 
part The site of Tong Castle is about a quarter of a mile to the 
north of the high road : the present remains are a high mount, 
and a deep and broad moat surrounding it : the springs which 
formerly supplied the hitter with water, now turn a corn-mill at a 
short distance below. Several urns, a brass helmet, a sword, &c. 
have, at different times, been dug up within the area of the Castle. 
The large tract of marshes which eateuds through the Parishes 
that have been last described, have been regarded as rendering the 
air so unhealthy, as to have given rise to the following weltLnowa 
proverb : 

He that will not live kmg. 

Let him dwell at Murston^ Tenham, or Toog. 

RODMERSHAM Church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, and coi>- 
sists of three aisles, and two chancels : the south chancel belongs 



lO ik Lfuhingions^ Lortis of the Manor ; and ia tts south wbU 
^Ki^ lno rerir ancient arches, probably designed tor Scdelia, Iii 
ll ie principal chancel b an ancient wooden Sratj wirh a jimmelled 
^Kofit, divided into three equal porticMis by elbows : the back is a 
^Kcieeaof gothic opeo-workf witJi an over-hanging canopy, having 
^Fm fnm of foliage. In the west window of the north aisle, it a 
Moall mutilated tigure, in stained glass^ of Edward the Contessor. 
. On JUDDE HILL, in the Parish of Ospringe, was a Roman 
Ctf«^, or station, most probably the Dlrolevum of Ajiloninus^ 
lithe siruatton is favontble, and (he distance corresponds with tlie 
beil copies of the Itineniry. Within the area which occupies \\i% 
9wnmti of the emincjice, and apparently contained between tlire« 
and tour acres of ground, is a respectable mansion, called Judde 
liousKy or Judde's FoUifj said to have been built from the dcdgnv 
ttf luigo Jones, about the year J 652, by Daniel Judde, * a hnsy 
Committee-man, and Sequestrator/ who had obtained this estate 
m the sale ol* tlie lands of llie Dean and Chapter of Rocbe:»ter, 
wd was again dispos^sessed after tlie Restoration, The Camp was 
of a st|uare Ibmi, with liie corners rounded oti", and surrounded 
b^ a ver> deep and broad ditch, the south and ea*>t sides of wbicti 
Iff stiU entire, together wiUi part of the north side ; but the west 
ade falttbecfi long levelled . within the area on the south was a high 
vtificial mount. In the gardens of Judde House, which are also 
•idwi the area, Roman coins of the Emperors Hadrian, Marcus 
ibielia?!, A lead i us, 6lc. have been found ; and in fornung a new 
nad from the summit of the hill, westward, a considerable quan- 
tilY of fragments of Roman culinaty ware, and a medal of Vespa- 
mk^ were discovered intermixed with many parcels of oyster* 
ftbclb.* This estate is now leased out by die Dean and Chupter of 
Rochester; and is at present Tenanted by Colonel Achmuty, 
^_ At a small distance from Judde Hill, says H;isted, " on the op- 
^Bfoiite or north side of the high road, are leveral Breast-works 
' cut up acrou ibe field facing the west ; and at the bottom of the 
Ml, in tliC neatt field to this, are the ruins of Stone Qhapct, in 


* Jacah*! Hist, of Favcnham^ p* 4* 

724 XBllt. 

all bat five shillings; and aftei'waidsy sixty pounds ; and now if i» il 
worth four times twenty pounds." From the high iralue of tlie « 
market, as stated in this record, it is evident that the town tniul I 
then have been a place of considerable tesort and traflk« i 

' ** The Manor of Faversham,* says Hasted, " with tlie tfun- 1 
dred appendant to it, remained part of the possessions of die : 
Crown till about the beginning of Eang Stephen's reign, when' it 
was granted to William de Ipre, a foreigner,* whom, for his fidth* < 
fill services against the Empress Maud, the King, in his seventh 
year, created Earl of Kent : but within a few years resolving to 
tbnnd an Abbey here, he, with his Queen, Matilda, about the year 
1 147, exchanged the Manor of liUechurch, with its appurte- 
nances at Higham, (in the Hundred 6f Hob, which wai of f h^ 
Qoeen's inheritance,) and other premises in his Manor of Middle- 
ton, for this Manor and Hundred ; which having again taken pos- 
session of, he, together with his Queen, in the latter end of that ' 
year, or beginning of the year after, obtained liberty to remove 
Clarembald, tiie Prior, and twelve of the monks, froM the dtmiac 
Prioiy of Bermondsey, in Sonthwark, hither; founded an Abbey 
at a small distance from the town,t on the north-east side, and 
appointed Clarembald, Abbot of this new foundation, which was 
dedicated to St. Saviour; and for their support, he granted to the 
Abbey, the Manor of Fkversham, ^ith all its apiMirtenances, and 
other premises, together with divers liberties."! 

The endowment and privileges granted to the Abbot and Monks 
by King Stephen, were confirmed by succes&ive Sovereigns; add it 


* Jacobus Hht. of Farenham, p. 7, nates, that the Manor was given 
to William de Ipre, by the Conqueror. 

t The space where Court or Abbey Street now stands, was then un- 
built, and this was therefore, in the reign of Edward the Third, distin- 
guished by the name of the New Town, as the rest of it, built before, 
was by that of t-hc Old Town, 

J Hist, of Kent, Vol. IL p. 6P8, 699. Fo. 


n circukr tower^ built wUli flinU, at the west end, which fell to 

tk ground while the bells were riog^iitg to celebrate llie return of 

; Willmm from Flanders, on the eleventh of October, 16^5* 

)n the stream which ilowa through itie village, aiid sitlerwards 

i ttito Favershain Creek, are some extensive Gunpowder Works^ 

I belonging to Govemmetit* and in private liuuds. A neat rangfC 

I Barracks for intkutr)' has been recently LuUt iji tlus village^ 


U a town of remote origin ^ situated on a navigable arm of the 
%fnkf and principally consisting of four streets, farming an irre^ 
gahr cro5S, in the centre of which is the GuildhuU and Mar- 
Ld'placc. Tliougli a Ijoroiigh by prescriptive riglit, as well as 
bv charter, it doe^j not appear ever to have been summoued to 
rclura Members to Parliament : it has, however, lieen itself the 
|)tace of meeting of a Wittanegetnot, or Qmncil (rf the Wise Men* 
tmaMed hy King Alhelstan, about tlie year PJO^ ** to enact 
Istns^ and constitute methods for the future observance of them.** 
At thill time the town formed part of the llojiil demesnes, as it 
M kmg before, as appears from a charter granted to the Arcii* 
biiljop of Canterbury, by Cenulph, King of Mercia, hi 812, wlicre- 
I it lit sty led * the King's Ultle Town of FrfrcskimJ' 
• h seent^ probable that the .Sa\on Kings had a Palace here, and 
It a maiket, and other tiberfres, had been j^ranted to the inhabi- 
iloog before tlie Conf|uesty through which it gradually atlaiucd 
|uence. In the Domesday Book, it is returned as held by 
William by tbc name of Favreshanif and as then having, 
otlier appendages, ** tliirty villeins, with forty borderers, 
[ servftntSy and one mill of twenly shilliiigs, wood for the pan* 
» of lOO hogs, a market of four pounds value, and two salt- 
of three shillings and two-pence ; and in the city of Canter- 
Ujfee houses lielonging to the manor, in the whole value« 
10 llic iitne of Edward the Confessor, it was worth sixty pounds, 


*• ' Ftudcntum Conreniui.* 

7iS KXKT. 

Among the ckumi made bytbe monks over the inhabifaiiti^ 
were compodtioot fi>r allowing them to send thdr swine to pan* 
nage, for expoang thdr wares in the maiiet, fbrUbet^of brew^ 
ingy &c. and ^ in the reign of Henry the Thvd, there was a veiy 
long contest between the parties^ which terminated in the townV 
men beii^g forced, among other indignities^ to submit to ■MMnw^ff 
annually, three persons out of their body, to execute the office of 
Mayor, and present them to the Lord Abbot m his courts called 
the Hall of Pleas, that he might appoint one of them to the saiii 
<rfke.* This metliod, however, continues Jacob, ** doth nbt 
iseem to h|ve been long e»icted; for I find that, in the reigpi of 
Edward the First, the Freemen, or Barons, as they were called^ 
with the person they had chosen Mayor, (so soon as he had nomi- 
nated the twelve jurats by virtue of his office, with the approba- 
tion of the freemen,) immediately proceeded with bun to the Atv- 
bey for the Lord Abbot* s approbation, and this coune was con- 
stantly pursued till the Dissolution.'^ 

With its other privileges, the Abbey of Tavenham had that of 
Sanctuary: and tliis appears to have been even attached to the Pa- 
rish Church, till the reformation in the reign of Edward the Sixth, 
most probably from the time of the Dissolution. The surrender of 
the Abbey estates was for some timeopposed with vehemence by the 
Abbot and his monks, against whomnochargesofevfl conduct 
could be brought; yet, << however innocent," sayM Southouse, << be- 
ing caught amongst tlie guilty, like the unhappy stork in the fable, 
who vi-as found in the husbandman's com, ' in company of the 
more injurious geese and cranes/ they were condemned to accom- 

* History of Favenham, p. Id. " Notwithstanding the Mayor was 
obliged to have the Lord Abbot's approbatton, and even to take an oath 
btfore him, to behave faithfully to him and his church, yet these suspi* 
cious tyrants always provided a Bailiff, learned in the biws, or, in his ab- 
sence, another officer, called a Seneschal, or Steward, to accompany 
the Mayor in all public transactions, whose names were cgutantly pla* 
ced after the Mayor's, and before those of the Jurats. They likewise 
compelled the Chamberlains of the town, annually to pass their accounts 
in the Abbey." Ibtd, p* 11* 




^^^^^Aem in their sufTerings likewise/'* The deed of surrender 
^Ws s%ned on ihe eighth of July, 1538, whea Uie Abbot had an 
tQnaal pension of 100 marks assigned to him for \m maintenance: 
$maller annuities \vere also assig^ied to ihe eij^ht monks joinefi with 
bun in the surrender: at that time the gross revenues of the Abbey 
were stated at 35 31. I2s, 2d, yearly 5 and the nett income at 
2861, i2s, 6|d, 

In the following year, (1539,) Henry the Eighth, having o> 
dered the principal part of the monastic buildings to be pulled 
down, granted the site of the Abbey, with some adjoining tandst 
to Sir Thomas Cheyney, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports; and 
be, about ^ve years afterwards, alienated tliem to Thomas Ardcm, 
Gtat, who was Mayor of Faversham, in 15 4 8; ajid on the fif- 
Iteullj of February, 1550, was basely murdered in his o^vn house, 
by the contri\'ancc of his wife Alice, who was executed for the 
suae with most of her accotiiplices.t Margaret, his daughter and 
A a a 2 heiress, 

• Monastkon Favcrshumkme, 

t The house in which Ardcrn was murdered, adjoined to the en* 
iTiMt gateway of the Abbey^ and is yet standing. The particular! of 
ibe murder ate thus quoted by Jacobs from the ward -mote book of Fa* 
fCfihaiiu •'This yere, (Anno Dom. 1 350 J the J5 day of Februari^ 
being Soodaye, one Thomas Ardern, of Favemhara aforesaid, gentle- 
man, was heynously murdered in bis own parlour, about seven of the 
clock ia the night, by one ITioroas Mor^by, a laylor of London, late 
idvan! to Sir Edward North, Knight, Chancellor of ihc Augment a - 
tiuns, father-in-law unto Alice Ardemi wife of the laid Thomas 
Ardtrn^ and by one Black Will, of Caljce, (Calais,) a murderer, 
which murderer wa* pnvily sent for to Caiycc by the earnest sute, ap» 
pomtmeot and confederecye of the said Alice Ardcrn and Thomat 
Mor\by, one John Green, a taylor, and George Bradihaw, a goldsmith, 
ifii^biunts of Favcr*ham aforesaid, to the intent to murder the said 
Ar.krB, her husband ; which Alice the said Morsby did not only car* 
flsHy keep in her house in this town, but also fed him with delicate 
tfttiti, and tumpmous apparell, alt which things the said Ardem did 
well koowj aod wUfutly did permit and suffer the same, by reason 



ys8 KBirr. 

hdressy married Thomas Bradbumey and bad htoBf mwfmr i 
Nicholas, Sfho sold this estate to John FEndi^ GtDt 
who again alienated it; and, after passmg throng^ i 
it was purchased by Sir Geoi|[e Sondes^ of Lees Court 
tleman, who was afterwards created Earl of Faverriianiy Indi 
}y before bought the whole Manor of FaverBham, wtfh hi i 
tenaoces, of John Diggs, Esq. second son of Sir Dudley D^ggs^ 
Master of the Rolls, to whom it had been gtanted by Chaiiettlie 
Fint. His reprcsentathre, Lord Sondes of Lees Court, is stitt 
owner. IW 

whereof she procured her said husb«nd*t death> to tb* intent to havs 
married with the said Morsby ;— «nd to first, she made of her said coua* 
•ely the said lliomas Monby> and one Cicelj Pounder, his sister, Mi- 
chael Saunderson, taylor, and Elizabeth Stafford ; which Michael and 
Elizabeth were the dayly servants to the said Thomas Ardern ; and the 
abettors and counsellors to the said murder, were the aforesaid, and 
John Green, George Bradshaw, and William Blackboume, painter^ 
which Bradshaw fett th' aforesaid murderer at Calyce ; and the same 
murderer came over to Faversham, and brought with him a co-adjutor, 
named Loose-bagg, who also was made a counsel to the murder; m> 
that he (Ardern) was most shamteftllly murdered as he was playing at 
tables friendly with the said Morsby; for sodeolye came out of a dark 
house, adjoining to th* said parlour, the Aforesaid Black Will, whom ^ 
and her *complices had bestowed previes before, and came with a nap- 
kyn in his hand, and sodenlye came behind the said Ardem's back, 
threw the said napkyn over his hedd and face^ and strangled him ; and 
forthwith the said Morsby stept to him, and strake him with a tayk>r*a 
great pressing iron upon the scull to the braine, and immediately drew 
out his dagger, which was great and broad, and therewith cut the said 
Ardem's throat ; being at the death of him the said Alice his wife, 
Michael Saunderson, and Elizabeth Stalibrde : and after that he was 
thus murdered, he was carried out of the said ^ark)ur into the aforesaid 
dark house ; and when the said Black Will had holpen to lay him there, 
he returned forthwith to the said Cicely Pounder*s house, and there re- 
ceived for his thus doing, the sum of eight pounds in money, which was 
there appointed for his reward ; and immediately he departed from F»« 
f ersham, so that he could not justly be heard of since that time ; and 
ht being thus departed with hit reward, Cicely Pounder went to the 




The buildincrs of the Abbey were extensive and numerous, but 
of ill em have been long deatroYed : the two entnince gate- 
Mys remamed till about forty years ago, wlieu, baviug become 
mbious, tJ>ey were taken down, and scarcely any llnng but outer 
pralb of the precincts now exist to point out tbe site of the Abbey, 
£▼€0 Soulbouse, whose Mono st icon Faversfmmiense was [>ubli3h«d 
in 1671, mentions liie Abbey Church as so loUilty bug since demo* 
lisbecK that there is not so much as a stone, or under pinning, letl, 
ift inform posterity wlicreabouts it stood, hi this Churchy he cou- 
tbiies, '* were deposited the bodies of many a wortJiy (lerwn, whose 
mooumente are long since L)econie a*« rubous and dispersed as their 

A a a 3 ashes; 

mH Arden)*i houie, and did hetpc to bear the dead corps oiu into a 
meadow ilicre, comfnonty called the AliDery Croft, on the back side of 
the taid Ardcm'* garden j and iibout eleven of the clock the i^'id Son- 
d^y mghtf the caid Ardem was found where they had laid himi in the 
«aid tneadowe; whereupon the laid Ardem*i house was searcHedp and 
ihereupon his blood w^s found, that it was manifest and well approved 
that he was tlayiie in his own house. Whereupon the said Alice Ardem, 
Michael Saundersoo, and Etizabeih StaObrd^ were apprehended, and 
mrtached of felon ye, and also the said Mor&by and Bradshaw ; but tbe 
aforenid /ohn Green, \\ iiJiam Blackbournc, and George Loose^bagg, 
escaped at that time ; and the aforesaid Al)'ce Ardern^ Thomas Mors- 
by, Cicely Pounder> Mithaei Saunderson, George Bradshaw, and Eli- 
tabeili Staflord, were indicted and arreygned wuhitj the said town and 
liberliet of Faversham, in the Abbey -Ha II, whkh the said Ardem had 
piKchased, and ihtre adjudged to dye; that is, to wytt; the said Alice 
Ardem to be burned at Caniorburye» and the said Bradshaw to be there 
banged m chain* by the commandment of the King's most Honourable 
Counsel; and ibe aforesaid Thomas Morsby, and hU sister, judged to 
be hanged in Smithiicld, in London^ and the foresaid Michael Saun- 
dcrson to be drawn and hanged in chains within the tibtrties of Faver* 
fthao ; and the foresaid Eliiiabeth Staiford to be burned within the liber- 
ties of the said town ; all wliich was accompiyshed and performed ac- 
C€>rdiBgly. And about ll»e last end of the moneth of July then next fol- 
towuig« the foresaid John Green was appreiiended and taken in Corn-* 
wall, and brought again by mtrn of that country to Faversham, where 
fthf>rtly afteri he was judged to be hanged in chains, within the libectiea 
•lierc/'^This murder was the foundation of " Arden of Faversham, a 
true Tragedy,** printed in ljp2, and genersilly attributed to Shakespeare. 



--■ — ------ - - «HM^ _M_ '* * * ' • -- i^ '' —-—-.-. ;•# 


obfifioB, tiB die wlirf of 
cflttCy mo tlw wbole 


•or Gradooi Fomder Emg Supkem. Mmmd, hbQwi, owr Rayi* 
BenefiKtor, nd fufocv, dior ddot son, wkea, Ar tfce gni of 
die lad wherein this King s bodj was m<tt6ufA^ \m noed v»* 
BMBi were dHodged, md lluiiwu Mto the MigPHMMnBg tiw. 
In Ifaii Abbey, aecoidiDg to Robert of Gloccsler, was « a peoe of 
je Holj Cross wfaicfa Godfiej Boyloa for kjmk^A Ind teat l» 
King Slqrfiene/ 

Fafcnbam has been a member of the port of Dover from a ve* 
rj eariy period; and its cnstomary proportion of md was ooeafaijp 
for forty days anraally. At the siege of Cabus, however, m the 
reign of Edward the Third, this town fbraished two Aipa, and 
fi%-three mariners. This connection with the Cinque Ports may 
probably account for many of the privileges which' Faverdiam ha« 
immemorially enjoyed ; a supposition that is in some degree oono* 
botatedbythefreemenof the town beingstyled Baroatt intheoldest 
of its charters now extant, and which bears date in the thirty-oth 
of Henry the Third. In the forty-second of the same reign, the 
local jurisdiction of Favcrsham was in a Mayor, or Alderman, and 
twelve Jurats ; yet, through the mterference of the Abbots, fbnnded 
on their possessing the royalty of the manor, the former were fre- 
quently deprived of some portion of their authority: nor did the 
dissensions which this occasioned entirely cease till the dissolu^ 
tion of the Abbey. Many charters of confirmation, and of 
new privileges, were granted to this town by different Sovereigns: 
the charter under which it is still governed, was granted by Hemy 


^ Man. Faters. p, 105. Most probably from Weever't Fun. Mon. 
p. 278, Edit. ]631. Hasted mentions that the '' report of the inhabi- 
tants has been, that the King*s body was afterwards interred somewhere 
in the Parish Church.*' 

t Xbis is itill the legal title of the Memben returned to Parliament by 
|be Cinque Ports, and their different branches. 



IJKc Kgbtti, in his th]rt3r-«€Teiitb year. In tfjis tbc King, as Lord 
«if tbe Manor, relinquished to the italiaUttants, many oi the prhti- 
ii|W whicb tbe Abbots had enforced, aiid directed that the local ju- 
risdiction should be vested in twelve Jurats^ one of wboiD was to 
be tlie Mayor, twenty-four Comhti oners, a Steward, a Town-Clerk, 
tiro SergesDts at Mace, and other otiiccrs: the Mavor is annually 
cboittl 00 tlie thirtieth of September. 

** Favershain/' says Leiand, in his It^nerar^^p'* is encluded yH 

one parocbe^ but that ys very large. Ther cumnietii a crcekc to 

tiie towne, that baretli vessels of xx tunnes ; and a uivie fro thens 

north-e^t, is a great key, cawled Tliom^ to discharge bygge ves- 

The creke is fedde with bakke water, that cnnimeth Iro Os- 

;." Li the survey of inaritin>e places in Kent, made in the 

RigD of Elizabeih, this town is j^tated as having 380 inhabited 

bouses; eighteen ships or vessels, from five to forty- five Tons bur- 

tben ; and of persons occupied in merciiandi^e and tisliing, fifty. 

The quay mentioned by Lcland, caUed the Thorn, has been dis- 

vmA many years; but, in place of ir, three new quays, or wharfs, 

Iwve been formed close to ihe town itself, where all the shipping 

Iselonging to the port, now take in and discharge their cargoes, 

Tbe navigation of the creek, also, lias been greatly improved since 

^K^dands time; and vessels of ci«;hly and 1 00 tons burthen, can 

iw come up to the town at conmion tides; whilst, at spring tidcs^ 

lie channel is deep enough for ships rlrawiiif; eij^lit feet water: tlie 

taoagcmciit and preservation of the navigation arc vested in. the 

rporation, the expenses being detniycd by certain |>ort-due$» 

hich have been paid froin time immemorial I'pwaids of 40,000 

^er^uaiters of com are ship|M:() here for llie Loudon markets aimuaily: 

«iisiderable quantities of hops^ fruit, wool, oysters, kc, are also 

\i from this |K)rt, to which upwartls of thirty coasting vessels lie- 

l€9Bg, (exclusive of fiiljing binacks,) of from forty to \ 50 tons burthen 

«a6h: the imports are principally coals, and fir timber, iron, tar, &c» 

from Sweden and Norway. A branch both of tlie Elxcise and of 

the Custonis, is establtshe<l here : the former under the direction 

of a Collector, Surveyor, and oilier otticcrs; the hilt^r, under a 

r, and assistants, 

A a a 4 Thft 


Tbe Oyjftr Fitkety^ FknetrinM it ararf < 
^adfonu the prinqpalaOMoe of its trade: IheiMiiiibcKflfiHBiliMi 
vhoUyjupported by it, Meiiqpivanb ofoneJundiedL Here^ al( 
nt MilUn wd Rochester, the nstive broods are &r ittfinior tei tiit 
HOnsnmptiop; and vast quantities of il^aveaaiMiaUycottaBted 
£ppiB diftrent parts of the.siiiioiiiidiDgaea% eicaasdiBlBiitAsitlM 
Land's Eod in ComwaU, aodOeoeasUof SeoilSDdaodlkaMe^ 
fmi, plaoad in the beds Mongmg to this fisheiy, them te iMreaM ' 
mid fiOten.* The Cpmpan)! of the "« Eree EiaheftiieBi, Md Aaa 
Diadgenneoy of the Hundred and Ifaaer of Fafrsshiiij'! are iidar - 
Jthe inmediate protection and jnrisdiotioo of theJjord of the fiia» 
nor^ as tenants of the same; and he appoints mSleiiard lo bdU 
tmo courts, called Admiralty Cooits, or Water Govts,: anuoaUf^ 
.where all the necessary regulations for the benefit of the fishery 
jure made. No penon is admitted as a finedvedger, nnkss he has 
.served an apinentioeship of seven years to a fireman, and he hiov* 
4elf manied. The. right of the fishery was andently an appurte^ 
.nance to the Manor of Milton, but was sepaiafed fitun that MaMW 
by King John, apd granted, with the property iof the grounds, to 
Faversham Abbey: on that occasion the Company of Free Dredgers 
of Faversham aie first mentioned; though no doubt is entertamed, 


^ " Oysten are produced, and grow, ip all leat and saltrwater : one 
oyster brings forth many thousands : the young, pi^ spawn of themi sre 
produced in numberless quantities, between May and August yearlj^ 
in which time none aae ukcn, or carried to market : that season, in- 
deed, is called their iickness, in ^hich they are not fit to be eaten, 
llie spawn or brood oysters are not subject to destruction, as the eggis 
«and fry of many other sorts of fish are; nor are they bait or food to any 
other fish; nor are they marketed for consumptkm, if taken, till of due 
.ftize, but are laid again in the fisheriet to grow. The oyster spawn ii 
distributed in all our seas, rivers, and waten, • by. the flux and reflux of 
the tide ; for when the eggs or spaJt are first shed, they rise in a very 
small bubble, like oil, or glue, and float on the surface of the waters^ 
and are moved to and fro, till, by the air and sun, they are brought to 
maturity, and the shell formed, and then by their natural gravity, thej 
subside, and always remain on the place where they fall.** 

• HfuUd'sKcM, Fd. IL p. 714. 

KENT* 735 

fanttlat it had even then exited from lane immemortaU* Bcfi>i« 
libe war, great quantitiea of Faversharii oysters were c^qxirted Iq 
Hoibnd, to the amount of between 3000 and 40mL ntintiatly.t 

The only maoutactuie onricd on in the vidnity ot Faver^iljam, 
k tbat at' GunpQwdcr, which i» under tlie superintendiiuce of a 
(if the Oninance cstahhshed tiere, the princi[?al otficers of 
are a Slorekeefier, a Clerk of tlic ChefftiCi and a Master 
Fbe^worker, who hate ail respectahle houses. Tbf various niills^ 
dcire4iouses, &c,. are chiedy situated on the streini thot flows ttotti 
O^priuAe, and forms ^teveral sni^U islands m its course to the Faver^ 
fhiani creek. This tnannfactiire is suppo^d to have been eslahlish* 
ed beie befbie the rej^ of EUzaheth; but it continned in privata 
iiU ahoiit the year i?6'0, when the respective works wi?r« 
by Govern oient, and within a tew years afterwards^ . 
were leiinitt, in a more suh^taiitiaJ and sale manner^ Not all the 


* Jacob** Ili«, of Faversham, p. TS. ^ 

f I» the ChamberUin^t aocounts of thlt town, before quoted, k il 
fBOOiM, that the Great IroU of the yean 1739—40, was lo very de» 
Wcliwi IP the Oyster Fidiery» by killtiig tiie yottng brdod, as xvtVtm 
te Sttffketable oynen» that no profit accrued to the dredgers (or tb^ 

three foUowing years. 

J About " forty years ago," says Jacob, whose history was published 
ia 1774, *' the powder was made by pestil-millsj since which time the 
use of stoaes has been wholly introduced, an^it is now prepared both 
by water-mills and horse-mills. Eleven sets of mill-stones are erected 
at Tarious distances upon the river, and Hve others that are worked by 
bones, all which are wholly employed for making the composition intd 
gunpowder, exclusive of others that grind the ingredients separately in- 
to a fine powder, and granulate it after it hath been ground. Experience 
hath determined, that the ingredients, sulphur, salt-petre, and char- 
coal, should undergo the pressure of these large stones, (which are com- 
puted to weigh about three tons and a half each,) constantly moving 
over the mixture, for six hours, to make it of the greatest strength: this 
time is, therefore, now always allotted for that operation; though, 
when these works were in private hands, three hours were thought suf- 

7M kbkt; 

cHCy flowcvery tlitt can be cicrtedy. n nnoenl to prevtnf aco* 
dcouby tbeiKcaakHniigiiitkMioftliepoiivdcr; thoagbncfaefcato 
aie mom less fifeqtMnt tiuui feiiBeily. The noil dwdfiilcipk^' 
iioQ thtl has oocatied, took pfaMse io Apci^ 17S], wben theCom- 
iDs-milly and Dustin^-iiousey weie torn to atont by tho hloarinf 
op of about 7000lba. weight of ponNlcr, wfaach, by its nfkimm^ 
•o iropregnated the air with nifbar^ for many nutea wnndy na 
greatly to aSSoct the respiration. The aoiw was beard aft twanty 
miles distance; eveo at Canterbmy, deren mHesaff, it gate the 
sensation, of an earthquake; mod the pittarol' iame and smobn 
caused by it, ascended to such a considerable faeighl in the air be* 
fore k expanded, that it was seen in the Ish of Thaoetf M 
the surrounding bmldings werr b a greaft measva destroyed; the 
boughs of large trees were torn oil^ and the trmdu left have; and 
Ibe ground itself was so fiirvcMiedt as to have the appeaiaooe of 
being fresh ploughed. The houses m the western part of thetown 
suflSsred most; and it was supposed that the whole wouU have 

ficient to make it a merchantable commodity. The contrivance m the 
erection of the mill-houses, though simple, ii very proper, the cofering 
being made with fir boards, lightly listened, to that when, byacodentfy 
no vnj to be accounted for, they blow op, the blast, meetmg with lit* 
tie resistance, hath sometimes done no other injury to the boikliiigfy 
than blowing olT the roof; though, at other times, much greater damage 
bath ensued. Another contriTance for the preservation of the hones 
that grind the powder, n a frame covered with leather, hung npoa the 
wheel, (which goes round therewith,) between the horses and the bed* 
•tone on which the powder is ground. In this hazardous employ there 
is never a want of hands: light labour, and constant pay, are two strong 
inducements, easily prevailing over the fear of danger, which, by use, 
is found to be too little dreaded, especially as the hbourers are certain 
of proper care being taken of them in all misfortunes. This business re- 
quiring so considerable a number of bands to execute, is very beneficial 
to the trading part of the town.'* Hist, of Faversfiam, p. 946. Since 
the above was written, the number of mills has been considerably iq« 
creased, and most of the works have been rebuilt and enlarged : iroprove<* 
ments have also been made in the process ot manufacturing the powder. 

*" Hasted*s Hiit. of Kent^ Vol. 11. p. 712, 713. 


lleen destroyed^ if tlie wind had ^t directly ton^rds it. The saf« 
feren were aflerv^ards relieved by Parliament; and, under tbe 
promi m iA of an Act passed for the greater safety of the powder 
works, the stoves were removed into the marsti, at a considerable 
Alttice below the town. The quantity of powder annQallynianu* 
Alilired^ is computed to amount to between twelve and thirteca 
IbMBiiid barrels : the number of hands employed is nearly 400.* 

Ftversharo has, on diiferent occa«iiou9, been visited by many of 

our Sovereigns; and some interesting notices of the charges for 

enterUitimg them, appear among the Chamberlain's accounts, 

Mary, Qneen of France, and sister of Henry the Eightli, passed 

tliToagh this town in May» 1513» on her return from France; and 

the e^ipef jie of tlic * brede and wine' cfiven to her, are stated at 

ieven shiitings and fouipence. Henry t}ie Eighth, and his Queen, 

CBtberioe of Arragon, were here in 1519, with Cardhial Wolsey, 

and the Archbishop of Canterbury^ when the * spiced brede and 

witie* ftnr the latter, came to five and fourpence; lh« * spiced brede« 

fiine, and capons, for my Lord Cardinal, to eighteen and nine* 

pmce; and tlie * spiced brede, wine, beer, and ale,' to tlie King 

indQiieeDi to tl. €s, S^i^. Henry was again at Faversham in tlie 

}tn 152^, with the Emperor, whom he was conducting to Greeu- 

lrtdi| and a numerous retinue, when tlie expenses of his enler- 

tUDaent were entered at ll. 3s. 3d* exclusive of a * gallon of 

yiht* to the Lord Archbishop, which cost one shiilingi In 1545, 

Henry was once more in this town, where he lay one night, and 

wai presented with * two dozen of capons, tvv o do^en of chekins, 

and a scive of cherries,* all wliich are recorded at ll, 15s. 4d. 

In 1573, • Queen Elizabeth came here, and lay two nights in this 

town, which cost the town 44L l^s. 8d. including a bilvtr cup 

pitsenled to her, wfiieh cost 27L 5s. Od/ Another item states, 

IhatChsirks the Second visil*^!, and dined with the Mayor here m 

lOtU, aud that * the expence of his euleitaiimient was 561. 6:>. Od** 


• Tlie miUt arc conttantly ai work, night and day, the men rehevirg 
eadi other to icu, or parties, llie milh, itoves, &:c* are so situated in 
rcUhrtn to each other, that the nianufacttire of the powder it gradually 
conplcttd u the ingredients are conveyed down the stream* 


In the ciisiiiiig yev, the CoipontioB «re recoided to lave pfeaented 
the King with iOL* 

• Theseisiireof James the Second at SbdlBeflf^ on bis finftBtteoipt 
to quit the kingdom after the huding of the Prince of Oiange^ io 
16889 his detention at Faveraham, and his subsequent fl^t fipm 
B4x:he8tery are thus detailed in Jacob's History of this Town, fiom 
flie nmrative of Captain Richard Manh^ who was an eye-witncaa 
to nearly the whole transaction. It most be pteaaatd^ that the 
mUkm was then m a ferment, and every one on the alert to aecufo 
saspidous chaiacters, or those who were oonsidered as more pav* 
ticularly in the interest of the dethroned Sovcieign« 

• ^ Hie FVivenham sailors observing a vessel of abont tiurty toot 
Ijfing at SheUness to take m balfast, resolved forthwitii to go and 
board her: they went in the evenmg with three smacks and about 
forty men, and three files of musqueteers of Faversham band, all 
well appointed, of whkh they made William Amis, some tune 
master of a vessel, their Captain. In the cabbin of the Vessel 
they seised three persons of quality, of which they knew only 

* Among the other eniries in the CbamberUun^i booki, which may 
be considered as interesting, from markmg the manners of the timet, 
and as furnishing correct data for ascertaining the progressive increase in 
the value of money, are the following — 1555; " Given to the King and 
Queen*s Jesters, 2s. to the King and Queen's trumpeters 5s. to the 
Lord Warden's Mynstrells, 3s. 4d."— 1556: •' lost by the fell of Itoreb. 
^fiicr, 25s. 6d. out of 51s." — 1558: "given to my Lord Warden't 
Mynttrells, 6s. 8d.*' — 1561 : " given in rewards to the Queen*t Majes- 
ty*! Players 6s. 8d.— 1662: ** given to the £rle of Oxford's Players. 
9s. 4d.'' — 1563 : " given to the Queen's Majesty's Berewards, 3s. 4d.*' 
—1571 : " the Mayor's salary advanced from 51. to 101."— 1576: " the 
prices of materials for building at this time were, for 1000 tyles 8s. ten 
ridge tyles. Is. 3d. a seam of lime. Is. a ton of timber from 7s. 4d. to 
10s. sand the load, 6d. a load of paving stones from Is. to 2s. carriage 
•f stones per load, 3d. paving by the yard, 2id. and 3d. bricks per 
1000, 8s. carpenter and bricklayer per day, lOd. to Is." — 157^: "paid 
to diverse Noblemens* Players, 13s. 4d."— 1670: " the organist's sala- 
ry was, per annum, 61.*' — All the above particulars are taken from the 
cztnicu inserted hi Jacob's Uist« of Faversbamj p. 100—1 1 1. 



Sit Ed«r«rd Ha\t%, from which three persons they took three him- 
dmi g^ttineas, and brought rheni at)en»ards od shore beyond Dure, 
(Ore,) «t a place called the Shoal, on Wednesday, DeceralTer th« 
twelfth, about ten o'clock in the inommg, where met them, Sir 
Tlioints Jenner s coach, wilh about twenty gentlemen of the town 
im boneback; and brought iheiu into the Queens Arms in Faver- 
siiACD. I, standing by the coach, seeing the King come out^ 
vrbom I knew very well, was a^tonished^ and said, ' Gentlemen, 
yoQ have taken the King a prisoner/ which wrought great amaze* 
nient amongst them all. Then tlie gentlemen owned him as their 
Sofeieigii^ — Then the King expressed himself in this manner to 
une of the clergy: * I see the rdbble is up, and I must say witb 
the Psalmist, that God alone can still the rage of tlie sea, and the 
mdnoB 0f the people, for I cannot do it, therefore am I forced 
lo fly/ Then the King onlered the money that was taken from 
tliem, to be divided amongst them ttiat took him. — ^The King 
wrote ft letter to the Earl of W inchelsea to come to him, and lei 
him know that he was at Faversham in the midst of his enemies; 
at which ray Lord came from Canterbury that night, which nmdi 
ijbdded the King, that lie had now one with him that knew bow 
lo mpect the person of a king, and awe the rabble ; for tlioit 
bnHlib unmannerly sailors had carried themselves very indecently 
l€iv«ffdi htm* The King desired much of the gentlemen to con<» 
▼ey him auay at night in ihe CuHtom-liousc boat, and pressed it 
upon tlieir consciences, and told them, tbat if tjie Prince of Orange 
thouM take away liis Ute, his blood would be requiretl at their 
hand^^; and thiit now it was in their power to release liim ; but 
that sfiortly it would be out ot' their power to do him good. — Tfie 
gentlemen would by no means admit of it ; saying, they must be 
accotmtable for him to the Prince of Orange, and it would be a 
nieins of laybg the nation in blood. He was then carried from 
ihe Queen's Anns to I he Mayor's liouse, which was Cdptain Tho« 
■las Sauthouss,* whtcli is llie house that our obsenator now livetii 
Ittp is Court Street, where he continued, under a strong guard of 


• Fcijbibly tta to the Author of the Manattican Fa^erthaffti^we. 

loldiers and sailors, until Saturday morning fbDomigy ten a*dock** 
Sir Edward Hales^ wkh the rest of the Popish prisoners, ncfe ktpl 
in the Court Hall; only Sir Edvnud Hales was removed to liaid* 
stone gaol within a few hours after the King^s dqxutore. 

^ The Kmg sent to the Lords of the Council, to kt them kaoir 
' that tlie mob had possessed themselves of his money and neoca- 
aariesy and desired them to send new supplies to him* They ibrtl^ 
with dispatched tlie Earls of Faversham, Hilsborough, Middleton, 
and Yarmouth, with about 120 horse guards, besides sumptttr 
horses, paddnags, and coaclies, whose orders were, to prevail 
with the King, if it were possible, to return to Whitehall; bat not 
to put any restraint upon his person, if his resolution continued to 
go beyond the seas. The Lords came to Sittingboum on Fridaj 
evening, but were met by Sir Basil Dixwell, who conunanded the 
horse guards in the town under tlie Earl of Winchelsea, with some 
other persons of quality, and persuaded the Lords to leave the 
guards at Sittingboum, and they would conduct his fifi^festy thi- 
ther next morning; which was done with much order, peace, and 
satisfaction, both to the King and people. 

^* The King hiy that night at Rochester, and went next day t» 
Whitehall, intending to avoid the City, and go over at Lambeth; 
but when he drew nigh the City, he was uiformed that the City 
would receive him with acclamations of joy: then he went through 
the City, and visited tiie Queen Dowager by the way; and the ge* ^ 
neral discourse of the people was, * though we hate his religioo, 
yet we honour his person/ The King sent a letter by the Earl of 
Faversham to the Prince of Orange at Windsor; but the Prince 
secured the said Earl prisoner in the said Castle ; alledging, be 
wras guilty of high treason, for disbanding the army without order, 
Tlie Prince sent to Uie King at Whitehall, that he thought it not safe, 
in this present juncture of afiairs, for his Majesty to remain there, 
by reason of the resort of Papists, so he ordered his removal to 
Ham; but the King rather desired his removal to Roches'* 
ter, which was granted him, and the Prince sent some of his 
guards with him tliitlicr. Then the King desired a pass for France, 
for a gentleman and two servants without name, which was also 
granted. The King, with his natural son, the Duke of Berwick, 
a went 


df S^ Eidiard Elead t Itomm («t A»ebiiler) li^ a 1 k 
^sof; on SuDckj mbaut thttm i/dodt in tlie iDamiiig, aod n^i* cm* 
md ^m ihiBWH At a barge bd Siielbcss^ %«liere lijf « iOUlU vi?»rJ: 
llie Afjsltf llicrcof cumd tud kuidciJ llicm betivc«^ Oilaii mid 
B oa l o iga , m Fjsi>cev oo Tiif^^;, Dceembtr tlie iweiii^-(iHli, 
mbam ihej had pmsds to cotidycl them to Pa^f!^ where hi^ Queea 
ia» gnae befotc : where 111 le^e httit to spend dlie leat of ht& diivt 
■ # MmA superstitbu3 devottoo, tor wkicji 0mm Im hm i^/estitsd 
fifce kiEgdoDis, or nllier thev him** 

Tbe Ckurck at Favenfaam '- dedicated to St. M^ry of Clian^, 
or, as i^Uvtn lecotd it, to th Assuiupdou of our Lad^ of Fate^ 
stain. Wbeo It was otigiiia f ^ynded w iiiikfiowii» but it m^ 
certainty pnor to tiie Norman um^ ; and it was given, by Williani 
tbe CiMiqiiafior, to tbe Abb<^ t>£Su Augustine at Caaterbury, to- 
ediier vhk all the lytli^ of the Mauor, excepting tbe teutlis of 
I rtut paid in com, Tbe present Church is a spadous and 
fiibnc, built of flinty in tbe form of a cross, and coined 
wrilliatOQe. It consists principally of armve, with ai5tes, chancel, aiid 
yt^ with a lig^ht tower at the west end^ oniameiitecl with pinna- 
tennin^ted by tm octagonal spire, seventy-three feet high* 
Tlie outer walb are sustained by strong buttresses, aiid appear of 
tbe 9^ of Edward tlie Second, or Third ; but the interbr parts of 
ll*#. iA#'-t ^tfe rebuilt in the year 175.5, tVom tlie (It^Mgiis, and un- 
der tbe directioo, of the late George Dance, Esq. at the expense 
ef aboat 25601. partly raised on tbe inhabitants by assessments, 
aad partly subscribed by tbe Corporation : tbe tower and spire 
faave beeo erected since:* the length of the Church is 16O feet, 
and lis breadth, sixty-live ; the length of the transept is 1 24 feet. 
la the former Cburcb were two Cha|)els, respectively dedicated to 
St. Tbomas and to the Holy Trinity ; besides various altars and 
nbfb. At tbe west end of the south aisle, to which it formerly 
•peued by semicircular arches, is a large room, now used as a 

a School; 

* Jacob mentions that several Roman bricks were found in taking 
dDwii an aucieat tower which stood in the centre of the cross* in the 
year 1735, 


a MmoI; nd bcneitb fliii ii a Oyfi, m 
€xtAi€ by ibm roond pflla 
bf to tbe north wie of the tower ■ a i 
«rrtfa ctrofif timliers and otfa qwae 
hare iMen the trt^'rjw wfaeie the 
were dqiofrted. 

The Kpulchtal mefDoriab ia As Clmdi are verr ■■■0 
jpet not mainr of ibem are paftk wi a ri|y inMikah l r , On Mm 
the parement of the chancel, are Braaes of two Vican of A 
ibam, one of whom, William Thorioit, who fied b U 
b in the dreM of a Doctor of Law^ standing under a 8crec% 1 
a fadiel abo%e his head, inscribed ifans: 

€ttH\§tm tahim catl^ltoartt-jl 

At top are these arms, argeot, 00 a bend impaled, three i 

and beneath his feet is a gingling Latin inscription in Leoninew 

tbeotberdisplavs tlieiigureof John Redborne, whodiedk 

luary, 1631, and i^ riipresented holdkig a chaike, with the c 

crated wafer over his breast. In the soulii aisle are various mcau 

for different civil officers of FavershaniyOoe of whom, Richauo 

WELL, Mayor in 155 j, is represented by a Brais figure standin 

tweeti hin two wives, with groups of children beneath, and at tb 

ncrs a Welly with the letters C. O. L forming the rebus of his 1 

On another slab arc Brasses of Henry Hatche, mer^hai 

ycnttirer, a Jurat, of this town and liberty, * one of the Ban 

the fyve Ports,' and Joan, his wife; both of whom are repiea 

standing under a rich screen; the former died in 1533. In the 1 

pert of the transept is a Brass in memory of Sem anus Tono^ 

died in 1404, having been Mayor of Favcrsham in the prec 

yr^r, and iti 1401. In the North Cha|)cl, on a large monu 

is the recuml)eiit effigies of Edward Fago, Esq. with a 

female figure kneeling before him; he died in IGI8, in his 

eighth year. Various ancient Brasses, and tombs, beside 

above, remain in difFerent parts of thib fabric.^ The Orga 

built at the charge uf tiic. Corporation, and cost upwards of 




^>i^ the DOrth and soutb doors, are tables recording tfie nmniaw 

rcHis betiefaelioRs that have been made to this Parish : the princi* 

|ial of these^ was a bequest of several estates in Kent and Sussex, 

made by the above Henry Hatchc, for the purpose of applying 

^^ the rents and profits to the use and maintenance of tlie haven 

and cff^k of Favershain^ of the highways belonging to the town, 

tttd of the ornaments of the Church." The estates thus bequeathed « 

were withheld by the widow of the deceased for iniuiy* years; but 

ireieat length adjudged to the CoqK»ration, both by the Ecclejiaa- 

tical and Chancery Courts: the amiual rental is now stated to be 


. On the aordi side of the Chiirch-j-ard is a Free Grammar S^hoal, 
(omded hi the eighteentti of Queen Elizakteth^ and endowed with 
crrtain lands then in the possession of the Crown, but which had 
heeo given to the eighteenth of Henry the Eighth to the Abbey of 
fatershani, by Dr, Cole, a Kentishnian, Warden of All Souls Col- 
lege m Oxford, for the " Jiiaiiiteimnce of a School, wherein xUk 
nonces of the Abbey were fo be instmcted iu g:ramn]ar/* Tlie an- 
ami produce of the etidowuienls is about ninety pounds; the wliole 
of which, aAer deducting the ex[>ense of repairs, and other inci* 
deaUX charges, is paitl to the Master. Here are also two small 
Ckarky SchooU for the instruction and clothing of jKJor boys and 
gikt tbese were established iu I he year l/l^p ^md are principally 
nppcyrted by voluntary subscriptions. The Markti House, or Guild* 
kail, was built in the year 159-^^ of timber^ having au open space 
hftweeu the pillars beneath. At a little distance from the bridge, 
at the bottom of West Street, is a strong chatyheate spring. 

This town has been greatly improved within tlie last forty years: 
Id 1773 it was laid opeu to the higli London road by a spacious 
aveoue; and all the contiguous roails have been iince widened, and 
iKulered more commodious. The streets also, have been new 
(NMed and lighted under the provisions of au Act of Parliament obr 
ttined in 1789* Many of tlie bouses are large and handsome; 
and the mhabitants derive a part of their amusements from a ro* 
jpectable Assembly Roofn, and a Tkcaire. The population of Fa- 
Vou VU. Jan. I8O7. B b b vershaui. 


iKobam^ as fdanied tnider the Act of laoo, monolecl M 556*4) 
tbe number of houses to 570. 

Among the eminent natives of this town, are sereid sonHnie^ 
de Faverskam: of these Hamo db Favsrshaic was a leahMcl 
IVaneisean Friar, who became Provincial of his Order, and died 
in Italy, at an advanced age, in the year 11^44: and SiKON BB 
Faversham, who was Chancellor of theUnhrerrity of Oxfbnl 
about I3Q4. The celebrated rausadan Dr. John WiLsoN, 
also bom in this town in the year 1595; and through Ae| 
ness of his talents, he became a Gentleman of the Chiqid Iqral, il 
tiie reigns both of Charles the First, and Charles the Second, b 
1644, he was created a Doctor of Music at Oxibrdj and hi ifiSfi, 
was constituted Music Professor in that University, and had lodg» 
ings assigned him in BalSol College, which he afterwardi qi^tted^ 
when he resigned his Professorship, on hn advance to the King^a 
Chapel in )662. He died in 1^3, m the seventy-aindi year of 
fab age 

PRES1X>N> or Btsion next Pavenhanh socdied to dbtingnirii 
it from aiiother Parish of the same name near Wmgham, waag jfa u 
to the Church of Canterbury by Kennlpb, King of Mercia, in the 
^arly part of the ninth centuiy, by the name of Cctppan^moM, and 
it still belongs to the Dean and Chapter: its none of BreMcn, or 
Prestentune, is supposed to have been derived from its having beco 
thus early connected with the Church* The village called Prdtoii 
Street, is scarcely a furlong from Faversham, and is within the 
boundaries of that town. The Church is dedicated to St Cathe* 
rine, and consbts of two aisles and a chanod^ with a smaU tiywer 
and spire rising from the east end of the south aisle. In thechan* 
eel on the north side, is a sumptuous, but dilapidated table nuK 
nument of black and white marble, on which lie the full-length 
effigies of RooBR Boylb, Esq. and Joan, hb wife, daughter of 
John Naylor, Gent of Canterbury, who appear to have resided 
at IVesion Hou$e, and whose descendants were ennobled by the 
titles of Earls of Burlington, Cork and Orreiy, Viscounts Carleton 
mmi Boyle, and Lords Carleton and Clifibrd. This monument was 
€ieoted i>y their second son, Sir R6§€r Boyle, Earl of Ce>rk, whose 
3 figure 



weA tol of the tomb, kneelingi lo his robes; at 
the ftgure of his elder brother, Dr, John Boyle, 
of CoHt, Clo^ne, and Ras4i and in front wte smaller 
fig«fC» of dieir three sisters. On a slish, in the juiivenietit af the 
eimod, lie Brasses of VaLKNTINS BaRet, Esq* uad his m(t 
Cktij, ^<rfio ^f^ youngest daughter nnd coheiress of Marcellus 
AHe-Lese, and vrasalso the heiress of ber uncle, Sir Richard Atte* 
of Lees Court: die formerdied in November, 1440; the 
in March, 1442* He is represented iu complete armour* 
at hb feet| a Hon : his lady is in the dress of iJie 
Thm branch of the ancient ^mily of the Barrets resided at 
IVri^r Comrf, in Preston Parish. Oo another slab, b<ffore the al« 
txr, is a Brau %ure, in anuour, with a long sword han^^tng be^ 
§am ^m, luit without helmet or spurs : froni his mouth proceeds 
die miefiee, SPliCtltfttDiaatJnTiii rtcmum cautaboi and beneath his 

tfk iMxn SSillros ®itrF0 iium~f)afiorat»' 9nn{grr ttaUt 
foM (^"^ ac X^anXit drnu^jn in^enBt in ^po patiia tc Unl Uni 
pmUi ^Tittunalln i^nalir 4' auinem ^iftous obiit dtrmo t»ic 
niac 9ii0tiari 9' Dni ^mfUf cuj\ ace. 

^^Pto span 

tbe other memorials is a curious Brass, on a slab in te 
ia memory of Benna Finch^ of Preston, daughter and 
\ of ■ Maycott of Favershara: she died in l6l2* 

Abcsol two furlongs iK>rtlA-wcst from Faver^hani, b the little 
o(f DAVINOTON, neariihich a Nunnery of the Bene- 
Order was founded by Fulk de Newnham, in the year 
itS5v smd dedicated to $t. Mary Magdajen, The original num- 
ber of the nuQg ivas twenty>six ; but, from the scantiness of tha 
feventfecs^ Ifiey were reduced to fourteen in the reign of EdwanJ 
tbe Third i and in the seventeenth year of that Sovereign, they 
Halrd thai, '' from their great poverty, tbey were unable to sup> 
ply die King's public -.lids, without depriving themselves of their 
%M£t m K j subsiileuce.'' From this statement, and from the con* 
tinucd poftrty of the Nunnery, they acquired tbe name of tlie 

B b b 2 PoQT 

74* KMBTT. 

Poor Nuns qf Davingtori; and their nmnben eootmimig to d^ 
crease, as the charges of living advanced, they at length whoB^ 
deserted their estahlishmcnt, in the re^ of Henrj the E^^ilii^ 
and their possessions escheating to the Crown, were aftenmdl 
granted to Sir Thomas Cheney. The Chwrek stfll remainSy tog^ 
ther with the Sisters' House, which adjoins it on the soath, and b 
now inhabited by a fanner. The Church is a small low edifice, prib* 
cipaily consisting of a nave and two aisles, separated by semidrcuhr 
.arches, rising from quadranguUir piers: two other aicfaes, widdi 
cross the aisles at the west end, and evidently formed part of Urn 
original structure, are obtusely pointed. The west entrance opens 
'beneilth a recessed semidrcnlar .arch, richly ornamented with fo- 
liage, &c. and rising from three columns on each side: over this 
?are three round-headed windows, and two smaller ones above: a 
' small shingled tower rises from the north-west angle* These binU-' 
ings are situated on the brow of Davingttm Hill, on which emi- 
nence the Romans appear to have had a burying-place, from the 
urns, cobs, &c. that were discovered here, when the foundations 
of some offices belonging to the Royal Powder Milb were laid 
about forty years ago. 

The Manor of GRAVENEY was purchased of Kenulpli, King 
'of Mercia, by Archbbhop Wilfred, in the year 811, for the use 
of Christ Church, Canterbury; but, on the division of the kmds 
of that Church between the Monks and Archbisliop Lanfianc, it 
was assigned to the latter, of whom it was held at the time of the 
Domesday Survey. It came afterwards into the possession of « 
family sumamed de Graveney; and from them passed m succes- 
sion to the Fevershams, Botillers, Martyns, &c. and is now held, 
though in a divided state, by the descendants of Edward Blaxhmd, 
Esq. who purchased it about the beginning of tlie reign of Geofge 
the Second. The Church is. dedicated to All Saints, and contams 
various ancient memoriab for the respective Lords of the Manor: 
several of the inscriptions are singularly curious, from containmg 
the words * post conquestum Anglia* which, as may be deduced 
from the inscriptions themselves, rehite to some event of the year 
1 1421; 

f4^t; ytt tti€ pftTticiiiar allusion is not apparent.* The ear^ 
Kcst memorial wlierein tlie above words occur^ appears oa th« 
verfe of a very large slab in the tioHb diancel, b memory of 
loHK Mabtyn, who n*as Judge of tbe Court of Kiiig*i Bench m 
Ibe Tt-igfi of Henry the Sistth, and ^^nw, hia wife, daughter of 
Jolm BotBler, both of whom are pepresenled by well-enj^ved 
Bmasest staoditig under a rich canopy* wilb a long itiscHptioii nt 
tteir ftet, and labels proceeding from their mouths; the inscri)^ 
tfOQ roujad the ver^e b as tbilows : 

+ Ibic jacff 3f<^^nf lEF ^afr£n quoiiDam unm Jlustirjariar iDtii 
fi^iiff Hf Cot iranf a. Sl^ui obiif tiiccmnta qparco Hif menjatja 
^ctaBfii Snno DnfiSl^illiir ^C^^^'jrxnri'* rt snrto fSLt^ni ^nm 
net #mi peat tonqviegtu ^i x f quintO'lsrdinD* 9t f asm Smnia 
uFor ouj tie' olirc » « « • « Hirmmjiif * « . anna 
tni ntJlrBfttu) tae^ qmt, a^c. 

On Juiotber slab^ lying loose id the north aisle, are ttie wonb, 

^nn pro antma* ^f^ame ' IBori^rrjs Snnjgi quioBtit ^kr^tma 
pctonUe Sir meudif tiotjrmbi' ^i ccrc^. tii'^. n 3lnno Er^nt 
B^§t0 )])mrjci i^tj:ti poft coniiytstu SnQtic rric^aimo printoru' 

fi b b 3 This 

• May not the expression, post conquestum Anglia, mark the dissa- 
tk&ction felt by some portion of the people at the provisions of the Trea- 
ty called the Peace of Troye, signed in May, 1420, and ratified by 
ihe English Parliament in May, 1421 ; by the twenty-fourth article of 
which it wai declared, that, after Henry the Fifth, or any of his heirs, 
liod come to, tlie * Crown, (of France,) the two kingdoms of PVance 
jsd Eogland shall be for ever united under one Prince;' and that ** there 
iball not be a King in each kingdom, but one and the same King shall 
be Sovereign of both realms, without, however, subjecting one to the 
•cher ?*' Had the rival crowns ever been united on one headi as intend- 
ed by this treaty, it is more than problematical, that the lesser state 
%poiild have been subjugated by the greater; or, in other words, that 
EngUnd would have been held in vassalage by France ! — an event which 
all the power of the world should not be suffered to accompJisb, till ttii 
bat post ^defence be battered into rubbi&h, and the last man buried ia 
iu ruins* 

746 KB9T« 

TUf Boigeys was second bnsbnid to Anwy wife of JM^ Bfail 
madf m her right, Lord of Gmvesqr* 0»athirdilabaie] 
length figure!, in brMs, under a Gothic Kreeny -of 'BkomOi da , 
vtrgham, md Joan his urife; the fanper of whoa is npn wm 
b a cowl, with a forked beard rfthe time of Richard ditfcooi 
found the verge ii an imperfrct inaciiptipn in oU Vtmdu XI 
ion, Rkhardde Fevcrsham, who died m 1981, is connMBOii 
by a |dain aUar-lomb in the sovth wall of the south chanod, € 
which is an obtuse arch, ornamented with trefoil dhiaonsi fgm 
foils, &c. On the tomb is a Brais of a Knight m complete pi 
armour, with a shirt and gorget of mail, a kwgaword, and 
feet oil a lion: at his ade is an indent for apother figure, i 
gone, which, as appears from die inscription round the rergi 
the tomb, . was jnteaded for Robert, Dpdde,: whose daughter 
married to Richard de Feversham, and had issue a dau^ter nis 
Joan, who conveyed Graveney in marriage to John Botiller, 1 
and was buried in tills chancel m 1408* The two latter ap| 
to have been at the expense of glazbg the east window of 
chancel with stained glass, which is still neaiiy perfect, and is 
posed into three lights, on a ground of net^woifc, each square 
ing ornamented with a vine leaf. The centre light displays 
Crucifixion; and the side lights, the Virgin Mary and St. Jc 
below the Virgin, is St. Michael o(»nbating the Dragon; and 
der the Crucifixion, are the arms of Botiller, viz. Sable, tl 
covered cups, Or, within a bordure, urgent; and a label with 
words 3Io^^^Voitletet3o^uj;osf^i0t over all are the arm 
the See of Canterbury. In the east window of the present d 
eel b a well^xecuted portrait of Heuiy the Sixth; and in oo 
the upper lights, the figure of St. John the Evangelist, 

NASH, in tlie Parish of Boughton-Blean, has been for ce 
ries the seat of the Catholic family of Hawkins, one of whom, 
Thomas Hawkins, was an early translator of Horace, and die 
the reign of Charles the First The last possessor left only dai 
ters, one of whom is third wife of Sir Edwiurd Knatchbull, I 
The House is a re^ctable mansion, and was re-built by The 
HawfciOflb ^* ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^' at the age of nmety-two 


KEHT. fir 

the Kore, vaA fines tlie hmom Batigkm EUlh fiooi 

the Imw <if ivhich Uie pfOipects art emioetitly besutifiiL 

Hie Blnor of BOUGIITON-BLEAN bu formed piLrt af the 

of tbe Sec of Cattterbuiy from Uie penod of tbe Coo* 

, «r drKcr. Tbe village called Boughton-Strbet, ex* 

for a ooondenilile kngth aloiig tbe sides of tbe bi^ Lotidoe 

toadlt lad bat tttenl good inos, amd respectable modeni houses^ 

The ObrcA, wfakh stsuKk at some distance to the soutij, is dedi- 

to 5t Peter and St. Paul, and coutaios a great uumber of 

meroorials. AiDoog tbeae are tnaiiy in eomnieiDoratioit 

af Iba BmwkimM of Nask^ the J7oii^« and Fartwelh of B^ea/<y, 

n^lhe Petka oi Coikim, all wUch jilaces aie io tbis I^ri^. The 

banal-ffaoeof tbe fomier ia in the Cliapel of St. James, or, as it is 

mm caBf 4, die oorth cfaaiwel: here, agnmst theea^t wall, k a brick 

taab, ao wbtcb i$a caiiaiii Bnus, r^preaentinglhe deceased in joint- 

mimamamt^ mth btnge^ a very long suord, an<l a niii^ round hisDeck» 

htttao helfoet: over bim are tbe arms of Hawkins, viz. argent. Or, 

Mbie, £ve Beors de lis. Or; crest, on a torce, a bind 

bdoar him k tbi§ bscription in black ktler : 

I nowe that lye within tbti marble stone^ 

Wa« called TfiOMAS Uawkiks by my «amcj 

My terroe cf life, an hundred yearei and one ; 
Kiog Henry ihcigi f •erred whych won me fame. 

Who WIS to roc a gratimis prince iKvayes, 

A&d made me well to fpend myne aged dayei. 

My stature high, my bodye bigge and itrong, 

EiccMtng all that liTcd in myne age ; 
But oature ipent, death would not tary longe. 

To fetch the pledge whych life had layed lo gage* 
My laul daye if thoo desyer to knowe, 
Behold the iigarei written here bclowe : 
15 Martii U87. 

; tbe north ^^11 of tlm cbancel i& an alabaster altar-tonih 
and white marble, on \^hich are the etiigics of Si a Tho-^ 
iUAWKINSi Knt. Jiud Anne, bb wife, daughter of Ciriuck 
B b b I Pettit, 



PetiHy ^« imimbhit on wbtmi aodln-ftont'orAe )^iiMt.m^i 

their duldroi, aevco sont^ and n diiig|iton» b vaimt t 

fiir nimiias died at the age of aiity-eig^ in A|nflf l£l7{ IdiJ 

at tint ofsx^foor, in October, l6l£* Thbi 

merit both m the design and eiecotioii: it was the woik^of,tlai|pr;( 

riuun, whom Walpok has briefly noticed, btft wtthonticArtn^dt;; 

any of his woriu, exoqHiog in a quotatioii from : 

Translation of Owen's Efiigrams.^ 

. The aouth Chapel, formedy dedicsited to 8t Jofali, 

the seats <rfBienky, and Colkins: mthis, among othen^ ^inw^ 

moriab for Sib John Routt, Knt John Pbttit, Esq. ' idMm» 

time Hovshold Sec?ant to Queen Eaiflbeth,' and Cuti ACK PtTia^ 

Esq. who married Florence, a 4aaghler of Richard Cbemodn^ 

Esq. of Bedfordshire, and is represented, with hb wife, aadmnn 

children, by Brasses oki a sbd> in the pavement: be died in 8c|h 

tember, 1591. This '* Cyriak Petit was Fcsdaiy of Kent, an offioa 

of trust and emioeuoe, and drew up a survey of all the nuuHn in 

KeaX, held of the King by Knight^ service^ anno 128th Hsnf 


LEES COURT, m the Parish of Sheldwich, is the seat of George 
John WatsoD, Lord Sondes: for many gedeiaCions, from the 
time of Edward the First, it belonged to an ancient family, snr- 
oamed AttC'Lese, from their residence here» and of whom Sir 
Riciiard At-Lese was Sheriff of Kent in the forty-first of Edward 
tlic Third. Under his WiU, tlie I^Ianpr of Lees Court, aliaii Shekl« 
wicby became the property of William Norton, Esq. son of Lucy, 
lib niece, and in his descendants it continued till the reign of James 
the First, when it was alienated to Sir Richard Sondes, whose fa- 
mily had been long seated in the adjoining Parish of Throwley. 
His son. Sir George Sondes, K. B. who underwent many siifierings 
through his loyalty to Charles the First, and was forc^ to '' com- 
pound for his delinquency," by the paynient of a considerable sum, 
married, for his first wife, Jane, daughter and heiress of Sir Ralph 


* Anecdotes of Art, Vol.11, p. 39, Edit. 1796. 
t Hasied'i Kfent, Vbl. VIL p. 12, 



f rcroan, of Aspeden, in Hertfordshire, by whom he \vas made Hit 
uoiiippy liither of two sons; one of whom, si youth of pmeteen, 
rnnrderecl hb elder brother whilst sleeping in his bed, at Lees 
Court, and for this horrible deed was himself tried at the assises 
then holding at Maidstone, and being convicted, was executed on 
fmom^oo Heath about n fortnri;lit atlerwards. The sorrows of 
Sr6<0fge were aggrai-'ated by tlie tiuiiitics of tlie limes, who pre- 
tended to regard this lamentable event as a judgment of Heaven 
m \h own immoralities, and general conduct. In defence of his 
*|0od name,' he therefore published a ' Narrative' of the lives and 
deiths of hts sonSy in which he details various particulars of his 
cStatel, boepitaUfy, and sufTerings, Among other ctrctim stances, 
he Jtoevtions, that, during the time of the troubles, he had been 
ipivd In his goods, &c. to the amount of nearly 4^0,0001. and 
ibt he had been imprisoned for several years ; at first, on shi^v 
boiid, and afterwards in Upnor Castle. 'J his gen tie man nearly 
rebuilt, and considerably enlurged, the old matision at Lees Court 
during the Protectorate ; anil tlie design for the front, which has 
m air of much grandeur, ii attributed to Inigo Jones. After the 
AmtcuHlion, he was rewardefl for his loyalty, by being created 
Earl of Faversbajii, Viscount Sondes, and Baron of Throwley, by 
Clmrks tlic Second, in the year l6j6. He died in l677i leaving 
ksoe by Mary, his second wife, daughter of Sir Will iam Villars/ 
Bart, two daughters and co-heircsses, by the youngest of whom, 
tbii estate passed in marriage to the iVatsojis, Earb of Rocking- 
and from them, by tlie fejn-ilc hjie also, to the Monsonx^ 
* whom Lewis Monson assumed the name and arms of Watson, 
was created Lord Sondes, by George the Second, in May, 
fj60* His sou, Lewis Thomas, tJie second Peer, ched of a 
bets fever, at the age of fiAy-three, (leeply and generally la- 
He was almost a constant resident ai Lees Coiut, and 
many alterations and improvements in the mansion. His 
: soo» the present possessor, is now only in his thirteenth year* 
In the Chjrch at Throwley, which adjoins Sheldwich, are many 
tnorials of the Sondes, who became possessed of tliat manor by 
riage with an heiress in tlie rei;jii of Henry the Sixths and from 


752 KBNT. 

inch. The entire establishmeDt is for '^ a Master, fifteen In-bio* ^ 
fliers, and the like number of Sisters; one of the fbrmer beinf ^ 
called the Prior, and one of the latter the Prioress; the same . 
munber of Out-brothers and Sisters, and a Reader, who is a Cleik ^ 
m orders."^ The buildings oftheHoq)ital are principally of brick; ■ 
and were chiefly re-erected in the time of James the Second. The 
Chapel, or Church, as it is called, appears to be the original Nonnan 
iabric, and must be regarded as curious, from containing an inter- 
mbture of circular and pointed arches. It consists of a nave ant 
chancel, with aisles opening to the nave, and a square tower at iM 
8ontb-west angle. The south aisle is separated from tiie nave by two 
aemidrcular, and one sharp-pointed arch, rising from octagonal co- 
lunms, one of which has a fluted capital, and a large square base^ 
with trefoils sculptured at its angles. The north aisle b divided frOm 
the nave by two pointed arches, and m its window has a good painting 
of St. John Baptist, vrith a banner, disphiying the Agnes Dei. The 
font is ancient : it is of an octagonal form, with several mouMmgi 
towards the upper pert, the lowermost of whkh has various figure! 
of amraals, &c. on its difierent faces, in li%h relief.* HarUedown 


* Hastcd't Kent, Vol. III. p. 579. 

1 1«* Dancombe's History of the Archiepiscopal Hospital of Caoterbury, 
is an engraving of an ancient and curious Maple Baud, used on the featt 
days of the Hospital, of great antiquity, the rims of which are oftilvac 
gilt ; and in the bottom is fastened a medallion^ representing a Knight 
«n boneback, armed cup-a-pee, the vizor of his helmet up, his staff in 
his right hand, and on his left arm, a shield, with the arms of Beau* 
champ. Beneath his horse is a dragon lying on its side, with its mouth 
open, and darting his sting at a lion. The lion's feet are on the circle 
of the medallion, and his mouth is open, and raised towards the horse*t 
Bose. Eound it are these words: Gy oe Warwic: Adanoun: 
Feci Occis : Le Dragoun. Erasmus, in h\t Peregrinatio Religio* 
nis ergo, mentions St. Nicholases hospital, by the term Mendicabuhim, 
or ahns house ; and describes it as customary for its inmates to offer the 
upper leather of the shoe of St. Thomas a Becket, which was " bound 
with brass, and set with a piece of glass like a gem,'* to all horsemen 
(passengers) to kiss. 



GofTch IS dedicated to St. Midiael, atid consists only of a nave and 
dbttKtl of one pace, opening to each other by a seoiictrcular arch : 
Ihe windows seem to linve been of the lancet form, but have heeo 
opeoed in the pointed manner. Against the 9ontlt wail is a marble 
tablet, inscribed in memory of G. GlPPs^ Esq. who died in 
Februaiy, 1800, at the age of seventy-two, having represented 
the dty of Canterbury in four Parltaments* He resided at Hall 
Place, in thb Pariith^ and tfie estate is now oi'cupied by liis wi- 
dow, but it belongs to Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart, of Chaddesdeo, 
n Derbyshire: the grounds and the situation of the house aie 
tery pleasant. 


TliK origin of this distin^iished City is nnknowii, but there 

cao ht Uttle doubt of it3 having been a settlement of the Britons 

loQg antecedent to the Roman invasion. Its very name, indeed, 

as btmiaed by the Romans, is sufficient to indicatci that it was in 

csisteficc before their arrival; for whether tlie term Duhover^ 

jrUM, be comfK)scd of the words Bivr-u^kcm,^ a rapid stream; 

Dwr-QvonUyi the river- water; Dxur-ar-gucm<r,l the water near the 

fen or niarith; or D^r^AUrf^ the mouth or discharge of the water; 

it must still be admitted to be derived from the British language. 

Geolfrey of Monmouth carries its antiquity to the time of Rudhu- 

Jihras, who, according to tliis historian, lived about 9^0 years 

prior to the birth of Christ; but his testimony has been discredited 

by cveiy subsequent authority. The Gtain naidr, or Druidical 

«bead9« are stilted to have been frequently found here^ as well as 

fbt British weapon'* called cclts^l 

Tlie proofs of the Roman occupation of Canterbury are distinct 
mad numerous, lu the Irinerary^ of Antoninus^ it occurs by the 
appellatiou of Durovemum; and the roads to the Pontes Rutupcri' 
m, to Doverp and to Lymne, br^ched otl* from this city. Many 


^ Catnden. f Leiand. J Lambard § Pcanant. 

I Goughy PcnnaaCj Hasted, and Gostling. 

754 Kiirr. 

cmns fluid Roman ?esseb bare been dug op bere^ fogefterw^ 
remains of buildings, and tessellated pavements of carious \ 
manship: b the city walls, numerous Roman brida bafel 
found incorporated; and three semidreuhr arches, femed with 
the same materials, were standing till towards the ktter cad of 
the past century * In the time of Charles the First, some Robmhi 
arched brick-work was discovered about five or sa ftet bdow the 
ground, in sinking a cellar in Castle Street.f At the beginning of 


^ Two of these were at Riding-Gate, through which the Watfing 
Street entered the Castle precincts from Dover: the third was called 
AVorth-gate, and formed the ancient entrance from the Ashfdrd road* 
The late John lliorpe, Esq. of Bexley, has thus described it in the fint 
part of his Antiquities in Kent. " Worth-gate is, without doubts the 
finest remnant of antiquity in this city, and perhaps the mott entire of 
its kind in the kingdom. — ^The boldness of the arch, consiitmg entire^ 
of Roman bricks, strikes the eye of the beholder with a kmd of vene- 
ration. In the inside, next the castle-yard, the ground has been, nuied 
so much from time to time, that no more than one foot six inches of the 
stone piers, or columns to the springs of the arch, are now to be seea; 
but when viewed on the garden side in the city ditch, the gate makes 
a noble appearance, as the height of the piers is seven feet six inches^ 
lliese pien arc composed of a kind of rag-stone, two feet six inches in 
breadth, which appear to have been squared, but are now irregular 
end uneven, from being much corroded, and mouldered away, throt^ 
the great length of time; whilst the arch, which consists of a double 
row of bricks, remains as fine and durable as ever ; so well had the 
Romans the art of tempering and burning their clay. The length of 
the longest brick, ou the Castle side, is one foot five inches ; the depth 
of the thickest, three inches. The following measurements I took in 
the year 1771 : in the inside, the diameter of the arch is 12 feet 3| 
inches ; it springs from the piers 6 feet, and half an inch ; the piers 
are above ground, 1 foot ti inches. On the ditch side, the height of 
the plinth is one foot ; from that to the spring of the arch, 6 feet 6" 
Inches; breadth of the gateway, from pier to pier, 12 feet 6 inches ; height 
of the gate in the middle, 13 feet 74 inches; thickness of the arch, 2 
ftet 4 inches : the earth raised on the castle side, 6 feet." This account 
is illustrated by two views of the opposite sides of the gate. 

f Battely** ^'^^^^°^'^^'^*' ^^'^'^^^n^' P' ^^'' 



^d^ last centtirr, (lie remains of a fouiidatbt] of Roman bricks were 

^^t:^ found tn disrgtng a cellar in the Parbh of St. Alplia^p and 

i^^ietal of the bricks, mea.^anug seventeen inches and a half, by 

^e^ren inclics anfi thr^ quarters^ were taken up wliole; and " I 

^xn told,** says Battel^f who nieiitioiLs the last discovery, ^ of a 

ftoman pavement of mosaick work^ whereof 1 have some of the 

l^tle square stones by nic^ found in digging a cellar in St. Marga- 

trt's Pansfa.*^ in the year 1730, as sip]>ears from the Mixintes of 

the Society of Antiquaries, <] noted by Mr, Gough, a tine Roman 

me of red earth, of an elegant shape and puttem^ wilh the in* 

idption TARAGET DE TEV' E, was found ficar I his cify^ toge- 

therwith a brass lachrymatory ,t '^ns gentleman has also engrai'ed » 

representation of a Roman altar, formerly in rhc possession of the 

Ute Rev. W. Gostling^ of this citv.t Hasted mentions another 

ftoQum pavement^ discovered near Jewry Lane, in the year 17S9» 

IMI tnore than three or four feel below tbe level of the ground. 

XklOMmr were of ^ burnt earthy red, yelbw, black, and white; 

MSm ihape and sizes diierent ; some near an inch over ; otbei9 

wmy sntall^ laid on a bed of cement of such hardness, and so thick, 

tittt with care it might have been preserved enture^ hut, for waul 

o^ that, it was broken into three or four pieces, someofwhicii 

iVdf afterwards carried away and joined.'* The whole extent 

c^MlM not be ascertained for party waMs; wli<tt was saved, wa^ 

mbout three feet broad, and live long. 

Iti tJie time of the Saxons, Canterbury oblaitied the ap|iellalioii 
^ C^irU-wttra^byr^, or tlie Kentishuien's cit>'; and Bede, speaking 
of it in retcrcnce to the arrival of Sf. Augustine, calls it C^put 
Impaij Rtgis Ethclherti; * tbe chief place in all the dominion rf 
Kbg Etljelbert/ On the conversion of this ISIonarch to Christia- 
%, he rehnquisiied his Palace here, and granteft it in |>erpetuity to 
iigmtoie, and his successors, together witii the lands which after* 
nrds formed the immediate demesnes of Christ Cliurch. Soon 


* Battcly*» Somncr, p. 102. 

f Mliuooi to Camdeti, V'oi. L p. 236. 

Ibid, pi, 13. % U. 

aAttwdriby the Apoi^'hAnag pniagirtd 
IBiggery, who badioiftertcd hia mtk airiiiqiiiiohpii 
choke of Canteibuiy for tho foit of the nwtiofoli&d 
l^enoce to the city bf Loodoo* wheve an 
itited to hsfe been prevkHuiy fixed id the 
«feDt gave new unportaaoe to CenteilMiiy, «id nqr be 
«ithepiiiiGi|Ml€aiiaeofitstubieqiieBtgRatiie6i. The 
jef its Ecdeaiuticel hktory wiy, however, be ieaeirved fiir 

Very little oocun in the annals of this city, independent of ' 
I of the Church, till the Danes began to carry 
lapine into every part of the Island* Tlie vidnty ' ef 
fcory to the Isles of Thanet and Shepey, vHiere the 
winteied after they had commenced tfieir destmtetive nrariiet # 
fbk Ungdomy was the caose of the mhabilants suflfaring gica^oK 
IDities. In the year 851, the Danes hnded from 560 Mp$i ilA 
laid the dty waste:* about the year 918, they had 
fMMsession, but are recorded to have been besieged, and diivta'dil 
)fif the Princess Elfleda, the magnanimous daughter of the^gfMI 
Alfind : in thb siege, the city is stated to have been bunit ^^ % 
I0Q9» the inhabitants, according to Biompton, pordiaaed A'shoil^ j 
lived peace of the Danes, at the enormous expense of dOi,Od(M; ' hk \ 
the year 1011, the Danes agam besieged Canterbury with a Strom , 
force, and during a contest of twenty days, exerted every effiift to ; 
overpower the inhabitants. They raised hilb of earth, built towtrs, 
employed batteiing-rams, and dischaiged fiery arrows into the cilj 
from warlike machines, in order to set fire to it. They at length, 
succeeded in forcing an entrance, partly throu^ the treachery of 
Archdeacon Elmer, and partly through the imprudence of its de> 
faiders, who seeing their houses in flames, hurried firom the wiAt 
to preserve their families, forgetting that, by this conduct, tfaeji 
left the way open to their enraged and barbarous enemies. The 


« Sim. Dunelm. CoL 130. 
f Lambard'i Peramb. p. 294. Edit. 1576^ 

ftmvtd Um gsta, md mtmng tlic city witli I 
md ine pMtod of tmiapets, comiiieiiccd tlie work o 
Ik tfnaeld weie co^'d^d with dead bodicA, utul mnn} 
from the WAlh. Wctnicn were seen dniggcil h 
the streets, and, at'icr hdni^ €X|K)sed to ev<;ry «!», > 
into the iames. Tlie vcr^ inftiiiU wen- f 

br£r.ists^ aiui either tlirowa into tl»c mr^ u^ vHi 
«i ribe (Kjtiit^ of spears, or laid imder tl»e wherU c 
mi cfttihed to pkces. Ndther age nor sex was cxei t trQui 
At9MNd; aad ercn wbeu " firat iinpul^ of ihdr ^^^^ had 
Imo «i«i«lcd, the Opines by a rtfiuement upon cryc^lty, uUtiged 
Ike Mrvivori to cmst jot^ mid ttie leitth [itmm only wa^ au^er^ 
mlive. Thus peri^tied tiearlv SOiX) p4:rfti>n«; the few who 
weie, perhaps, MilJ eater ^ullerers ttmti ihonf who had 
; and were carried eaptivts la the Dtittbh canifi 
«Grniiw4di« Amoog diese wai Aljihage, or £l|)b<?|j» tJje Arth- 
liibQfi, who, after elevefi juootlis lapliijty, was at last barbarously 
fUt IQ dettth, foe refa^fig to cottsent to the pnynient of an c?corbJ* 
IM ranfiom.* The greater [>art of tlie city was, oq this occa&ioiT^ 
lonit to a^tef, together with tlie Cathedral to its hare waJb^f 
ilfter Ute deali} of EdmiiGd Ironside, and the usurped Micce^bn 
^e lESigdcMii foo&d some repose ; the Danish IMonarch 
to have contributed towardit the re-peo|*liiig of \hh city, 
md^ assuted, by his nuuiiHceure, i^gehtoth, who had succeeded 
livingui, the fucces^or of Alphage^ in the A re 1 1 bishopric, com- 
pleted the repairs of the CatJiedral, wluch his predecessor bad 
Qonnpeticed. From this period^ Canterbury graduMDy recovered 
froiii tJie fiesdated ^ate into which it had been so recetilly tlirown^ 
md at the time of tlie Domesday Survey, bad again l>ecome a 
CttMideafcble cfly. 

In '' Civitaie Carumria,'* says the Domesday Book, *' King 

BAmrd liad dfiy-^me BorgesMs, yiekting rent ; and two bundred 

¥oL.VH. Ian. I8O7. Ccc and 

* 9i« the paniculars of his Murder, p. 4(>8,-9. 
t Suhm'i Hut. oij^^m^rk. Vol. ill. p. 390, ^ <^« and Qibcm. 

75S KBKT. 

aiid twelve others, oh which he had nc and loe. Now tbe ] 
gesscs yielding rent, arc nineteen : of the thuty-two otheia^ 
are destroyed in the city-ditch, ftutu vastati 1 1 imfimaio CivkatissJ 
llic Archbishop lias of them, seven; and the Abbot of St Ai^pw- 
tiiie'd has the other fourteen, by exchange of tbe Castlb ; ami fli 
yet, there are 212 Burgesses, on which the King has nc wad aoe; 
and three mills, yielding lOSsliillings; and toll, yieldii^ nty'^q^ 
sliilUugA. — ^Two hoiujcs of two Burgesses, one without, the other 
within the city, a certain Monk of the Churdi of Canterbtity tiMMk 
away: these were built on the King's higliway.— The Bui|;eaKS 
had forty-five luausioiis without tbe city, of which they had rant 
aud custoru ; but tlie Kiug had sac and soc: these BuigcsMS had 
also of the Khi; thirty-three acres of meadow for their gaiU : 
tiiese houses, and thb kiiid, Kanulf de Columbels holds: he has 
also fourscore acres of land, which tlie Burgesses held of the Kiqg 
in fee simple : he holds also ibur acres of land, which of ii§^t be- 
long to a ccrtuui Church. For all these, the same Ranulf vouches 
the Bisliop of Baieux as his protector. Radolf de Curbespine has 
four maibions in the city, whidi a certain concubine of Harold 
hud : — the same Radulf holds eleven other mansions in the dttyy of 
the Bisliop of Baieux, which yield eleven sliillings, and two pence, 
and one hahiMMuiy, rent. Throughout the whole dty, the Kkg 
has sac and soc, except of the land of the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, aud of St. Augustine, and of Queen Eddive, Arnold Cih, 
llsbern Hiu'n, and Sirct de Cillcliani.'* Besides some further par- 
ticulars described in this invaluable record, concerning rents paid 
to the King, the highways, and the privileges of tlie Archbishop, 
it states, tiiut the Archbishop himself " has in the city of Canter- 
bury, twelve Burgesses, and thirty-two mansions, whidi the cferks 
of the villc hold in their guild, and they pay thirty-five shillings; 
and one mill, of five sliilhngs." 

I'rom the abf>vc particulars it may be concluded, that Canter- 

' bury had as;ain hecoiue |>0|)ulous; and still more so, if full credit 

he i;iveii to the assertion of Stow, who atfinns, that, * at the time 

of the Conquest, il exceeded Loudon in its buildings/* By whom 

•* Survey, Book III. p. 215. 


Castle, mentioned in the Survey, woserMted, doea not appear) 

y^^^ as tilts fortress is not noticed in any former wrttinj^ no%v ex* 

t»«3€, the probibilily is, that it was built by Uie Conriueror, for 

^^<^^ purpose of awiriti; Ute Sjxons into obei'ience; the principle up* 

on wliieb hit military policy was chiefly fotiiidcd i the remuitts, 

iffjich j>>till exist^ evince it to bp u Normtitt htiildliif^. 

* In the year llO'i, Canterbury was consumed by fire ;• and in 

f»l74, according to Henr\ of nunti%'doji, and Brompton, ano- 

itier fire destroyed great |>art of the city* togclhcr with most of 

tlie Cburcbes, and at len!!:th the Catheilral itself* Gervase, how* 

^ver, m ^fonk of Christ Church, and one of the moat volumfnoua 

f H i l qi of this period, who was an eye-witness of the contJasjrution 

of the Cuthednily doe!» not mention the burning of the city at Una 

lime; though he notices another tire, by wtiich it was much da* 

Hinged in the year 1 1 80. The minuteness of liia slat emeot) indeed, 

reacting the Calhedral, and liis ab&ohite silence in regard to the 

dty» fender the accounts of the combustion of the latter, in the 

ycvr t I7^i extremely doubtful. His words are^ timt, ** on the 

fiHi«''^ ' i!iOUt nine oVlock* the wind blowing from the 

Milt nnost beyond concejitJon, a lire broke out be* 

fbre the church-gate, without the walls of the church*yard| by 

whirh three smull houses were almost bunit down* While the 

ntiftus were there a<>embledy and employed in exiinguishing the 

flaoies, the spark.^ and ashes, whirled alofl by the violejice of the 

>tdnii» were loilged on the church. atid» by the force of the wind, 

minuBliiig tlienij^clves between the joints of the lead^ settled on 

Ibt f^irikSt which were nImoKt rotten; and thus by dei^rees, the 

licsit incri"'.Lsinc, the detnyed joists w*ere set on fire. Atter this, 

tlif br|:e ni<<cr5» with tlieir hjofaturcs^ no one seeing orregarding» 

tuok lire: below, the cielrntj finely f tainted ; above, the sheets of 

IfstA, concealed the fire that mt^cd within. Meantime^ the tliree 

^u\\ houses, nhich had occasioned this misfortune, were pulled 

ikmti. and the lumull of the |)eo)>le bein«» iippeased, all rHunied 

bonjf, Christ Church alone, no one being >cl apprised of it, was 

C c c 2 opfiressed, 

760 xiim 

uppnaSMGy u 11 wcnBy whu mwMift mviib cor wB-nnni m 
their Matures being on fife^ and the Isme tiHif ewB III the tqp 
of the roof, the sheets of lead, wabfe aoj longer Id nmtimt 
Biuchheat, began by d^rees to nwk. The lanpeitaMMt wiad, ttaa 
finding a free fnssage, incieaaed eiticiiieljthefiiiy of Iheia^v 
flames; and lo! on a sudden, theflaaMsjwtapfeiring, IheKinv 
a great cry in the church-yard, * AiasI Atai! the chnidi boa 
fire/ Many of the hiity run together with the aM»ka; dnriT! 
bratidiBh axes, mount ladders; Mger to soocoor 
BOW just on the point of destructioii. Thqr cached die foo^ airf 
behold! aU was filled with a homhle smoke, and a acdidnag^hiwt 
mdespah*, therefore, diey were obBged to consok IhehroiHi wifa^j^ 
by rething. And now the joists of the rafters, and of the|ieg^ 
beng consumed by the fire, die hal^humt timbers fidl down iHto 
the choir upon the seats of the mooks, which b6og dins set on fiet 
by the great mass of tmiber, thecahunity isiocRasedooaUjides^ 
In this conflagration, a wooderfid, or rather a numculoaiaf|^i|if 
peared; for that glorious choir, coosmned by flames^ imniipud 
itself still worse: for the flames, bcreased by suchaheaf^ of*itiiV^ 
her to the hei^t of fifteen cubits, burnt the intkf and eipedid^ 
the pilhirs of the church««*Thus the house of God, hitherto de* 
hghtAil, like a paradise of pleasure, then lay contemptibie in dm 
ashes of the fire; and reduced, as it were, to a solitudcy waaca^ 
posed to the kijuries of the weather^— Not only the choir wascoQ- 
sumed in these flames, but also the Infirmary, widi St Mm^s 
Chapel, and some other oiBces of the court." 

In the year 1247, St. Mildred's Church, and great part of tlm 
city, were again consumed by fire:* and *' nowe lately, and lasdj/^ 
says Lambard, ** in the reigne of King Henrie the Eight, it wai 
in some partes bkisted with flame, wherein (amoi^ other thi^gi) 
divers good bookes, whicbe a Monke of St. Augustines bad brouigbt 
'from bqpoode the seas, were brought to asbea.'^t 


* LeL ColL Vol. I. p. S66. 

t Peramb. of Ktat, p. 336. Edit. 1576. 


The EccUsiasticai History of Canterbury is peculiarly irapor- 
tatlt^ not only when locally coDsidered, but likewise fram its close 
comifctiofi with the general annals of the kingdom. In thit city^ 
and its imniediate vicinit)-, tlie menhd daikne^s of the Saxons was 
ftrsi tllumioafed by the tight of Revebtiou ; and the barbamm of 
it character ameliorated by the mild tenets of the Chri»traij doc- 
It wa> not, indeed, in the time of Augustine, though he be 
bouored with the illostrious ai^pellation of ApQsile of Britain, that 
the enltghtef ling beams of Chmliiinity first shed their salutary in*lu- 
enoeoci this bland. Even in the Roniaji titnos, cou$idt'rtible|jrogres« 
Ikild been tnade in the conversion of tlte inliRbituiits; <vet the fe» 
moos wars that preceded the departure of the Ramairs, and 
i, with but little intermission ^ tor upward^t of a century 
gave a complete triumph to pHganism, Previously 
|0 Ikb, however, various Christian Cluirches had been erected in 
Dt dties; even as early, according to some writers, as tho 
I century: of these St* Martin's^ on the cast side of Canter- 
y, k aiiid by Bcde to have been built by the * believin* Rornaus;*^ 
be somewhat difT^'rently states it in another place, * in an- 
tthnes, whilst as yet the Romans inhabited Britain/f Thisfap 
was i^ill standing when Augustine was invited to Canterbury 
r King Etbelbert, and was by him again appropriated to tlie pro* 
'' tuition of the Christian worship. 

The mission of Augustine originated with Pope Gregory the 
Bm, who, according to several early historians, had been in* 
loencsed in his determination, by tlie feiglit of some young children, 
ot Eiiglith parents, who had been sent to Rome to be »old, from 
jhit part of the Island caJled the Kitigdoni of DeVni. Gregory 
wo tlien Archdeacon of Rome, and being much atiecled at the 
itite of the Angles, that could thus sutler them to expose their 
ami progeny to sale, he resolved to attempt their cou version in 
posoii. His design, however, was superseded by local circuni- 
C c c 3 slaiKes ^ 

^ Eccles, Hiit, lib, I- cap. 55. 

f Hif words are, Ant iqititxa facta dum ad/tuc Romani Bntummm 
incoiercnt, ibid* u 2C, 

762 KENT. 

stances; yet he still clierislied the nnpube; and when he was hini« 
self promoted to the Papal Chair, he made choice of forty Bene-. 
dictine monks, with AugustiMe at their head» as Abbot, toforward.- 
the execution of his long-meditated project:' 

The situation of aflairs in Britain was fiivorable to his putpoae*, 
Ethelbert, King of Kent, who was then the nominal head of tbe^ 
states of the Heptarchy, had married Bertha, daughter of Chaii- 
bert, King of Paris, and niece to Chilperic, his brother and soc-. 
cessor. Previous to the marriage, Ethelbert engaged that the,- 
Princess, who had been educated as a Christian, should be alkm^ 
ed the free exercise of her religion, and permitted to bring over. 
with her, a certiiin niimber of ecclesiastics. Her prudence and. 
amiable qualities, procured her the entire esteem af EAhelbert,. 
who was thence mduced so frequently to listen to her convenntioQ 
on the truths of tlie Gospel, that his attachment to Paganism be*; 
<:ame gr<idually weakened. Tliese drcumstances prepared the way* 
for the success of Augustine, who landed at Ebbs Fleet, in the 
Isle of Thanet, in the year 596, with his forty companions; and 
immediately dispatched a messenger to Ethelbert, to mfoim him 
of his coming, and of the purposes of his mission. Ethelbert 
ordered him to await his attendance on the spot where he had 
landed; and within a few days^ accompanied by his Queen, be. 
went into the Isle of Thanet, vi here seating himself in the open, 
air, he corantand^d tlie strangers to be brought before bun, and 
abked them f what they had to propose?' Augustine replied with 
firmness and animation ; and, in a long harangue, endeavoured to 
convince him o{ the truth and utility of Christianity. * Almoit 
thou ptnuadcit we to he a Christian,' might have been the reply of. 
Ethelbert to Augustine^ as it was of Agrippa to Paul : that it waa 
couched in the same spirit, his words, as repeated by Bede, evi* 
dently prove: *' Your proposals are noble," said the Kuig, " and 
your promises inviting : yet 1 cannot resolve up^n quitting the reli- 
gion of my ancestors, tor one that ap|>€ars to me supported only 
by the testimony of ptT:sons who are entire strangers to me. Shice, 
however, as I perceive that you have uiidertaken so long a journey 
p|) i)urpose to impart to us those things which you deem most im- 


pottant and valualilef you shall in>t be sctit a^ 

satbfactioa. I will take care ihat you iliail be trt 

iod siqiplied with all thiols itcressary and couf« 

of mv |ieo])le, cotiviiiced by your argutut^nts, ( 

yiom ^ikb, ! will UQt oppoM: it.^ lie then, al tl 

tkft, indted tbe mksiouaries to Canlerbun^, if 

fiusiion to ex|>iain toe principles of llmr religion L 

Ifait pitrpoie, tlie Qui^ea a^sigiietl to tJTein htv owl 

k itiled lo have beeu tbat already nieiitiotied m havu.^ . , 

d iu the Roman limes, aiid wlitcb Luidtia ^ ^ j 

who liad accoLnpiimc<E Ikrlba from FraiK^;^ .._ , ' 

aad tledkated to St. Murtio.* 

Tlje zeal of Auguisliue ami his brethren, ruid the energy with 
wbich they enforced the argLiinetits of ibeir beltcf, very strongly 
opetated on ibc minds of the Saiions ; and nmuy of ihcm, among 
were seveml nobles, embrared Christmnity. Etlielbertp in 
bttast much admiration bad been excited at the swift prt>- 
gt^B of ill e tMW fktith, profes««ed his desire to be more j^artietdarly 
matnicted in the grounds of its natnre and evidence. This exanii* 
nalion produced conviction; and at length, after freqnent con- 
JiErences with Angn$Uiie» and through the |>ersuasionsof his Queen, 
lie consented to receive baptism in the y^r SDf. Uh conversion 
was the harbinger of complele success: muhiludis of his suhjoHi 
were baptised daily ; the Pagan Temples were deserted, or re-o[)en- 
ed as Christiao Churches ; and these becoming insufHcient for the 
hourly increasing number of votaries, the foundation of a Cathe- 
dral was laid ; whilst Ethelhert, in a pure spirit of devotion, re- 
agned his Palace to the use of Augustine, and went and resided^ 
with his court at Reculver. So eager were the Saxons to receive 
tiie Gospel, that some thousands were in one day baptized in tlie 
liver Swale. 

Shortly after the conversion of Ethell)ert, Augustine proceeded 

to Aries, in France, to be consecrated a Bishop; and, on hb re- 

C c c 4 turn, 

* St. Martin died in 395 : he had been Bishop of Tours in France, and 
was held in great veneration for his sanctity. 

764 KCMT. 

tuniy he tent two of Ins ocMnpuuoiB^ ninM JuUkfe iiia unvreMCy 
to Rome, to iaform the Pope of the aooomplUiiinit-of fab nb- 
sion, and to request his dhrectioD on several points of ffrferiisticrf 
jurisdiction. Oregoiy reodved the accounts of his sncoesi wilb 
the utmost satisfaction; and, as a rewaid, invested him with aiu 
chiepiscopal authority, and gave him pre-endneoce over allihe 
prelates that either were, or should he, estahlUied in Britain, doK < 
ing the remainder of his life. He appears, also, to have sufibetf 
him to choose his own dtyibr the establishment of the Metro* 
political Chair; and Augustine, probably fiom its having been the 
scene of his eariy sucoessi fixed it at Canterbury.* 


^ The Primacy of rbe Archbiahopt of Canteibory in 
afiin, though tfaut immediately delegated from the Fbpal See^ waa 
not completely ettabliihed for many yean ; and even the fising of the 
arcbicpitcopal chair in tbii city, was not acquieiced in without oppositkau 
The authority of the Archbishops was, however, itrengtbened by va- 
rious letters, rescripts, and decreet, transmitted by diflRnrent Popes* 
According to William of Malmsbury, Boniface the Fifth, in answer to 
a communication made by Archbishop Justus, the third in socceiiiott 
from Augustine, wrote these words: '< We will and comuiand yoo^ 
that the Metro^pditical See of all Britain be ever hereafter in the city 
of Canterbury : and we make a perpetual and unchangeable decree, 
that all Provinces of this Kingdom of Engktnd, be for ever subject tv 
tbe Metro-political Church of that place.*'** To this document a re- 
script is annexed by Malmsbury, that was addressed to Archbishop lio- 
norius, by Pope Honorius, in the year 634 ; and in which occur the 
following words : " W^e therefore command all the churches and pro- 
vinces of England, to be subject to your jurisdiction ; and that the Me- 
tro-political See, and archiepiscopal dignity, and the Primacy of all the 
Churches of England, be fixed and renuin in Canterbury, and never be 
transferred, through any kind of evil persuasion, by any one, to any- 
other place." t 

Of&, tbe powerful King of Mercia, made some attempts to lessen 
the dignity of this archiepiscopal dty ; and by bis influence with the Papal 
Sec, he procured an Archbishop's pa// for Adulph, Bishop of Dchfield ; 


• Malm. De Gestis Pontif. I. 1. p. 208. f |bid. p. 109. 



*TTje Palace of King Elbelbcrt was convcrtetl, by Augustine, 

}fg^ a PRIORT of his own order; aiid berein^ both hioiself, and liii 

^QceOBors, till the accession of Archbishop Lanfranc, lived in one 

. «OlMDU°^^f as well in respect to goods, as to other possessions. 

lit also, in conjuncHon with Ethelbert, fonnded an Abb £Y just 

without the city walls, on the east side, as a place of sepulture for 

biiDself, suid bis successors in the See of Canterbury; and for the 


ind obtained a decree, alio, by which all the Biihops of Mercia, and 
tffD of those of Cait Anglia, should be lubject to the new Metropolitati. 
Onthedeaih ofOdo, however, the See of Canterbury regained its su- 
prtmacyj by the general suffrage of the people, and the consent of King 
I Ceituipb, who wrote a letter to the Pope on this occasion, in which be 
lUld, that, *' Because Auguitine, of blesied memory, who, in the 
time of Pope Gregory, preached ihe word of God to the English nation, 
tod preiided over the Saxon Churches, died m the same city, and tliat 
ha body was buried in the Church which his successor Lawrence dedi<> 
cattd to St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, it seemed good to the 
Wise men of the nation, that the Metro-polittcal dignity should be fixed 
ia titat city, where rested the body of hrm who planted ihc truth of 
the CTiriftian Faith in those parts/' Od these grounds, al) that had 
beta done by King Uffa towards limiting the jurisdiction of the See of 
CiQtrrbury^ was declared null and void, by the then Pope, Leo the 
'Hie aathoritY of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and the proper ex* 
tat their junsdlction, were next contested by the Archbishops of 
Tcrk, and the disputes continued during several cenTuries. The Arch« 
Hi^KipiGf York endeavoured to establish a claim to the dioceses of ISm- 
^, Worcester, and Hereford, on arguments derived from the inequa- 
^yof the extent of the two provinces; that of York having been de- 
I of the whole Kingdom of Scotland, which having procured a Pri- 
eof its own, no longer paid any obedicDce to itiancitnt head, lliejf 
A claimed exemption from the jurisdictiun'Of the Archbishops of Can- 
I in reipect to consecration and benediction in the Church of 
Cittteitury ; alleging their right to be consecrated in thtir own Church 
at York, either in a provincial synod, or by their own sulTragan Bishops; 
lai by this means they might stand excused from acknowledging any 
1 of rjbjtctioii, or obedience, to the Metropolitan of this city. All 


766 KENT. 

King, and his nicoessorsy Kiogf of Kent: the practice of buryiag 
io cities being prohibited by a law of the twelve tables, wfakh ap« 
pears to have been then ui force. This Abbey Augustine dedicated 
to St. Peter and St. Paul; but it was afterwards called Si. Augiu* 
tin/s, from his own name. The Cathedral^ though not completed 
at the time of bis death, he dedicated to ' Our Saviour Chriit;' 
and it is still generally called Ckrist Church; though Aithbisliop 


their efforts to obtain the admission of these claims, proved unsuccesiAil» 
though punued with the most tt^nacious ardour. At length. Archbishop 
Lanfranc procured a bull from Pope Alexander the Second, appointing^ 
the cause to be solemnly argued before the King, William the Conque- 
ror, the Bishops, and the Nobility, at Windsor Castle. Tht dccisioa 
was in favor of the Archbishops of Canterbury ; and this decision was 
referred to in two subsequent bulls ; the fint addressed by Eugeniut the 
Third, to Archbishop Theobald ; and the last, by Alexander the Third, 
to Archbishop Becket in lltiT : in both which, these words are repeat- 
ed : " that he,** the Pope, " granted to the Archbishop, and hit suc- 
cessors, the Primacy of the Church of Canterbury in as full and ample 
a manner, as the same had been enjoyed by Lanfranc. Anselm, or any 
of his predecessors ; and did also confirm whatever dignity and power 
had been exercised by any of them under the authority of the Apostoli- 
cal Sec, since the time of the blessed Augustine.** 

In the time of Archbishop Becket, and during his contentious struggle 
with Henry the Second, Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of London, made a vi- 
gorous attempt to transfer the Patriarchal Chair frcm Canterbury to 
London ; and, in defence of this design, he boldly asserted, that the 
^letrc-pclitical dignity did of ancient right belong to the See of London, 
and that he owed no obedience to the Church of Canterbury. With 
all his ingenuity, however, he proved unable to carry his point ; and 
when locket regained the fullness of his authority, he forbade, in a char- 
ter concerning the liberties oi his Church, any one te attempt a like 
claim in future, under pain of an anathema. 

Another dispute, which lasted nearly 300 years, arose between the 
Sees of Canterbury' and York, respecting the claim of the Archbishop 
of the latter, to have his pastoral cross borne erect before him, when 
within the province of Canterbury. This contest was pursued with all 
the vehemence of passion; and, in the second year of j£dward the Se- 




[^■Biiisiic, on rebuilding it from the grouuiK VM!OQsccFatcd it ta 
fS»« lioaor of ll^ Holy Trinity^ Augtistine flit'd in 605, and wat 
iVBe«rred wilhiii ibe uulimshed Abbey of St, Pclcr and St. Piiul: lie 
I9 dt^rib«fl as buvinc; been a man of Uill slalure, and of h grac^ 
^mM. mieD aiKl ad 1 tress. 

Jjotgrtfwt^ Uie second Arcltl>islioji, who bad accompanied Ai*-, 
^ 00 bis niis^n, and bad been bv biui noiniuatcil to succeed 

cc»<3d> (anno 130D«) Hobert \Vinche1»ea, Archbi»bop of Canterbury^ 
11^22 c^enuodrng that the Archbishop of York intended to come to tl>e 
p-^a rliamcnt^ then about to meet in London, with hi* cross borne erect 
kc^ Cufe him, »ent a imperial mandate to the Bishop of London^ command- 
ir^S^ him to watch the coming of the Archbishop of "^'ork, and • inhibit hi» 
«^«.snig forward in that mannerr* Notwiihsianding thii, the Archbishop 
og" York came to his house, near Wefttnintter, with his cross borne erect 
^^iktre him ; on which the Archbishop of Canterbury immediately pbceci} 
i^mcicr ecclesiastical inierdicr, all the places through which the other had4 
j>^b«icd, or rested in. llic King endeavoured to clfect an accomniodatioiij«^ propoied, by ihe ii)arls of Gloccster and Lincoln^ '* that the two 
.^.r^Jsbuhopi should «ach day come to Parliament* alternately, in eadi 
ot.Vief'i absence :' this the Archbishop of Canterbury, after consultation 
wtch hii suHragans, refu&cd to accede to, and sent word, that, ''neither 
hVmtelf, nor any of his suffragan Bishops, would attend Parliament, so 
\ryng at the Archbishop of York was there, or in the city or suburbs of 
LjcMDdon, with hii cross borne before him ; and that he would never, on 
tfiyiermSf consent, that the Archbishop of York should bear up hit 
cr*i«i in any place within the province of Caiiieibury.*' Un ihis^ tike. 
KtBg, with the advice of the Nobility* commanded the Archbishop of 
Vork to depart beyond ihe limits prescribed ; which injunction he obey- 
ed^ and immediately returned to York* i'hiti singular contest was at 
kst cotDpromised : and ilic inurument of the comp^jsition was conurmed 
hf ihe Pope : by this it was agreed, that either Archbishop, when ia 
llie other's province, should have his crott borne up before htm ; but 
llian every Archbirhop of York should solemnly send *'a messenger with an 
tuiAfi of gold, of an Archbishop sustaining a cross, or some like wrt of 
Jewfl in goid, of ibe value of 40L sterling, to be dfered at the shrine 
dSt'Tbomat a Ikcket, in Canterbury.*** 

^ Sec the psrtkuhr autliorittes for this note in fiattely's Somneri P, II. p. 
37—43; and Appendix, 

to the vmbC See, endeavauRri to estiend Oe l iiotifc< % e oTtho 
ChiiitiHi doctrine to die remotest puts of Britafa: ke abo wcat 
tinself to aaiist ia the coofenkmoftiie Scots aiid bob, bvttho 
ioeeess of his jomney was not great* He <fied ia 619, ha^fag 
written sevend exhoitathre qmtles, to the Soottah, Irirfi aad Bri* 
lUi Chmdies. 

Jdelliim, his successor, whom Angasrine had made Bishop «f 
I/ndoDy was a man of pre-eminent [nety and merit. By him, tho 
East Saxons had been converted to Christianity; and Sebert, their 
King, had, at his instance, founded the Cathedral of St. And, far 
LoodoD. On the death of Sd^rt, however, his three sons, aad 
sacessors, rehqpsed into Paganism, and MeUitus was drifea ttmm 
Us Bishopric, and, after a short residence m Kent, he went w$m 
Ranee; but was invited to return by Eadbald, the soeoessor of 
ikhdbert, by whose inflnenee he probably obtmed thepatiiudial 
ciMHr on the death of Lawrence. He died of the goot^ in Apifl, 
624. Juiln$, his successor, who was transited from the See of 
Kochester, of which he had been appomted the first IMiop \ff 
Augttsdne, died in 627; and was succeeded by Hcmorius, yet net 
t3l the Archbishopric had continued vacant about eighteen mondis» 
lliis ]»ehite is, by some writers, stated to have been the first who 
instituted the division of ecclesiastical districts into Pamket; though 
the leaned Selden, and some others, attribute the forroatioo of 
parishes to Archbishop Theodore, the second in succession fiom 
Honorius. They admit, however, that he divided his province 
into new bishoprics or dioceses: he died in 654. DtuS'Deiit, or 
Fritkona, tiie successor of Honorius, was the first native of Br»* 
tain that became Archbishop of Canterbury. He possessed consi^ 
deiable learning ; and is said, by Pitseus, to have written * Me- 
moirsT of the Lives and Actions of his Predecessors. 

The seventh Archbishop was Theodore, a Greek, who was ap- 
pointed by the Pope, Vitellianus, on the recommendation of Adrian, 
Abbot of Thiridanum, near Naples, and afterwards Abbot of St« 
Augustine's at Canterbury. He was consecrated in Rome, at the 
agje of sixty-six, and immediately departed for Eoghmd, yet he did 
AOt arrive till after the expiration of eighteen months. His pro^ 



gRM bad po«s<ttbly been retarded by the care of %. < Large Libruiy 
of Latin ftnd Greek books/ which be brought over with him, and 
Uic namtfji of some of which are recorded m the AniiquitatU Bri- 
laimca, bv Archbishop Parker.* Theodore, says Rapin, was a 
** Prelate of di5tingtii«licd worth, as well for lenmingi as for 
graitoess of minrl, and sohdity of judgment/* This eulogium 
q^pears to be deserved, Uiotigh quah6cd by the remark, that, ^* he 
im oi a wami and imperious temper, a lover of power, and could 
91 brook any opposition to his will." Soon after his arrivaJ, he 
ViAfed all the English Chnrches, and made many alterations in 
eccJestKstiail alfkira. Being invested with legantiue power, lie ex- 
teDtfed bis authority over the entire body of the clergy. He in- 
trodnood several new doctrines and practices bto the Church; 
«K of wbich was that of auricular confession; and, by hi^ indiK 
oee^ teongbt all the English Churches to a f>erfect unitbriuity m 
tkoflGntmBA worship: he divided the larger bishoprics, andcreat* 
cd new ones; and encouraged the great laud-holders to erect pn- 
nJk <:liiirdics, by declaring tliem, and their successors, perpetual 
im tww p : be instituted a regular provision for the clergy, by impos- 
ing a certain tax on even^ village throughout tbe states of the Uep- 
tttechy; aiid by these, and otlier regulations, well calculated ta 
hii pifipose, be obtained a complete supremacy m ecclesiastical 
Among his other acts^ he held diree Cotmcils, in the 
i of which, he divided Mercia into tive Bishoprics, He was 
patron of learning, and founded a School, or College, in 
dty, '* wherein," says Lambard^ ** he placed professours of 
mil the tiberall scienc^^, which also was the very pateme to ibe 
Kpie, that Sigeberl, the Kiug of East-Angle, at\arwarde buildid." 


" The Reverend Father/' wyi Lambard^ *' Mathew^ nowe Arch- 
Wflp of Canterbury, whose care for conservation of learned monamenti 
ca t)evef be sgfijctcntly commended, shewed me not long since, the 
hker of David, and ludry homiliet in Greeke, Homer alio, and 
i3ine other Greke auchoun, beautifully written in tbieke paper, with 
tto mmt of chif Theodore prefixed in the fronte, to whote librarie, he 
fmmMf tbo>U^t« beiQj; thereto led by «hewe of great anfiquitie, that 
ilKr«(hnime belonged.** Peramb, qfk'eni, p. f33* EtUt. 157&. 

t76 itiEKT. 

He <Iied at the age of eighty-eight, in September, 696: waumg 
the Uarkian Manuscripts, says Hasted, No. 438—3, is a book 
written by liim, called LHht Pcsnitentialis* 

BrUhwaldj the second Englishman that was promoted to thm 
See, was the next Arcbbisliop. He had been Abbot both of Re- 
culver and Cilastonbury, and wiiile in the patriarchal chair, heU 
sevend Synods for the regulation of the affairs of the Chmdi. lie 
is stated, in the Saxon Chronicle, to ha?e been the first who emm&i 
donations and grants of lands to religious houses to be coo6nned 
by ivritten charters; and Spelman, and Casaubon, aie itatad 
to agree with Sonmer, in the opmion, that the Monasteries in Cai»* 
terbuiy had no written muniments before the time of the Ardi- 
bishop. He is also said to have been the first that was styled 
Primas Toiius Britanrda, which title appears in a charter fiveti 
by King Wilifred. He died in June, 731, worn out by old age; 
having filled the See of Canterbury upwards of thvty-one years* 
His inmicdrate successors were Tatwyn, a Mercian, and Noihelm, a 
cative of London, of whom nothing particular has been recorded : 
the fi)nner died in 734; the latter in 741. Cuthhcrt, the derenth 
Archbishop, was the first who obtained permission to attach bu- 
rial-places to Churches built withm the walls of cities; a privilege 
which has frequently been found inimical to the health of the 
living, though still continued on principles of mistaken policy. 
He next |>rocured license, botli from the Pope, and from Eadbert, 
King of Kent, that all future Archbishops of Canterbury should 
be buried within the Monastery at Christ Church, and not at St. 
Augustine's, as tliey had hitherto l>een; and for the reception of 
their bodies, he erected a Clia|)cl, or Church, dedicated to St. 
John Baptist, near the cast end of the Cathedral. He died in 
November, 758; and, agreeably to hb desire, was buried in the 
Chapel which he had himself built. This, however, was doue 
privately, as it was apprehended that the Monks of St. Augustine 
would assert their right ; and which they actually did, though too 
late, the body of the Primate having been previously, uiterred. * . 

Bregwyn^ his successor. Who* died in 7^2, only three yeans after 
liis causecrie^tion, was buried in the saitie Chapel withsipiilarpri- 

■■' •• * • ■ -vacyt 



tac?; and from the same reason. On this occasion, Lambert^ or 
Jeaxtbert, Ablxjt of St. Augustine, came to tlie Monastery of 
Mfitirtst CImrcli, ^ith a immber of armed men, being determineil 1o 
^^Hty away the eor|)se of (be Arcbbyiop by force, if his demand 
^Bis not complied with, "ihe dispute at length became so wann, 
^fliat ibc Convent of St. Augnstiite apjiealed to the Court of 
I Borne, ajid prosecuted their cau^ with so iiuicti vigor, that the 
I Moaks of Christ Church, to stileuce the dispute, elected Lambtri 
Hot their new Arclibisfiop. Pie lield the See about eiglit yearf, 
but met widi many vexations from King Offa ; and dyi(ig iu 750, 
wms buried, in accordance with his own particular desire, at the 
Abbey of St. Augustine, though much a^iust tlie will of hts own 

Athelard^ who had been Abbot of Mahiif)bun% and Bishop oC 
Wiuebeiter, succeeded Lambert; and, by his addros and abilities, 
|»fOCiired the dissolution of the new Archbtiihopric! of Lichiield, 
uluch 06fa had founded ; and also the full restoration of Canter* 
Irtiry to its patriarchal dignity* He died in 807 ; and was suc- 
ceeded by iVulJrcd, Archdeacon of Christ Church| who proved a 
CMiadecable benefactor to his See, both by his industry in procur- 
ipg restitution of many lands which bad been unjustly detained 
Irom (t, and by his own donations. On his decease, in 8'2d, the 
\ See was conferred on FicologiU, who survived only three 
aiouths; and was succeeded by Ceolnoih; wliose prhnacy wascon- 
liriuaUy disturi>ed by the incursions of the Danes. He held the 
Sie for upwards of thirty-eight years, and dying in 87 0, was suc- 
ceeded by Athehcd, a Monk of Christ Churdj, whose government 
jso in coutinual peril through the Danish ravages: he died iu 
8. His successor was Pki^mimd, w ho was elected on the re* 
ndntion of the Great Alfred, to whom he had been a pre- 
[or: be died iu 92^* His immediate successors were Athelm^ 
O'Mrn, and Oda: liie former died in y'Z^; WU'helm about ^41; 
«imI Odo about ^58. The latter Archbishop was sumamed Severus ; 
lie was of Danish extraction, but having embraced Ctiristianity at 
in caifljf period, he was for that abandoned by bis parents. He 
|ri» alWrwards patrouized by a Nobleman in the Court of Alfred^ 


by wliose lAteral, and through hii ovm 
to leaniiiif , he quickly pttted through the hkfinior degrees of tbr 
prietthoody and was madfe BUiop of Sherfooni^ His iepuMiaii 
was so great, that, on the death of Wlflidni, he was ehosca as thr 
mostfitpenon then living to filt the piftriaithal chair.. Hisaiphh 
mg mind caught new strength from his elevation, and he baldly a*> 
tempted to render the authoiity of the Cbuieh superior tn «|1 
earthly coatroal Hb fiunoas Pastoral Letter, -sface calMi/(te 
* Constitutions of Odo/ was promulgated in 943, and coutaiiiiilji^ 
ftUowmg passage: ^' I stricdy oaomrand and chargr, 4iat*a» aiu^ 
pieslime to lay any tax on the passessioiis of the clergy; vlfo aaa 
ahe sans of God; and the sods of God ought to he Aee Aim 4 
taxes in every kingdom. If any man dare to disobey the disriplitte 
^ the Church m this particdaf, he' is moie' wicked aiid impudent 
tiian the sokliers who crucified Christ. I command the 1U%, Iht 
Ptinces, and aU in authority, to obey, with great humihty, ^m 
Archbishops and Bishops, fn* they possess the k^ irf'the hingtoaa 
-of Heaven.'* Odo repaired the Cathedral of Canierbuiy m a sub- 
atantial manner, and covered the roof with lead: he died m 958. 
His successor, EUine, Bishop of Winchester, who had been hb ai» 
ireterate enemy, and b saki to have demonstrated hb hatred bjf 
tramplkig on hb grave, veas nomioBted by the Kii^, from hb wM- 
oity to the blood-royal. He was a prelate of extraontinary Icaw 
mg; but hb promotion proved the occasion of hb death; for uddr 
on hb journey to receive the paH from the hands of the Pope srt 
Heme, he perished ankl the Alps through the intensity of tiie 
cold: bb body was bfou^t to England, and intened at MTaKhea- 
ler. Brithelm, Bbbop of WeMs, vims next elected to the van»t 
See; but Portly afterwards he resigned his new dignity, and re* 
turned to hb former charge, hb dispositHHi being too placid to 
permit him to manage the affiurs of the Archbishopric Hb resig* 
nation, however, was prindpaUy a forced measure, arisng from 
the interference of King Edgar, who wmted to bestow the Metro* 
pditKal chair on the eelebmfeed Dunsfan, then' Bbbop of Winches- 
ter, whom he had recalled from banishment, and made hb chief 
advber and confidant. 

I The 

The tiileats and udd^eM of Arciibishop Dttmtnn I 
iao!« cinitieiit niiik, aiid hb aiubkum ami pride wt 
dhtd^ Wben (met! resolved Oii tljif ifvecutidn of i «<^ 

«i'eitt (Tould alier his deteruiinaUon ; bt' piirsiied hid ] 
fp(it€ of i>j>pcMitio[| tlic most formitkblc; and as be 
tcrupuiou^ m% to tlic mrMi^ be employed, whether iirej 
mA fiom tbe auathemas of tin* Church, or coinp ^ 

ln|ie iRd vtolence, bis pliuis wtnt general ty acctPiii|>] 
iHE^d to have been descended of a noble family m \ w 

^mA wa* educated in OlastO"' *ti-" ^f ^i-:-i- 

^^mrdfi^ ju^de Abbot by King »jiHr, wirb wL^.^^ « gllVl 

iiifofife, and who gmntctl y some e uy privi* 

^i^ti on bii account, Ln tlic Jitixi rcrgii, hi«i in I ice oe<!atue 2itiH 
^Qb^fe |Kiwerful t atid Ihouigb not nanundJy a ^, bt^ appcam to 
bve pdmned the eiitfre auinonty of tbe tJiroue. £«kcd not oiiLj 
him bis Cojifi'Vior, but rc^jiguc^d hiitisetf wlioliy to his wiiJ : 
I hb treasures were at tlie devotiDn of D^tuitaji, who exerted 
Mft utmost influeace in depres^g the Secubr Clerg}?, and in exah* 
mg llie order of Beuedictiues^ for whom be tbutided sevemJ Mo* 
HftsterieSf wHh the wealth of bis Sovereign. The niiud of Ediped 
n^s comptetely subjugated by ihe subtlety of the Monk» and bii 
ireakueas was apparent even in bi^ death, wheii, by his WiU» be 
bestowed such immen^ possessions to ihi^ fouiuLitiousof Dunstan, 
that tbe Crown was left in a state of comparative indigence. 
£dwyy lib successor, immediately on acceding to the throne, or- 
dered DuDfltao to account for the vast sums that had belonged to 
the deceased King. His answer was ready; that ' the money had 
beeo expended in pious uses, and that he was not amenable to a 
ctiil jorisdictioa for an administration solely relating to religion.* 
•With this reply tbe King s Council was obhged to appear satisfied; 
but Donstan's general arrogance so exasperated Edwy, that be de- 
prived bim of all his prefennents, and forced him into exile. Still 
fbrther to divest him of his influence, the Monks of bis Order 
were expelled from several Monasteries, and replaced by the Se- 
cakur Clergy. 'Fliis proceedure proved tbe ruin of £dwy ; for the 
clamours of the Monks were so great, that a successful rebellion 
Vol. VII. Jan. I8O7. D d d was 

7r* KB9T. 

was raised against bina, and more than half the kingdom subnuttod 
to the sway of Edgar, his elder brother. Edwy, who wanted ^ 
of mind to o)[}pose the defection of his subjects, aud was also.i 
ciently weak to suffer the cliaiges of impiety and proliuieoeai^ 
whkh the Monks advanced against him, to prey upoD his peaoe^ 
died in the year 955, wheu the whole of his dominions were i 
by his brother, who immediately recalled Duostan from 
ment, restored him to all hb former dignities, and made hiaa 
Bishop of Wmchester. Witliin three years afterwards, the dcatia 
of Odo, and the fitvor of the King, were the means of his adfince- 
ment to the See of Canterbury; and he was no sooner fixed in the 
archiepiscopal chair, than he began to concert measures for the 
accomplishment of hi:i long-cherished design of establishing die 
celibacy ^ the clergy. To effect this, the Secular Qmoos who 
refused to repudiate their wives, and assume the mooastic oowJ, 
Were espeUed from all the Cathednds and larger Mooasteriei^ 
mider a commission granted for the purpose by Edgar, who pfb» 
mised to aid the execution of it with his whole power. The 
scheme, perhaps, would have been completely effected, but ibr the 
death of the King m 975, and the protection afterwanU given to 
the persecuted Canons by many of the nobility. Edgar kft two 
sons, of whom Edward, then only fourteen years of age, was cho- 
sen to ascend the vacant throne through the influence of Dunstan, 
who unmediately assumed all the powers of the sovereignty, the 
young Prince being committed to his guardianship. His new at* 
tempts, however, to expel the Secuhur Clergy, though seconded by 
the decisions of several councils, wherem different miracles are pre- 
tended to have been HTOught to prove that Heaven itself was in 
league with Dunstan, were not so readily obeyed as formerly; and 
the murder of Edward at Corfe Castle, and the succession of his 
brother Ethelred, sumamed the Unready, had some additional e&ct 
in lessening his authority. He died at the age of sixty-four, in 
^^y^ 98B; and wa^, afterwards canonized, as hb predecessor Odo 
had been, for his affected piety, and pretended miracles. 

JEthelgar, the successor to Dunstan, was translated from the 
Bfabopric.of Selsey, or, as it is now called, Chichester; but dymg 


into the Saxon language. On his dcath> in 1005, 
who was barbarously imirdercd b}' the Danes at Greeii^ 
ill 1012, yi,Hs translaieti iiiti»er from Wijidiestcr, Living, 
uinguM^ hb successor, who bad crowned Edmund Ironside 
I 0|}[>osition lo Canute the Dane, was so greatly affected by 
lities of Uie times^ that be went Into votuntary exile, but 
about the period when Canute became sole Mouarcb. 
in 1050, and was succeeded by AgdnolK a Monk of 
nbury, who is recorded to have enttrely conijilcted tlie re- 
>f llie Caibedral, which Livingus had begtin after it had been 
to by the Danes in tlie time of Alphage. In tbii? work he 
basted by the inumficencc of Canute, who had a great friend- 
fbr him, and who was probably induced by his penuasions, 
kill the entire revenues of the Port of Sainlwicb for the su^ 
Ire of the Monkii, at tlie san)e time (anno i025) that be took 
Bhourn from \m own head, and placed it on the high altar at 
ferbury-t In J 037, A^elnolh crowned Kinj; Harold, at Lon- 
^ lie died iij Qctobert the following year, and uns alterwurda 

D d d 2 Kaddrtf 

^ See under Grcenwidi^ p. 4t}S,-9 : and aUo p. 757, 

ner lays, ihat ihe Port of Sandwich was only restored to ihe 
\ of Christ Church by Canute, it having been granted to them 
\ forty yean before by Eihclred x yet, at no noiice of this pnor do* 
I b mentioned in Canutt'*t crant* a CODV of which ii here Insertecf 

776 MNT. 

Eadsifiy Bishop of Winchester, was next promoted to this Se^ 
in wliich he continued till his death, in 1050, greatly aflUcted by 
bodily infirmities. Hb suooessor, Robert^ a Mode d. Gemetkai, 
in Normandy, who had been made Archbishop by Edward the 
Confessor, from feelings of gratitude, was ejected for sedilkMn 
practices in 1052, and constrained to fly into Normandy. Siigtmd^ 
Bishop of Winchester, an Englishman, and a Prelate of eonsida^ 
able influence and ability, was next appomted to fill the Mctropo* 
litical chair, even whilst his predecessor was yet living. His oppo- 
sition to the Conqueror excited the enmity of that Soverdgn, who; 


"In the name of the supreme God, and our Saviour Jetnt Ghritf. 
The Holy and Righteous Fathers, with one assent, frequently adoiODith 
us in their discourses, that with the heartiest fear and love of God» we 
should join diligently the practice of good works; becauie in the Day of 
Judgment, God wiU render to every one according to hit deserts : there* 
lore let us strive in earnest zeal to imiute him, thac» though pressed 
down with the weight of this mortal life, and corrupted with the fleet- 
ing possessions of this world, yet, through the abundance of his inercy, 
we may, with our perishable riches, purchase the rewards of everlasting 
life in Heaven. Wherefore, I Cnut, by the grace of God, King of 
the English, and of the adjoining Islands, take the Crown from my head* 
and place it with my own hands upon the altar of Christ Church in Can- 
terbury,^ for the support of the said Church ; and I grant theret;o» for 
thb sustenance of the Monks, the Port of Sandwich, and all the revenues 
of the haven on both sides, whomsoever the ground belongs to, from 
Pepernesse to Mearcesfleotc, so far as a taper-axe can be thrown from 
a vessel aHoat at high water, llie officers of Christ Church may receive 
all the profits; and no person to have any custom in the said port, ex- 
cept the Monks of Christ Church. Theirs too, be the small boat and 
ferry of the haven, and the toll of all vessels whatever coming mto the 
haven, to whomsoever they belong, and whencesoever they come. If 
there be any thing in the sea without the haven, which a man at the 
lowest ebb can reach with a sprit, it belongs to the Monks; and what- 

* Quapropter ego Cnut, dkina/auentt gratia Anghrum terrarumqui adtdcenthm 
insularum Basi/ms, propriis manikus mds capitis mticWBiuim kiW sifper §lure Ckriui 
in DuroberntA ad opus tiusicm cuUsiti : ^c» 

KENT. 77f 

witii the concmTdiipe of the Pop€, ilepriv*rd hrni of his Art li- 
^kfaopHc, and cast him into prison^ where he ended hts daySi 

In 1070, the same year that Stig^nd wbs formally expelkd fnmi 
\m See in a great Cowncil he!d at Winchester, Lanfranc, a native 
of Pavia, in UaK% who had been Prior of the Abbey ot' Bee, ia 
Nonnandy, and was then Abbot of St, Stephen'!, at Caen, was 
{ffiototcd by tJie King to fill the vacant chair* He was a Prelate 
«f grtat talent, and enalted nmnificence. He rebuilt the Cathedral 
<!*f Ctnferbury, which Eadmer states to have be^n a third time de- 
itfO}^ by fire prior to Lanfraoc s advancement,* from the very 
D d d 3 foundadoni: 

tm b foaTid in thif parf of the mrd-iea, and is brooghl to Sandmch, 

wbetljer dothei, net, armoiir, irorij gold, er iilveF, a moiety &hatL be 

the Kfooki, and the other pan ihall belong ti> the finders. If any wm- 

kg ihall hereafter appear, which, under a ehow of antiquity, thafl leem 

tnj way contrary to thii our grant, let it be (eft to be eaten by mice, 

tr raeber, let it be thrown into the fire, and destroyed ; and let him 

^ shall eihibit ir, whoever he be, do penance in aihe«, and be made 

^ hiighing -stock to all his neighboun. And let this our conBrmation re^ 

^ia for ever rahdi and both by the authority of Almighty God^ and 

^Hirotrn, and of our noblet, who concur in this act, stand in full itrength 

'^ke a pitlar, firm and unshaken, against all the at tack i of C7i!*minded 

C^fceop 'le in succeeding times. But if any one, swelled with pride, con- 

^^^rary to onr wish, shall attempt to infringe or weaken this our grant, 

^^l him know that he is anathematized by God and his Saints, unless he 

^^^nakc due satisfaction for his crwne before he dies. Written in the year 

^^^ our Lord's Incarnation, 1023 — ^The names of the witnesses consent- 

^=^tog hereto are fairly inscribed below. 

•* I Cnut, King of the English, confirm this writing inviolably. — I Athel- 
^^fcoih. Archbishop of Canterbury, confirm this prerogative with the Ho- 
^^"^ Banner. — I Alfric, Archbishop of York, confirm this benevolence of 
^-^le King with the sign of the Holy Cross. — I Elfwine, &c/* 

• In this third fire, almost all the ancient reo&rds of the privileges of 

^^Jhriii Church were destroyed. Eadmer's words are, * Antigua ipsiits 

-^clesiit privilegia in ea couflagratiane, qua eandem Eccltsiam tertia, 

^oUe sui introitus annum consujupsit pene omnia pericrania* Hist. No- 

Vorum. lib. i. p. D. From the description pf the old Cathedral^ gs giv 



IBS:* and (lib exBTTipIe was followed by tnatiy other oi' 
man Bishops in their respective dioceses. The nuncHis 
of Christ Church is said lo liave excited the astoniEliinent 
'chbishop, who * silmost despaired of seeing Uiat and tlie 
7 ffvedified ;' yet, hy his perseverance and diligence, he 
le whole^ and that ' in a new and inoiie tna|?niiiccnt kind, 
I of strwclure, tliaii had hardly in any place before been 
= of in this kingdotu, whkli made it a jfrccedent and pat- 

'ritcr, it appeari to haTC contisted only of a hodj, without 
il towards the wear, a tower on each side, ihrough which were 
and iDUi)i CDtranccs. In the eait part was an ahar, dedicated 
which inclosed the head of St. Swithin, and many other r«- 
ght by Archbishop Alpbage from Wincheiter. Agmnst the 
r W3» also another altar, erected by Archbishop Odo, oTer the 
Vilfrid, Archbiihop of York, which Odo had tranilated hither 
pon. Beneath this part was a crypt, or lindcr-croft, in which 
liar of St. h urseui, wherein, " according lo old tradition^'* his 



t€fii to succeeding stiuctares of this lund.*** On the completion of 
the Cathfdral, Lanfranc famished it with many ornaments, and 
rtdi vestments, and altering its dedlpition, re-consecmted it to the 
booor of liie Holy Trinity. All the monastic offices, together with 
the sanounding: walls, and Llie Archbishop's Palace, were also re- 
built by LaiilTaflc: be al^ founded and endowed the Priory of St, 
Gregory, m Canterbury, and tlie two Hospitals of St, John, with* 
oot Noithgate, and St Nicholas^ at Harbledown; and greatly as* 
sisted Bishop Gundulph in the re-construction of Rochester Cathe- 
dfal ; and Abbot Paul, in the re-building of the Abbey Chujch at 
St. Alban'sL 

Lanfrsinc made many new regulations for the government of 
the Benedictines, aud again ex^ielled the Secular Canons from his 
#wn Monastery, wherein they had reg^iined thtnr influence, and 
sapplied their places with Monks: the immber of the latter he also 
increa^ from thhty to 150, and directed that the head of the 
Convent, who had previously been called Dean, should in future be 
styled the Prior* He likewise divided the possessions of his Cluirch, 
the revenues of which had Iiilherto been divided between the Arch- 
bishop and the Convent in comniOTi, into two allotments, directing 
the one to be for ever after apphed to the distinct use of the Arch- 
bishops; and the other, in hke manner, lo the use of the Monks, 
He procured the restoration of twenty-five Manors belonging to 
lliis See, and of urtany otliers belonging to the See of Rochester, 
from Odo, Bishop of Baieux, and Eiirl of Kent, who had sei2ed, 
and annexed them to his own possessions* This was done in a 
solemn Assembly held during three days on Pinnenden Heath, in 
presence of all the people of Kent. The turbulence of Odo being 
afterwards fomid destructive to the peace of the realm, the King 
Imprisoned him by the advice of L^tnfranc, who hail a nilnd sujie* 
lior to iutimidatioo.f The great a bib lies of Lantranc may be con- 
D d d 4 ceived 

* Eadmer, Hisr« lib. u p. 7. 

t Kayghton itatei, that the King wai apprehentiTe of the dJsplea* 
sure of the Pope, ihould he venture eo imprison a Bishop * but thai Lan- 


780 XKirr. 

ceifed fnm the dieiiiiuteiioe of the ComjiKrar wp e tiwH y < 
tttting him lole JofltiGiary of the Kingdom, during the tinntihift 
he went beyond see.* William Rnfaa, dmogh prinoipallj iodcbl^ 
ed to the ftiendahip of Lanfiranc for hb Crown, baninhed him the 
kingdom; bat again pennitted him toretarn, od the interommtt^if 
hb many friends. Not long aflemards, the Archbishop died ^ 
an ague, in May, 1 089, havii^ filled thb See aboot mneteen y e m as ? 
hb annivenary was celebrated by the Monks of hb Chofch, with 
great solemnity, and alms-giving. 

From the period of Lanfranc's death, till the year 1Q93, Rafiu 
kept the Archbishopric in hb own hands, .and applied its levenuea 
to hb own purposes, as he did also those of various other Chnrehea. 
At length, in a severe sickness, he nominated Amdm, a native of 
Aoust, in Piedmont, and Abbot of Bee, to thb See; yet, after hb 
recovery, he demanded lOOOl. firom Anselm for hb own nse^' |d- 
ledging the justness of hb demand, from hb having be s t o wed the 
Ardibishopric on him gratb.t According to Bron^Kon, Rofus 
also imposed the payment of a oertam sum yearly^ on the Aicb- 
bishop, so that for some time, the hitter couM scarcely retam suf- 

franc advised him not to fear, but to tell the Pope, that he had in^pri- 
•oned " the Earl of Kent, his own liege-man and subject, and not the 
Bishop of Baieux.'* 

* The following remarkable passage was inserted in the Texhts AqT- 
fefisis, by Lambard, by direction of Archbishop Parker : ' Quando ff^il^ 
iielmus Rex gloriosus morabatur in Normannia, Lanfianau crat 
princepi ci custot JngluB, subjectU sibi omnibus principihvs etjuran- 
tibus in his qua ad drfcnsionan Telpacem pertinebant rcgni secundum 
leges patriar : Lectioni assiduus Sf ante episccpatum Sf in episcopaiu 
quando poterat. — Et quia scriptura, scriptarum vitio, erant nimtum 
tvrmpta, omnes tarn veteris quant nan Testamenti Libras, nee non 
etiam scripto sanctorum sacra secundum orthodoxani fidem siuduit 
corrigere* Brown^s Fase. Rerum, p. 34. 

f See R. dc Diceto, CoL 495 i and Gervasc, CoL 1C5S. 



iicicnt for his own 8ub«istence.' The ve?tations of Anselin were, 
homcver, tn a considerable degree, occasioned by the bfgit hand 
iviih wbkh he endenvored to carry his supremacy in ecclesiastical 
■ffiiirv; in vrhicli be haughtily asserted, ' the King had not rhe 
Inst right to interfere.' He was at length constrained to quit the 
laigdont; and, after in vain soliciting the Pope to engage in bis 
ffOUTcl, he retired to a Monnstery at Lyons, where he remained 
till the deatli of Rufus, who, in liis absence, had seized the whole 
r* nifwrablies of the Archbishopric, and expended the revenues a! 
\m pleasure. 

Henry tlie First reeaUed Anselm« soon after his own accession; 
hut the Prelate had not yet learned hnmility. He first sununoned 
a great Council at Westminster, (anno 1102,) at which almost all 
tlie Bishops were present, and wherein, though contrary to a dis- 
fM&siog power which had been sent to the Archbishop by the Pope, 
Pivehal the Second, the marriitge of priests was again condemned ; 
•nd all lliose who were married, were excommunicated, Ansebn, 
with a proud inikxihiUty, proceeded tn acton this decision ; though 
liie " untractableness of Hie English,'* and their reluctance to submit 
t:o it, %vas extreme. Soon atlenvards, he began to dispute with 
Mhe King, the right of investiture of Bishops and Abbots; and se- 
veral of those whom Henry bad invested, resigned their benefices, 
for fear of excomnumication* Notwithstanding this, the King 
steadily refused to accede to the Archbishop's claims; and as An- 
•s-elin pretended that he could not relinquish lliem wittiout betray- 
iug the cuu^e of (iod, the dii^pute contiilued with nuabated obstt* 
fMcj. The Archbishop again quitted the kmgdoro^ accompanied 

• Anselm is itdted to have been very reluctant to accept the Pri- 
macy, feeling convinced, tluit the raparioui temper of the King would 
ioterfere wuh his comforti. " Ihc plough of the Church of England,** 
ttjd lie, in reply lo »ome per&ons who were persuading him to comply* 
*' should be drawn by two oxen of equal ftrengthi the King and the 
^fchbi&hop of Canterbury ; but if you yoke me, who am a weak old 
»/*crp, with thii King, who it a mad young butl, the plough will not go 

7$2 KB5T» 

by the Bishops who bad resigned^ and laid hiscaae befere fie 
Pope, at Rome, whither also the King aeot the Archbishap elect 
of York, and the Bishops of Chester and Tbetford, to plead bit 
cause. The Pope supported the dainui of Ansdm to theur fnll es- 
tent, and, in reply to the arguments employed on the part of tbe 
King, dedared, that he could not sanction a right so ^jLpnady 
forbiden by several Councils. Henry was equally determined not 
to be deprived of his prerogative, and was himself threatened with 
excommunication; whilst the Archbishop, being aftaid toretmn 
to his Church till the quarrel was ended, went a second tioie t# 
reside at Lyons. At length, in tbe year 1106, by the | 
of Adela, Countess of Blois, the Kmg's sister, Henry i 
to have a meeting with Anselm, when it was arranged, that the 
King should renounce the right of investiture ; but that the Biriiops^ 
and Abbots, should do him homage for their temporalities: to tfab 
agreement the Pope, whose ai^urs were at that time in cooadcr* 
able confusion, gave his consent; and the Archbishop returned to 
Canterbury. He immediately recommenced his persecution of the 
married clergy ; and some time aAerwards called a Synod, in whicb,, 
at his instance, several penalties were decreed against * all piieata 
who lived in a state of matrimony.' 

Anselm b generally considered to have taken down the choir of 
Lanfranc's Cathedral, and, by the assistance of the Priors Emulpli 
and Conrad, to have re-built it in a more ornamental and splendid 
manner. There is, however, some considerable ambiguity ro this 
part of the History of the Cathedral; and the probability seems 
to he, that Anselm, instead of wholly re-building the choir, by tbe 
aid of the Priors, as above stated, did no more than enlarge, and 
considerably improve it in embellishment. Eadmer, who has been 
already quoted, and who was a Monk of this Church in the reigns 
of William Rufus, and Henry the First, uses these words: *^ stiper 
hoc ipsum Oratorium, quantum a majore tutri in orientem porree* 
ivm est, ipso poire Anselpto providente, ditponente auctum est." The 
Monks of Christ Church appear to have greatly assisted in defray- 
ing the expenses of the new work, which was first carried on under 
2 the 

Ik ilrrctlKMi of Emutpli,* wbo irai pr<itti0ted to tlic AUbaicy of 
Peferbormigb in I J OS; iod af(e^^«i^is Imbbed iiuder (he »uperJii- 
tecdeoce of Courid^ wlm succeeiJetl him as Prbr. By lib " groit 
iadiiitfy/' says the Obitutiry of Ciiuterbuiy, spet4jiif of ihe kttcr^ 
**benmgfu6^Bl\y perfected llie qitiie, *bkb vvnemble £niutptiu% 
liB predecessor^ had lef\ tintinblied: tie adorned it with eurkiut 
fsclune^^ and cnridied it if itb pfecioiis or»aiTtenls,"t Aosehii dicij 
khk seventy^ sixtli year, iu J JO9, live years b^fote the cboir n^s 
coiDplete<l; and in the mgn of Henry the Seventh, was most ab- 
lurrljy emooiied, for ' hk piety and iiifferings,' a! the btereesskmi 
aod great estpense^ of Archbi^ioti Mortou. He was the author of 
Duraeroiu freatkei, many of i%luck are yet extant in the Bniish 
Mtisetun, and the Bodleian Library, 

Henty kept the Archbishopric in hk own possession titl tlie 
jm 1114, iwhen, by bis consent, the Monks elected Raiph, B^hop 
«f Eoehester, to fill the vacant chair, 'Ihh Prelate re-de4icated 
(he Church to ihe Holy Trinity « ininiediately on his coming to tJie 
Sec* His jocularity obtniued him the nick-udnic of NugaiM or flic 
TiiiSer: but, notwithi^tauding tliis, be was a gi^eat stickler tor the 
prerogatives of his Clmrchf and would never suffer the King to 
put on hk crown with Im own hands, a Hedging, tttat Uiat was tlic 
t^ht of the Arch hiih ops of Canteti»ufy on all occasions.]: He 
died in October, 1122; and was succeeded by IVilliam Corboilf 
Prior of St. Osyth's, in Essex, who was invested by the Pope, with 
the title of Apostolic Legate throughout England. In his time, 
anoo 1130, the Cathedral appears to have received some damage 
by fire; but, having been quickly repaired at llie Archbbhop's 
expense, it was once more dedicated to Christ the Saviour, and 
that with the utmost pomp and magnificence, in the presence of 
the King and Queen, of David, King of Scotland, and of most of 
the Prelates and Nobility of both kingdoms. Coiboil is accused 


* This was the same Ernulph who was afterwards promoted to the 
See of Rochester, and who wrote the Text us RoJfensU: ice under Ro- 
chester, p. 632-3. 

t Angh Sacra. Vol. L p. 137. J Raping England, Vol. I. 



of hftiring set the Crowa upon (he head of Stephen* in violdficm of 
a solemn oath made to the Empress Maud : an action which he 
afterwards reflected on wiHi sn nmcb poignnncy ns to shorten hi« 
days: he died in December, 11 3d. 

In the year 1138, VteoMd, Ahbol of Bee, was elected at a 
gantjne S\nod held in London hy CHidinal Albeit. He na^ m 
staiioch upholder of the prerogatives of the Chtirch; or rather, an 

* those words should be inteq>ret€d, ot the usurpations of the Papal 
Sec; and though of a courtcou*? and benevolent temper in commOB 
roncems, his zeal in eeetesiastical affairs was inflamed by bigotry 
to Tiolence. His goods were twice confiscated l)y King Stephen 
for deobcdience to his commands ; and he was once compelle<i to 
quit the kingdom ; yet his spirit continued unbroketi ; and he haid 

firmness to place the Sovereign himself^ as well as his whole 

'^alni» tmdei an interdict* Beinj^ aften*ards reconciled to tlie 

King, he proved the chief means of concluding tlie fieace at Wsd- 

ngfordi between him and the Empi^ss Maud. He also was Le- 

atc of lite Apostolic See, and in that €aj>acity held a general Couiv 

i\ m London, in the year 1151, at which the King and his soo 

Euatace were both present: he died in April, lt6l. 

The successor of Theobald was tlie tUinous Thomm Beel 
tie imperiouSi but able coarljutor of the Roman PontitTs^ in 
bold design of ' fixing on the neck of the whole Western World 
the iron yoke of servitude,* and of reducing all its sovereigns and 
stiles, to acknowledge the Pope as the supreme and inde^iendent 
Monarch, the source of all government, tlie foundation of all legi- 

• timate authority. Becket was the son of a merchant of London, 
I m which city he was bom m the year 11 1 i;. The rudiments of ^ 

education he received in the Monastery at Mtrton, m Surrey ; he ■ 
then went to Oxford, where he was made chaplain to Archbishop ' 
Theobald; after wliich he completed [lis studies b the Universitjes ' 
«f Paris and Bononia* On his return he was received into the fa* I 
rinily of the Archbishop, ainl, after various promotions, was made 
iccllor of Euglrtud in 1 J 54- or 1155. In this situation he be- - 
came a great favorite with Henry tlie Second ; and, by bis cour* I 
lebus behavkwr, that Monsrck was bduced to raise him to dte 



t>rld. I 




Moiacy about a twckemonth after tfie dcith of Theobald, thQiij»li 
in opfKidtiaii to tbe E nip rc^ Maud, and the great body of tlie 
dergy^ who had probably observed thos4^ ambitious triiits iu lii$ 
dmder, which he had with greater cnitl concealed from the 
Kio^, No sooner, however, had Ite obtaiued secure f>ossessiori 
^ Uit arehiepiscopal Chair, iban he cast otf the mask ; and hU 
liliole deportment assumed the austerity of the monk. Ttie grand 
and letdiog feature of his dispositloti, was discovered to be a stem 
■BJleaabliily; and neiliier gnititude, nor persudjyon, nor danger, 
^ad sulBcieut ioAueLice on hb mind, to iuduce him to deimrt from 
Mi cktetniuiations. Que of his fir^st acts, after his promoliou, was 
lo roB^ tbe ChaDoellorsiijpf and tli»t even without accp Anting 
tbe King, ivho yns& tlien iu NormauJy, witli his intention. Thi« 
dtep vtrasody tbe prelude to greater a^ronts; and Henry at lentj^th 
ciiicovered, that the late supple cotnlier was now aiming at reu- 
drriiif his own power independent of sdi lay authority. 

E&tremcly nioriitied at this discovery, and highly in«:eiwed at 
ibe arbitrary acts by which Becket wiw strii'iog to advance his awn 
Mpmiiacy in couocclion witii that af the Churclt, ^ic ^^g be- 
gan to concert on t}ie necessary measures to check his encroaeh- 
iocnta, a9 well as to drcutuacribe the unboynded inttolence of th« 
prie^hood. He was the more determined to enforce the prero- 
g;atiires of lus Crown, from tJie infanxjus manner in wJiich crimes 
coQiMttled by tiie clex^y were connnuted, or passed over, in the 
EoeleMfutical Courts. Degradatiou wui the only [luntshmcnl: for 
the most enormous offences ; and for those uf k<3ser note, a bhort 
iUfpen^ion, or easy conhncmejit, wiis i\\\ that was adjudged. Iu 
ikks flUle of atiairSf Ilcnry louvenvd aw assembly of the Lonis^ 
bntii Spirituiil aud Temporal, and pro|>oijeil a regulation, consii»(* 
iu| of live articles, by which, umuug other tJtings, it was dechred, 
Ikt ** no appeal .should [>e made to the Court of Koine without 
titt King's Ucense; that no tenant in chief, or any other of the 
King's officers, sliould be e5tcuriiiTiunicate«i without tfie King's con- 
KOt; and that all Clergymen charged with capital crimes, sliould 
be tried in the King s courts," These articles were readily agreed 
<o by the Tem)K>ral Lords; but Becket, and the other Prebtet, 




rteadily refused tlicif consent, uiile?? llie words ' savrng the tights 
wid privileges of God and the Cliurch* were added. Irritated 
wHt tins refusal, tlie Kiiis^ stidileiily quitted the a.isembly, aud de*- 
piirted to Woodstock, giving tite Spiritual Lord^ to understand, 
llmt * lie would niko e^ectuat measures to set bounds to thetr 
pride/ His menaces had some effect; and Beckct, after much iii- 
(realy, was induced to agree to the proposal of sending deputies 
to inform the Kin^, that himself, and his brethren, were ready to 
MilHtcribe to the article.^, dlhough the s-avlng clause should not be 
anneiied. Henry, though apparently satisfied with this submi£sioii« 
was sensible timt Beeket would, if possible, recall his consent ; and, 
to prevent that, he summoned a Parliament at Clarendon* in 
Wiltshire, where the Articles, now matured into a mora legal 
form, were ac:dn proposed for acceptance, Tlie Lay t^rds uii?- 
mediatcly ratitied ihcm ; and the Prelates durst not openly oppose ; 
ihougli it was with the greatest diificulty tliat Beeket could be per- 
suaded to annex his. signature, notvijihslanding his recent agr^mentf 
Henry felt lliat his triumjrh would not be complete, till the Ar- 
ticles were confirmed by the Pope, and he sent ti»em to Home for 
(hat purpose; bvit Alexander the Third, the haughty PonliiT who 
then wielded tlie thunders of the Vatican, at once condenmed tlieni 
as * prejudicial to (he Church, and destructive of her privileges*' 
Shortly afterwards, Beeket declared openly, that h« repented of 
his conduct, in signing articles so contrary to ecclesiastical righta; 
and declared that he could ho{>e for no pardon for no enormous m 
crime, but from the Pope's mercy. He therefore suspended him* 
self as miworthy to perform the archicpiicopal dulies; but, on fe- 
ceiving the Pope's absolution, and assunuKses oi sup{)ort, he short* 
ly altenvards resumed the exercise of his functions* 





w Salro in omnibus ordlne ^uo, 4' ^nore Dei, 4r Sojictic Ecckst^ 

Hoveden, p. 492. 

t The»e laws were afterwards called the ' Constitutions qfCtaren* 
don,* In Coltins*! Eccleiiastical Utttory is a Translation of thera from 
M, Paris. 



The cotitmnacy of Becket greatly exasperatcii the Kiiig» and, 
after barras&iiig liim viitli lighter vexatiotis^ tiie Maimrch, m a 
^ Cauiicil held at Nx)rtljatii|>ton, caused him to be charged 
with the capital crimes orcouvertiii;^ to his owt) u^, * the revenues 
of the Archbishopric of York, of which lie had the custody whilst 
Chancellor;* and of * eriibv/.zling 30,0001. of the King's money/ 
His priiicipai reply to the^ charges was, that, ^* being invested 
fritli the lirst ecclesiastical dignity in the reahii, he was not bonnd 
to aoswer before lawmen/* nor could any inducements prevail ou 
htm to acknowledge tiie jurisdiction of tiie ^Usembly. This conduct 
»liU more indauicd tlye indignation of the King, who, after confis- 
cating all the Archbishop's moveable effects, ordered Itiin to be ac^ 
cuzjcd of perjury and treason* No accusational however^ could 
t>eud the itubborn tutkxibility of Becket, who snJfered himself lo 
he condetnned of perjury without defence; and when he found 
that tlie Barons were actually assembled in tb*^ presence of tlio 
Km^ to deteniune oo the charge of treason^ he went, with hii 
rros* in tii$ band, into tlie midst of the Court, as if in defiance of 
its aiUlionty ; and on the Archbisltop of York telling hiiii tliat hts 
Soirereigns weapon was jiharpcr tlian his, lie insolejilly rejiUedt 
that '* it was true, the Kiiig s weapon could kill the body ; but 
that hhk destroyed the soul, and sent it to hetf/' iicnry, provoked 
to vengeance, ordered tlie Lords inuucd lately to puss sentence on 
tlic Dcw crime which Becket had committed; and, after a long 
debate, tt was declared^ that ** he deserved to be com mined to 
prison^ and punisht^d according to law, for iusuUing liie King, and 
cotpbg into the as^mbly in a manner calculated to raise a sedition 
among the peoplf." The Earls of Con " I Chester were then 
lent to summon him to appear, and i ^ sentence; but he 

refusrd to comply, alkdging, that *• the Peers had no autliority to 
jttdge him, and that he apj>eaied to the Pojm*/ His daitgcr wat 
OOli eitfetite ; he felt the importance of bis j>rrsonal safel)/, and 
be momited his horse, audited. The. same night he assumed a 
and travelling through unlrequentcd roads^ reached 
I, where be embatked for Flanders. 


artiea now nppoaled to the Pop« ; Henry, l)y his ainbas> 

^iid Becket, in fierKiii, In this appenl^ all Uie advautage 

fently on the side of the Archbishop; yet the peculiar si- 

tf the afPiiirs of the Fd\m\ Sec at that period , rendered it 

for the Pope to temporise, aad be therefore delayed th« 

I of the cause till a more convenient sea^iiu Henry had 

discernment to discover the double game which AlexaiS* 

endeavouring to play, and, in the warmth of IiJs resent- 

ibrbid all itppeals to the Coiirt of Home, under the molt 

Jenaliies. lie ordered the revenues of all the Ecclesia*tJca 

oused the cause of Ikcket to be sequestered ; he seized the 

i of llie Archbishopric; and he commanded the magislratei 

It on the spot, as trait or<i, all {jersoiu who should be taken 

mandates or letters about them, cither from Becket or 

k whicli imported the excommimiaition of any prii-*at€ per- 

Jaid tfie kingdom under an interdict. The Arctibishop 

lally detert»ined, and immediately excommtmicdtcd every 

1 adhered to tlie * Const it nl ions of Clarendon/ and, ra jiarti- 

bveral Lords of the Council ; vdrn^ however^ dapited hia 

was somewhat apprehensive that the anathemas of tha 
I would occasion a revolt antotig his subjects, or rndoce aii ' 
of hb kingdom by a tbreign power; he tlierefon* Icvted 

to be ready to meet the danger. This proceed ure Imd ii 
I effect on the measures of tlic Pope ; but as the ^ing ultl- 


of his predecessor! paid tho least of minCi and ! will . 
sitisfied.*' Eveo ihis the Archbishoj* refused, by an nflfected 
to tlie PopCt williout whoMf consent, be said, as tlie nSm 
heiore him, be could not a^jrec lo any thin^, 
Sliortly ^iftenrards, AI«it:lndcr »«-iit oolice to die King, tlmt be 
glveo jiomtT to tlie Arcbbishop to revefige, witb tbe sword of 
\\u hme to the Cburcb, and to his own 

aitd Becket ijj rly began to shower his iinal be mas 

I firofofioii, that the Ktri^ b>id burdly a ^nflfident number of 
ibr ineYeoriiftiunicated to otiietate in bis own Cha(>4^(. But 

B<L^.^ <'^ uot yet intimidated; and when be beard soon aOer* 
inwtij that the Archbtfbop of Sens, who bad given protection to 
Bedkrt tn his own monusfery, was soliciting the Pope, among 
^lier measure*, to eiccommuuicale Henry btmseif tis an oti^tinnte 
brnwi^ be issued fresb ordew, to prevent any }>er9on from entering 
ihti kmG:dom with mandates eivber from the Po[>e or Arebbijibnp; 
wmd cleclared that, »houkl any letter of interdict tx* pubhsbcd in 
Bii^ttBd, alt tlnit submitted to it, ^* should tinnit^diately be b.mged 
«• trahore to tbeir King and country." He also suspended the 
y jmai l of the Prter-poKc; and enjoined \\\\ ab^nt clergymen to 
to tlieir benefices, under pain of toHeitu re of tbeir entire 
Tliese decicied steps made tlie Po|ie apprehensive, tbat^ 
if be lliCB proceeded to the extremities he liad meiltt8te<l, Enq^bnd 
wonki be wholly lost to him; be again, tliercfure, sought to gain 
timCt sod apin letl Ibe cause undetermined. 

In Ibc tnean time, Henry convened a general meeting of the 
' Prates, tlie Nubility, and all the prtnci[)al O (beers of every 
dty throughout the kingdom ; and before this nnme* 
ably, caused Henry, his eldest son, to be crowned King, 
by the Aftlibishop of York^ assbted by the bishops of London and 
Pfhatn; thus immediately violating one of the mo9t acknowledged 
f ut fog a iives of ifie Archbishops of Canterbury* Tliis gave addi- 
I mnbf^gv to Becket, who still conliimed in exile^ most reso- 
blely bent on the maintenance of his chiims, but stilt, from the pe^ 
r fllttatiou of the Pope's affairs, condenmed to launch bis tlma- 
tm with an impotent hand. He bad now passed %i\ years an atien 
Vol. Vn. J an. 1 807. E c e 6on» 


790 KEHT* 

from his country; when Henry, in whose mind some scniplai inA j 

arisen, from the near approach of death in a severe iUness, once i 

more determined to seek a reconciliatioD ; and, in a coofereiic». 1 

held with Becket at Montmirail, in presence of the King of Fiance^ | 
he agreed to almost every thing that the Archhishop piopoied. 
Nothing remained to adjust; when Becket, stepping forward to give 



him ' the kiss of peace/ said that he was * going to salute him k> \ 

the honor of God/ Henry, who was not entirely satisfied wilb '^ 
the Archbishop's manner, refused his salute, if accompanied fay ■] 
those .words, which he considered as superfluous; and on thia ^ 
ground the agreement was once more broken off. Id anotbeTt 
held shortly afterwards at Amboise, all difficulties were sam^oupt* . 
ed : Henry, among other engagements, promised to rest<N« dtt 
Archbishop to the same state which he held before his banishment^ 
and, in testimony of the sincerity of his professions, held Backefa 
siirrup whilst he mounted on horse-back.* 

Had the mind of Becket been imbued with any particle of bo* 
niility, the condescension and forgiveness exercised by hit Sova* 
reign, would have excited some kindred emotions in his own breast; 
but the austerity of the monk was not to be softened, nor his an* 
ger appeased, without revenge. Before he quitted Fiance, he ob- 
tained the Pope's license to suspend the Archbishop of Yoik, md 
to excommunicate the Bishops of London, Durham, and £xctert 
who had been the most active against him; and these purpoaes he 
executed in the moment he landed, notwithstanding the intreatics 
of the young King, who, having received uitimation of his design, 
sent messengers to request him to forbear. Shortly afterwards,t 
he solemnly excommunicated two of the King's immediate servant!, 
as if determined to show that his late reconciliation bad only beca 
entered into to furnish an opportunity of reviving the dispute. 

Heniy was at this time in Normandy, whither the suspended 
and excommunicated prelates hastened to inform him of Becket*a 
iiyustice. They threw themselves at the, King's feet, and comphuo- 


* Gervase, Col. 1412. 

f Qn<!hristmat Day, 1 170, within a month after hit return* 



the restDratton of the Archhlsliop was the cauw? of 
mem troubles; and llie Ardilmhop of York mided, thwf, wbiltt 
Becket WHS living, it seemed im|>osstble tlmt EnglaiKt ahould ti^ny 
mpoac^ Henry, in a fit of passionate rc.^nliiicnl; hmentc<1 bitter- 
ly» ll»t • no one* amonj^ the number:? he iiuiiuUiined, should ilare 
l» m-eo^ the insidl^i he was couthiually rcceivinj^ from a turbufent 
pmit.* Tliese words were not spoken in vain : four of the rmtncw 
dvte atlemlantft on the King, whose numes were Rcgin^iid Fitz- 
Uiac, William dc Tracy, Hu^h de IVlunlvilk% and Richard Brito, 
bmtnd themselves by un oath, either to terrify the Archhishtjp m- 
la aubau»ion, or to put hiiu to deatli. That uo suspidoo of their 
JiiiBlicirw might transpirei they quitted tfic court at different times, 
met, by dtflerent routes, proceeded to Saltwood Castle,^ near 
If jtlie, where they met on the same day, (December the twenly- 
cq^ili*) and having ^ttled their whole plan, they departed on the 
kt raomiitg to Canterbury, with a band of re^^olute men, having 
cocceakd under their clotlies. Thc5€ men ihey stutioued 
Dt pari3 of the city, to prevent interruption from tlie citi- 
wem; noA then, with twelve others, they proceeded unartni^d to 
tfie vdtiept!»copaI (lalHre, where ihcy found llccket convening with 
tPBK of hk clerg}'. After an awful sitettce, HeginaUl Fitj^Urse told 
Imit tirat tbej were sent by the Kliig, to conmiand him to abiiolye 
the persons whom be had excommunicated, and af)<'nvard& to go 
lo \VBichc^er, and muke atonciuent to the )oung King) whom he 
had riKkayoureil to dethrone. This produced a long and violent 
ifcuiliioii, in the course of which, they hhited tli^t hi^ life wa3 
^ ia Aag^f if he refusetl compliance. Still Bet kct couttimed iuBexi^ 
I bfei Mid tliey departed, after charging his servants not to suffer 
kin to flee* ** FleeP exclaimed the Archbishop, with much ve» 
** I will never flee from any man livhig^** His friends 
Unisied liim for the roughness of his answers, which hiid in* 
cfBsed his euemies to fury, and earnestly pressed him to withdnnv; 

E e e i but 

• Tht» t%rrrcs» was tncn held for the King by Ranulph de Broc, who** 
•ao, 1loU;rt de Hioc, was one ci ii;c perions whom Becket had last 
^SMiiiiiiiitkated I and appears to have accompanied the con«ptratort M 



but be slighted fbeir intreaties, and atisweredy ^ he had no need Of; 
their advice; he knew what he bad to do/ 

III the afternoon, Fitz-Urse, and his three compantoas, fiiidirtg 
that their threats had been ineflfectual, put on their coats of nml, 
and each taking a battle-axe and »word, went again to the palace^ 
where they sou<^ht in vain for the Archbbhop^ who^ at the fmt 
alarm at their cntmnce^ had been hurried by those around him^ 
across the courts and through the cloisters, to the Cathedral ; the 
sacredness of which edifice, it was presumed, would disarm the 
conspirators of their noletice. They would also have closed the 
entrance ; but Becket, still nndaunted, cried out, '^ Begone, ye 
cowards,' I charge ye, on your obedience, do not shut the door t 
what! would you make a Castle of a Church f It was now the 
time of vespers^ and Beckct was proceeding up the steps from the 
north end of tJie west transept, towards the choir, when the Knights 
entering from the cloisters, the foremost of them exclaimed, 
" Where is the traitor f Where is the Archbishop.** Becket directly 
turned back, and answered, '* Here is no traitor: but here am f^ 
the Archbishop." William de Tracy then seized him as his pri- 
soner; but Becket, in a scuffle, shook him so violently, as almost 
to throw him down: on tliis, de Tracy aimed a blow with a swmtl 
at the Archbishop, which only slightly wounded his head^ the force 
of it having been warded off by a priest,* whose arm was nearly 
severed in two by the stroke. The weapons of the other conspira- 
tors, however, immediately dispatched him; and he fell dead be- 
fore the altar of St, Benctlict. A piece of his scull was struck off 
by the vioknce of one of tbe blows, said to have bee« inflicted by 
Riclmrd Brito; and Hugh de Momville is stated to have scooped 
out the brains of the dead Archbishop witli his sword, and to have 
scattered them over the jiavemeut.t ^**ch was the horrible ter- 



•* The name of thii priest was Edward Grymc, or Ryme, who, b his 
rebiion of the murder, ttatci, that the first blow wat occaiioncd by the _ 
Archbiihop jcaliing Fiti-Urse a pimp. I 

t See Lord Lyttelton'i life of Henry the Second. Vol IV. p. 3^c 
andTb^ra, Chroa. mterlkctm Script. toU 1920. Tbc poiniof asworfl. 



mination of the perturbed life of this prelate, ivbose courage ta 
flieatby obhiined him tbe admiration even of his enemies, and high- 
Ij contributed 1o that hallowed, and ahnost universal respect, with 
which bis memory was revered for ages* 

However acceptable tbe death of tbe Archbishop might be to 
the King, the cfrcumslances under which it had taken place, gave 
htm inexpres&ible concern ; and be found it necessary soIemiUy to 
ileoj, that he was in anywise a participator in tbe guilt of the as- 
iwna. Notwithstanding this denial^ ihc Ambassadors which he 
MtH to justify his conduct to the Pope, could wilh diliicultv obtain 
i hearing, and they were obliged to swear in his name, that * he 
vrouid submit to whatever penance tlie Church should inflict/ lie- 
fijffic they could prevail on the incensed Pontiff to give ihein lui 
aaBumitC€, that neither tbeir Sovereign, nor bis kingdom, should 
be bid under interdict, or excominuiucalion * As for tbe conspi- 
ntors themselves^ they first took refuge, for an entire nvelvemontb, 
lo Hugh de Moraville's Custle, at Knaresborough, in Yorksliiie^ 
which he held in right of his wife ; but aflerwards going to Rome, 
they were admitted to absolution, on condition of doing penance 
for liie ia the Holy Land. 

lo the year 1172, the Legates whom the Po}^ had appoioted 
to mquire into the particulars of Beckefs murder, met the King 
m Normandy, and, after many delays and diiicuUies^ and the ex- 
iminatioii of riumerous witnesses, they permitted him to take a 
t soiemn oath, that be ** ueitlier conunanded, nor consented to, 
the assassination.'* They would not, however, absolve him ^om the 
crime laid to his charge, liU he had bound himself to an almost 
ttocouditional subnussion to the Holy See; and engaged lo lead 
an army within three years to the Holy Laud< He also, by 

£ e e 3 u private 

that had been broken off in commictiDg diis aisatsinadonj^as preserved 
s( Canterbury, as a most lacred retic, liil the period oi the HcJorn-arinn, 
MDd had cvcQ offcringi made to it. See an Extract from the Coflerer'i 
account of Queen PhiLppa, inserted in Pegge't Htsiory of Beiiuctiief 
Abbey* p. 6. 

• fiad. de DicctOt Col 5511. Gervaie, Cot. 1419. 

T9i XXKT. 

a private article, obliged himself to walk barefoot to' BeduiVtoiiiK 
and submit to be scoarged by the Mooks of Canteifourj. This lail 
obligation he performed immediately on his return to EnglaBd; 
and when at some distance firooi the ctty, he alighted, and, ill tbt 
humble garb of a pilgrim, walked barefoot to the G^bedral, 
where, after prostrating himself at the tomb of the new Saiift, in 
the deepest sorrow, he retired to the Chapter House» where ha 
was scOuf|^, with much severity, by all present, ** waam f^mog 
three lashes, others five." The suceeeding night he passed with 
much affliction, on the bare ground, before the tomb; and, aftec 
hearing mass the next momiog, he departed from Canteibury*^ 

This degrading humiliation of a crowned head, gpive every da* 
gree of publicity to the feme of the Archbishop, whose relics, io» 
cording to the report of the Monks, had alrea^ wrought many 
miracks. These were *' so well attested,' to use the language of 
the time, that the Pope scrupted not to admit their vaUdity, and 
issued his bull for the canonication of Beck^l, -bearing date March 


* " After the confuiion which the murder of the Archbishop occaiion* 
ed in the Church, and the concoune of people, which the tumult of it 
had brought together, had ditperted, the Monks took the body» and 
carried it to the great altar, where it remained till the next morning, 
when a rumour prevailing that the assassins would come, and take rha 
body away, and throw it without the walls, as a prey to the dogs, and 
the fowls of the air, the Prior and Convent, together with the Abbot 
of Bozley, who happened to be present, resolved, afler €onsulutiQB« 
to bury it immediately : stripping it, therefore, of the bair-cioth and 
habit of a monk, which the Archbishop always wore underneath, thej 
clothed it in his pontifical dress, and buried him in a new stone cofiin, in 
the crypt, at the east end of the under-croft of the Church,** Hasted, 
from Gervase, R. de Diceto, &c. 

After the death of Becket, the performance of divine worship in Can* 
terbury Cathedral was suspended for nearly a whole year^ and the 
Church itself appears, from Gervase, to have been left in the same dir- 
ty condition to which it had been reduced by the crowds that flocked 
into it, at the time, and after the murder, llie suspension was at Is^st 
taken off by the Pope^s command, and the celtbraiion of the Holy of* 
^^ was recommenced by the luffiragao Bishopt, 



tht tlitrtccnth, (anno I J7**3.) He also, in the |>rcseB<^ of all the 
Bttbops and Abbots of Canijmida, ctfleUnUed a solemn mass lo 
kooor of * Si^ Utomas the Martyr ;' and he atlerwardb ordakiedi 
Vy his Apostolical leUcrs, that the rnenior> of his passion should 
be for ever celeb n< led in all Christian assemblies, on the twenty- 
niutli day of December, The renown of Becket's sanctity was 
Ihus emended U^rough the world ; and his power of working inira- 
dit% acoOfdiiig to Gervasc, bernine a^ extensive as liis fume. At 
^ firaf^ fliya one author^ * that power reached only round hi^ toinh^ 
k tbeo extended over nil the crypt, next through the ulwjle Church, 
~tbcn over «dl Cauferbui^v; altrr that, lhron|;h tlie entire kingdom 
^ f EngiaDd; and lastly, through FniiMre, Normandy, G^irmany, and» 
Tb t vrord, as far as the Clinrth of Chrii»t was spie^id throughout 
~aU»e world/ Of tlie nature and desciiptiou of his miracles. Mat* 
^^iieir Parb ha^ given a kind of Scripture nummary: he restored, 
^091 this historian, ' agiUty to the critiplc, hearing to the deaf, 
3ight to the blind, speech to the dumb, health to the leprous, and 
Hfe to the d&id :' nay, even ' birds and anitnals* were re- vivified 
by his merits.* 

The immense multitudes of superstitious devotees of every rank 
that flocked to the fonib of Beckct, proved a most pmhfic source 
of revenue to the Church. Even in the very earliest yeara of his 
reo^witf tlie oblations were of great annual value; and in this 
Stage, they were as usefully appropriated, as ignorantly offered ; for 
they enabled the Monks to re-buiid the choir, which had been 
wholly destroyed by the fire in ll74,t "^ » 8^>le of Increased 
iM^^nifioeiiceu So extensive, indeed, was Uk; reputation which the 
nemory of Becket acquired, that, in the quaint (ihi-ascology of 
l^mbard, the ^ name of Christ wiis ckaiie forgotten ;' and tlie 
£ee 4 Cathednd 

* The wordi of M. Parii are, * NofN rtatituitur ibi ciaudts gresmts^ 
mtrdu auditu$f cttsia visui, loqutla mutU^ mniia^ Ifprons, vita mar- 
Smi§f if fion shtum utriuaque sex^i homifies, T^tum etiam avcs ^ uni* 
malia dx mi&rU rrparaiUur ad lUam.* p, 125. 

f See before, p. 750, 7 (JO, 

796 Mxxrr. 

Cathedral itadf obtained the name of the <C3iaidi of St TIkii^ 

Qenuic^ whose florid account of the destrodioB of the choir m 
1174, has been already quoted, k equally minntB m UsielBtiQi^ 
of the particulara of its re-building; the progress of wUcfa hodo* 
scribes m its regufaur advancement, year after year. ¥nm hm 
statement it appears, that the most skiUbl arcUleds, both «f 
nance and England, were employed to survey those parts tlmt 
the fire had left standing, and that the first twcheoKNith was spent 
in taking down the damaged waUs and piUars. In the seven soo- 
eeeding years, the ebon* was completed in the more omamemal 
style which then prevailed; and though itsgeneial fi>miwastlio 
same as that which had been burnt, it was mudi heightened, ml 
also extended in length. In April, 1180, the Monks le-commenoad 
divine wonhip in the new choir, though it was far from being 
finished; and in July fi>llowing, they removed the bodies cf the 
different Arehbisbops who had been buried in the Chapel of . the 
Holy Trinity, which stood behind the high altar, near the.eastcni 
extremity of the Cathedral, as a preparatory measure to the de* 
molition of this part of the edifice, which they had detennmed to 
re-build in a more enhuged and beautiful manner. The new Clm- 
pel of the Holy Trinity, was completed about the end of the year 
1184 ; and with this was afterwards annexed a small circular bnild« 
ing, now called Beckef s Crown,^ whkh forms the eastern termi« 
nation of the Cathedral. Boieath tlie whole of this new part of 
the fabric, an elegant crypt was also built : the entire expensea 
being defrayed, like those of the choh*, by the ofierings made 
at Becket's tomb.f After 

^ Probably from the Corona, or top of the skull, which the Archbishop*s 
murderen are stated to have cloven off. 

f In 1755, the Society of Antiquaries published an Elngraving of the 
Church and Monastery of Canterbury, as they stood between the years 
1 i 30 and 1 174, from a very curious and singular drawing by the Monk 
Eadwyn, wh«ch is now preserved in a triple Psalter of St. Jerom, in 
Latin, wriiun by Eadwyn, and given, by Dean Neville, to Trinity 
College Library, at Cambridge. This book is supposed to have originally 




After die death of Becket, ccioRlderable dbseusions arose b^ 
t/reea the sufiragan Bishops, and llje Prior and Convent of ChrUt 
Cburcii, respecting tlie right of chu^lng his successor: at length, m 
1174, Richard, Prior of Dover, was promoted to the vacant chair. 
Id the following year* this Prelate, as Legate of the Apostohc See^ 
held a great Provincial Council at We^tttiiuster: he died tn Febnw 
«y, 1184, and was succeeded by Baldwin , Bishop of Worcester, 
wlio was chosen on the reconiinendaliun of the King and Bishopa^ 
but not till after great opposition on the [)art of the Monks, Thit 
to have ver\^ early induced liiin to the attempt to abridge 
• power, and diminish their we;iith, which, from the rich offer- 
iDgs continually pouring b upon the tomb of Becket» was largely 
acctimulaUng. Witii this view, hc^ resolved to erect a msigniticent 
Church and College for Seculars, at Hackington, (tiow St* St&* 
plieii*9,) near Canterbury; and having obtained the King's appro- 
bttion, and also a bull from Pope Urban the Third, authorizing 
Uft intended foundation, and granting him a fourth of ail the obla- 
tious made at the tomb of St, Thomas, h« commenced the 
new building, and carried it on wilh so much rapidity, that 
the Monks became exceedingly alarmed. They saw clearly, that 
if tbey suffered tlie new Church to be completed, their owu iuflu- 
ffice would lie much diminished ; and they therefore made a strong 
api>eal, botli to tlie Sovereign, and to the Court of Rome; tliougli 
at first without success. Their op}>05ition, however, still contiimcd ; 
aodf on the advancement of Clement the Third to the Papa] 
chair, the Archbishop wm obliged to relinquish his design, and 
demolisli all tlie buildings he had erected, lu 1158, Baldwin 
tmide a journey through Wales^* for the puri)ose of inducing the 


belungcd io the Church of Canterbury, ' ai in an Index of book* for- 
mtttly belonging lo it, mention ji made of IripartUum PitaiUritim 
£adii'i/mV Hasted* 

" The ' Iiberary* of Archbiihop Baldwin through Wale», by Giral- 
du> de Bah-i, jurnaracd Cambrensis, who accompanied hlmi has been 
recently published , by iiir Richard Crjh lloare, Bart, with an elegant 
ira&ilatioii from the uri^inal JUtiuj aiid miiiy iiiteresting plate*. 

79S KENT, 

natives to assist in the dmsade for the recoveiy of Mestine; ami 
at tbe latter end of the succeeding ^fear, be himself set oat for the 
Holy Land, io company with Richard CoKur de Uon, He died 
during the siege jof Ptolemais, or Acres, iu the year 1 191, htitiDg, 
by his zeal, greatly contributed to the success of the Chiistna 

, Reginald Fit%^Joctline^ Bishop of Bath, was next elected to tfaii 
See; but he dying within fourteen days afterwarda, Hukert WaUet, 
Bishop pf Sanira, was chosen by the Monks as his successor, oo 
the recommendation of the King, who had been acoompaaied by 
Hubert in Palestine; and when he was himself detained prboner 
by Leopold, Duke of Austria, on his return to Enghnd, he sent 
Hubert to manage the afikirs of his kingdom during his captivity* 
In 1194, this Prelate was constituted Chief Justiciary of Eoghmd; 
and in liPd* be was appointed Chancellor: in these high offices, 
as well as in his immediate government of the realm itself during 
Richard's imprisonment, he acted with great wisdom and integrity:, 
he died in July, 1205. The Monks were much divided among 
themselves, respecting a fit person to be appointed to succeed him, 
and, after making choice of three different prekites, they were at 
last constrauied, by the Pope, Innocent the Third, to elect Stephem 
Langion, who, though an Englishman by birth, had been brought 
up at the University of Paris, where his great learning having pro* 
cured him the esteem of the King of France, and most of the no* 
bility, he was made Chancellor of that city. He was afterwards 
created a Cardinal by the title of St. Chiysogone ; and being a 
great favorite with the Pope, who had nearly accomplished the 
scheme of his predecessors, in making Rome a second time the 
mistress of the world, he was nominated by him to succeed to the 
vacant chair at Canterbury, and the election immediately took 
place at Romey whither a deputation of fourteen Monks had 
been sent to obtain confirmation for John de Grey, Bishop of 
Korv\'ich, whom the Convent of Christ Church had previously 
chosen, with the King's consent : these Monks the Pope obliged, 
under a threat of excommunication, to elect Cardmal Langton; 
aod the Arch Pontiff unmediately confirmed their choice, and con* 
2 secrated 



ireratcd the Archbishop himself at Viteibo^ on the seveutcenlh of 
June, 1207, 

This ttnpreoedented transactjoa was highly reieiikd hy King 
Johiif who tent n spirited letter to the Pope^ coRipUiiting of it as 
«& * encroachment on his prerogative;' and siatinjo;, lliiit * he would 
ncfier depart from the elertion of the Bishop of Nornich ;* mid 
thit, ' tf the satislWtioti tie demanded wiis di-oied him, he would 
Ineak off all iutercourse with Rome/ He added also, that ' there 
wtit Prelates enough in hb kingdom qualitied to govern tlie 
Church, and dierefore it was not necessary to have rccour^ to 
the Popes, if they so inanitcstly abused their aulhorily/* The 
fffily of Itioocent was written in terms of appaient mildness, com- 
lliotd nith much ironical abuse; and in nhich, atter notify iir^ tliaC 
Ik, JohQ» * was tn the wrong to com|>lain, since I he cooAent of 
Soincagins was not reciuisite at elections made m |>nfsence of the 
Fope«' he concluded hy telling him, that * submission m a cau^ 
for which the blessed Thomas Becket shed his blood, would he 
note for his advantage, titan ao obstinate resistance against God 
and his Church/ Very soon after\^ard>, he dispatched au order 
to the Bisltops of London, Ely, and Worcester, to persuade the 
[ to submit to tl^ decisions of the Court of Rome; conimand- 
\ jog them also, if they found him ^ contumacious,' to put Uie king- 
louder an interdict; and this Ibey at length did; for John 
pOftiti%'ely refused to make the subiitls^ions they required of Jiinu 
I Such was the commeuccjiient of the troubles which atilicted the 
llpUiofi daring the rcmatader of lliis reign: tliose who submitted to 
' Ibc interdict, were punished with banishment iind ronti^caliou by 
the King; those who disobey'ed it» were excommunicated by the 
Pope, For 

Joha's indignation wni 10 great, that \w obliged the Monkt of 
[ Christ Church to quit ihe Mooastery, and the kingdom, within three 
I flays, under ihe ibreai, that if ihcy dared to remain, ihc Monastic 
[limtdmgt should be burnt down atxjoL their tars, M. Pans, p, 2C3« 
j^aptn, in hi* account of this dispute. Hist, of Eni;, Vol. [, p. 2(j7, et srqm 
tit miitakeii in ascribing to the Monks of St, AHgUJKine^g^ what were, in 
peslfiy, the acii of the Monks of ChriH Churdi: ihia error pervade* die 

I of bit liutory* 


For sevenl yean, Jofan^ steadily maintained th^ omtat: btt 
the superstition of the age rendered it at last so unequal, tlMl At.,' 
was compelled, however reluctandy, to submit to the plenitude of ij 
^ecdesiasdcal power. Yet, before he could be induced to hrnM^ [ 
M the ceoswes of the Church mexe launched against himr hk wii 
liiniself exeommunic8ted; his safcrjecta were absokred 6om Unlr 
«ath of aUegiance, and enjoined to refine hhn all obedience^ mUi ' 
ifandly, judgment of dq>osition for * RebeHioD against the IM^ 
See,' was solemnly pronoimced against him by the Pope, wko §k 
the same time commissioned Philip, King of France, hb moil hk^ 
ter enemy, to execute the sentence. Ptiilip immediately made vasi 
prtpanitions to intade England^ which the Pope had pioarised to 
*bim and his heirs for ever, as soon as he had succeeded in delfami- 
iag the (ynmt ;' together with ^remission of all his sins/ lA tbia di- 
lenuna, the first determination of King John was bold and Homly^': 
he summoned all his tenants in chief to meet him with their trooj^ 
at Dover, under pain of * fbiftitittg their ficft^ and being «Kisl» 
piBr% pumshed in then* persons/ At the same time» he oidcnd 
aB die shipping belonging to fals subjects to be ready at* tte same 
place; and by the peremptoriness with whith he enforced his botti- 
vands, such an immense armament was assembled, that he #ia 
wiable to maintain them. He therefore selected about 60,000 of 
the most wartike men, and encamped on Barham Downs, to await 
tte expected attack. 

In this decisive moment, Pandulph, the Pope^s Legale, arrived 
in England, to make a last attempt to persuade him to submit t6 
the Holy Father; and in this he at length succeeded, by artfully 
exaggerating the immensity of Philip's force, and by revealmg to 
hka that most of the great Barons (who were incensed at his arbi- 
trary measures) had engaged to assist the attempt of Philip to the 
utmost of their power. John's resolution now gave way; and he 
executed an instrument, to the observance of which he bound 
himself by a solemn oath, engaging, among other things, ' to obey 
the Pope in all things; to make restitution to all who had suffered 
during the contention ; and to receive into favour the prescribed 
ecclcaastics^ partkrularly Cardinal Langton,^ and the Monks of 
1 Christ 



Ik Church/ Even these submission^ degnidbj^ as they were, 
iusufiident to satisfy the mmgance of the Roman Pontiif. 
oath taken to obey the Pope in all things^ was still to be tn- 
foiced ; aod John was now tolcf^ that Uie absolute resignation^ qf 
his Cr<nsn, to the Pope» iia» the ouly condidoti upon which abso- 
lution could be grauted him. Such was the extrenuty of liis a^ 
£iifs, that the degraded Sovereign saw no alternative but conipli* 
' tiioe, or the loss of his kiogdora. He did comply ; and he lost 
more tliau a kiugdom^^he lost his honor. He laid both his Seep* 
tre and hb Crown at the feet of the Popc*a repre^ntative ; atid be 
fubitcribed his signature to a charter, in whidi it was falbf ly assert- 
ed, that he resigned botli his Ki/igdom of Eugland^ and hii Lord-^ 
ship of Ireland, to the Foj>e and his successors, * of his own free 
will/ and from ' having no other way to atoue for his offences to 
Goil and the Church/ Full live days did Lhe Legate retain m his 
own hands the emblems of Royalty ; and he then returned them 
la tiie selMeposed MonarcJi, witli au intimation^ that iiii conduct 
was etpected to be ejiemplary^ after such a signal favor had been 
conferred ou him ! 

The Pope's authority w^s now employed to restrain the King of 
Franoe from executing his project of invasion; and Cardiaal Lang- 
. Ion being admitted into England, witli tlie Bishops who had been 
gave tiie King absolution at Winchester; yet not tiil the 
er hdd renewed his oath of fealty and obedt<^ncc to iJie Holy 
|8ee. The interdict was still suifered to remain in force, as if to 
llry the sincerity of Jolm s late professions. In the mean tirne^ the 
iBarDiis were sileutly arranging the plan of a confederacy against 
King, who, encouraged by the Pope's favor, appeared willing 
make his dominion absolute. At the head of tiiis confederacy 
ms Archbishop Lanjjton, who, by a strange concatenation of 
l^ents, from being the mere creature of the Pope, now appeared 
k the bold assertor of jwpular rights; and was himself aflerwardi 
^•uspeiided by the Pope^s counnissionerSy for his retWiil to publish the 
bull of excomrauuication against the coalesced BaronSi Before tbii^ 
^flso^ Limgton had grc^itly iucenstid tlie Po|>e, by placing his own 
akma protestation upon tlie altar, against the second resignation 




made by King John, of his Crown; and which had been accorapjinlerf 
with cvf-ry legal formality that the Pope*s Legate thought pro|>cr la 
require : in return for this last act of submission, ibe interdict, 
which had continued for six years, was taken oJf ; and 60,000 of 
ttic 100,000 marks wliich John had agreed to pay in rest ituf ion 
of llie injuries sustairieti by ecdesiaslic?*, were remitted. The di^ 
tract ed state to wliich the country was reduced, through the refit* 
flat to acknowledge the validity of the Archhisho[)*s election, was at* 
Teiigtb Icmiinated by the death of the King, in October, 121(i. 

On the seventh of July, in the year 1220, the remains of Beckett 
or St. Thomas, as he was now familiarly called, were removed 
from his tomb in ibe crypt, info a cosily shrine, which had been 
prepared tor their reception in the new Chapel of the Holy Trmi* 
ty, TIte solemnities were performed by Langton, in the presence 
of the King and an ijnnicn<«e multitude of iieo|iIe; and thecoflm was 
l»onie fmm the t<»mb to the shrine, by Ihe Archbishops of Canter- 
bury and Uheim^; Pandulph, the Pope's Legate; and many Bishops 
and Abbots. The reioicing"^ at this translation were of the most 
splendid kind; and the expenses attending them were so enormous, 
that Ijangton is said to have entdiled a debt on his See upon this 
ocnision, which Boniface, hij^ third successor, wm hardly able to 
discharge. Among the other items of his exjienditnre, was forage 
for the horses of alt persons coming to atteitd ihe solemnity, on 
every part of the road between l^iidon and C;mterbur5-: wine also 
was distributed in prolusion to the people, from various pipes and 
conduits ui different parts of the city* 

Langton died hi July, 1228, and was succeeded by Riclmrd 
Wctlurshcd, Dean of St. Paul's, a jhtsou of much learning, andT 
many accomplishments, who dying within three years afterwards, 
tt St. Gemma^ on his t«fum from Rome, was there buried, in 
the Church of the Friars Minors. His successor, Edmund qf 
Ahin^don, Chancellor of Saruni, who was chosen on the recom- 
menchttiou of the Pope, was so affected by the o|jpressions which 
his Church endured from the exactions of the Court of Rome, llml 
he went into vohmtary exi^e at Soissy, in Pimtimac, about 1240; 
tud he di«d there of a consumplion brought on by too striel ab* 





His reputation was so great, tliat, in the seventh year 
ifter his death, he was canonized hy Pope Ininicent the Fourtli^ 
at the Conncil of Lyons* His bmly was soon afterwards interred 
in a 9um|[>tuous shrine, by Lewis, King of France ; dnd many nii- 
lades are said to have been wrongUt Ihrou^ti his merits, which 
occasioned him to be styled the glonotts and ble$<ied SL Ednmnd. 
B<mifacf, Provost of BeTcrly, a native of Savoy, amJ trncie to 
Bkanor, Heury the Third's Queen, was I he next Archbbhop. He 
foikudrd the Hos|>tta! which Archlji'sbop Courtney afterwarcfa con- 
verted into a College at Miiidstone, and also finished the stately HaU 
ID tlie Archbishop's Palace at Canterbury, besides rebuikfing a con- 
siderable part of Lambeth Pdlace; whtlher he appear! to have re- 
tired for security from the citizens of I^ndon, to whom he hud 
rendered himself obooxious from his haughly behaviour. He rf 
terwards sought refuge in his own country, and died at the Castle 
, #f St. Helena, in Sa^foy, in 1270. 

On his death, the Monks of Christ Church elected Wllliiim do 
[Chitlendeo, their Sub-Prior; but the Pope amiuUed hi«i election, 
[declaring him unworthy of the higli dignity; atid that the Monks^ 
IJD ch«ising him, had forfeil**d tlieir rigiit of election tor that liim. 
He therefore, in the plenitude of hts own authoriiy, nominated 
^Bidiard Kilv^ardhy, Provincial of the Dominican Friars, in En^- 
^bund; and the Monks admitted him lo be le*,^dMy chosen, 

Edward the First, who shortly altera ards came to the Crown, 
I but who was then in the Holy Liuitl, refused to re^ilore the Arch- 
[ bUiiop*s tcmporuhties, till he had a^sirnibled a Council at West- 
[ minstert ^t^ made a public protestation, that such restitution wai 
|i>f kit own ' mere grace and tavor, and not of any ri|?ht/ tlie Pope 
'having rejected William de Clntlenden, ' contrary to Itis preroga- 
tive, to the laws of the realm, and to the lil>crlks of the English 
Church.' In 1277% Kilwardhy was created a Cardinal by Pope 
Kicholas the Thirds upon which, he vacated his See, and went in- 
l|o Italy, where be died, at Viterbo, in 1280; but not without su»» 
l^iciou of poison. On his rcsignatioiu the Monks elected, at the 
^mnienddtion of the King, Robert Burnel, Bishop of Bath and 
VeUs^ flmd ChaiKdlor; yet the Pope refused to couflrni him; and 




I at! 

appointed John Pcckham, or Pecham, a natiire of Sussex, aiid 
lliat time, Provincial of the English Fraiicii»cans, aiid PalatiDe Rea- 
der and Auditor of the Pope's Court, at Rome, to succeed to lb< 
▼acant See. Ills e^^altatioD, howeveri was not a gratuitous one; 
for the Po|ie obliged him (o pay 4000 marks; and the King 
charged faini 2000 more, for lib expenses in sowing the Church 
laiidji^ and for the crop then ^r^^wing upon tliem. Tlus Prdate 
WHS also at great charge in repairing the Castles and M»ndons be- 
iooging to his See; and he al!»o endowed the College at Wingbam^ 
in til is county. He was a sTrennous defender of the nghrs of his 
Churcii; and, in the fini year of his primacy, held a Provincial 
Council at Reading, the resolutions of which Here afterwards ab* 
rogated by the King s command, in a ParlianienI assembled tn the 
fame year. He died at Mortlake, in 1292; and wa§ succeeded by 
Robert Winchcheu, Chancellor of Lincoln, who had received the 
rudiments of hid educatiou at the Grammar School at Canter- 
bury. His primacy was dbturbcd by frequent di^tseosions with the 
King, who disputed the validity of many of his claims in right of 
the Church ; and was at la:>t particularly inceni>cd against him, for 
his conduct in procuring a bull from the Po^ie, to inhibit the cler- 
gy from granting bini any furtlier aids, without license from the 
Holy See, On this occasion, Edward seized all the goods and 
possessions of the Archbishop, as well as of ail other ecclesiastical 
persons, till they had submitted to his will, by granting him one 
half to redeem the otlier. The Archbishop refused to comply; 
but was afterwards received into favor» through the mediations of 
his su^ragan Bishops ; and, on the King s going to Flanders, in 
the year l 257, the guardianship of the young Prince, afterwards 
Edward the Second, and the custody of tlic kingdom, was com- 
mitted to him, and tiie Ix^rd Reginald de Grey. His abstinate 
defence of ecclesiastical claims, even after this, engaged him in a 
conspiracy against the King, who seized his teuijioralities, and b«- 
nisbed him the reahn : he also prevailed on the Pope to suspend 
him from his See. On the death of the King, in 1307, he was 
re-instated iii the Archbiiihopric ; and soon afterwardsp he held a 
Provincial Council ^ in whkb several decrees were past for the weU- 





j»^eming of the Cburch, He died in May, 1313. His liberality 
lo the poor was venf extensive ; and the reputation of his virtues 
ifiis 90 great, that many oblations were made at his tomb, on which 
loeount if is said to have been destroyed at the Reformation. 

f^'alter Ret^notds, Bishop of Worcester, was, on the recominen- 

(ktion of the King, next apjjointed to fill the IVIetro-[>olirical chair, 

\ie was the sun of a tradesman at Wiudsor, and had been niadc 

Cbdpbin to Edward the First, and preieptor to the young Prince, 

^lli whom he became a great favorite, and who, afler his advance to 

the Throne, made him Treaaiirer, Lord Keeper, and Chancellor. In 

tbc little of his Sovereign s distress, however, the Archbishop sided 

with the popular party ; tlte faint emanations of hisgratitude were too 

jwwede^s to ensure his tidclity, and he crowned the young Monarch, 

Edi^'ard the Third, whilst his father was yet living. He died in 

tbt foUowing year, in November, 1327 1 through 'grief and anger/ 

QT5 Weeper, at being * reviled, taunted, an<J threatened by the 

Pope,* for consecrating James Berkley, Bishop of Exeter, at the 

conunaod of Queen Isabella** His successor, Stfnon Mcopham, 

t julive of Meopham, in this county, is said to have died of a 

few, generated by the anguish of iiiind which he experienced 

during a Metro-political visitation, wherein llie Bishop of Exeter, 

with a body of anned men, opposed his entering hito his diocese. 

He died at Maytield, in February, or October, 1333, 

Mn, sumamed Stratford, from the place of his birth, atStrat- 
ford-apofhAvon, Bishop of Winchester^ was chosen by the Monks, 
on tlie recommendalion of the Kiiip;, to succeed to the vacant 
dmir; but the Vo\yG refused to confirm his election, till after re* 
pmH^A delays, and many exactions. This Prelate had been pro* 
nmted by Edward the Third for his generous constancy to lirs fa- 
ther. He was a man of very eminent talents, and his acquirements 
were no less splendid. When the King went with his army into 
Flanders, in the year 1338, he was appointed sole Justiciary dur* 
mg his absence; he was abo employed in many embassies, and on 
every occasion proved himself to be a most faithful and disinterest* 
Vol. VU, Feb. 1807. Fff ed 

• Fun. Mon. p. U2U 



jtd scriaiit of l!io Crown, lie is %MeA to (mvc croaied (be 
d ** two-umUtlurry limes in tlic puhlic service, bcsiites makiiiif 

"several joimiey^ tu Scot land \\liilst Bishop of Winchester; fnr sil> 
^Uiidj he never received more ihiin OOOl* out of the Exchefjner,** 
His iKMiero^nce wsi» verV greul; he riuily chstril>itted -ahns to Uiir* 
ty-nhie ]K>(jr people 4^»ring the whole time of hb Primary; ancf, 
aiuiing otlier mils of liberality^ he founded a eoUe^iate Churrh 
in his native town. IK* died in 1348, and was succeede<l hy Ma 
de Offbrd, or VjJbtJ, Chaiiccibrof Eng^hnid, who expirctl in July, 
J^^iJ, in the time of the gte^t plague tliut was then extending its 
ravages through the universe, Thomas Bradivardin, the King'i 
Confessor, (culled Doctor Profundus from his great knowledge.) M 
was then promcjied to the vacant See; bnt fie dying in December ■ 
followinf'T through the fatigue he had endured on h 15 journey to 
Home for confirmation, was succeeded by Simon IMp, who was 
then the King's Sccrctury, and Keeper of the Privy Seal. He 
partly rebuilt the urchiepiscopal Palaceii of Maidstone and Lambeth, 
and was the founder of Canterbury College at Oxford, He died 
in April, 136"f5. Among the H a rieian Manuscripts, is a Treatise 
written hy this Prelalc, ijilituled, Spccidum Hc^is Edwardi %iii, 

Simon Langhum, Bishop of Ely* who hnd previously Ijecn Lord 
Treasurer and Chancellor of England, was next appointed to th» 
See; ^vhi*:h he rCi»!gned within two years atlenvards, on being 
clecleci a Cardinal* and went to Rome. Ou the decease of WiU 
liufH U'hitffcsey, Bishop of Worcester, who had becu chosen his suc- 
cessor, and wliodicd in I374^» Limgham returned to Englnnd, and, 
by bribing Utc Mou! s was agaiu elected hy lliem la fill llie vacant 
chair. This iireatly exasperated ihc King, who positively refused 
to risadinil him to the Arclibishopiic; and L;!ngham returned to 
Aviguoj]^ where he died hi July* 137 6.* 



** Daring the Prioiacy of this Ardihiahop^ " a rransncrion happened^. 
which may be ctm«idered r*< the fjnt step towards ihe decline ufibc Pi* — 
p:*I power in thi* kln^'ilom* The great acquisitions which Edvrard the- 
Third had made m l ranee* iiiclincd the Pope, Urban the Seventh* t<» 
♦hink tlut the present juncture wri« vci y proper to demand the inbote 





Previously to this, liowevcr, in May, 1575, Simon de Sudburj/, 
Bishop of London, was translated to this Sec by the Pope, He 
was a Prelate of great talents, aiid was much employed in state 
afl^irs during the first years of the reign of Richard the Second, 
by whom he was appointed Chancellor of England in January, 
1380, On the fourteenth of June, in the following year, he was 
barbarously nnirdcred on Tower Hill, by the insurgents undr.T 
Wat Tyler, together with Sir Robert Hales^ Prior of I he Hospital 
of St. Jotui of Jenisalem. Tlie west gate of the city of Caiiterbn- 
1^', with a great part of Ihe wall extending thence towards the 
worth gate, was rebtuk by Sudbury; he also made considerable 
alterations in the west transept of the Cathedral, to adapt it to tlie 
more Improved slyfc of architecture ttien in use ; and he had the 
whole of the nave taken down, excepting the west front, witli in- 
tent to rebuild it from the foundaltous, but this was prevented by 
Jjis death.* FffS WiUiam 

-^hich King John had bound himself and his successors to pay to the Ho- 
M^f See» and which had been disconiinued almost a!l this reign. In this 
;^pre»umptM>n« he requited the payment with much haughtiness, and »o 
Xittie diffidence^ !hat he nominated Commi»iionen to summon Edward 
"K^cfore him, in case of hii refusal, even previously to receiving his an- 
^^ wcf* Ho%vcvcr pacific the King msght be inclined towards his Holiness, 
-•^ liat none of his great designs against France might l>e interrupted, yet 
^M^ \Ttiuld not submit to these imperious measures. He therefore assem- 
a I^rharaeni, in which, after some days deUberaiion, it was rc- 
by King* Lords, and Commoni, that neither King lohn* nor 
Ta ny other King of England, had power to brmg his dominions under 
^ '] lervkude and subjection, without the consent of Parliament ; that 
le oeceistties of t!iat King had compelled him to this measure, it was 
vxulJ in itself, as t>eing contrary lo the oath which he took at bis corona- 
tioni aod therefore, if the Pope should, by any means whatever, at- 
tempt to support his unjust pretensions, thut the whole nation would 
Unite, with all its power, to oppose him." This resolution was a prin- 
cipal meant of freeing the country from the tribute which had been so 
long levied for ihe Court of Rome, 

• The e^penics of Sudbury's buildlags were partly defrayed by him- 
ff if, and partly with the revenues of the Archdeaconry, which he ob- 
uined the King*i liceose so to appropriate, as Jong a* that remaiaed 
• in the King's handi.' Rym. Fiid. I'd. VIL p, ifltf. 




Wiiliam CQUTtene^/y fourtb son of Hugo, Eail of Devon, aarf, 
bj the female line^ descend^ from Edward the Fir^t^ was ueicl 
transliited from the See of London to ihia Archbishopric. His dis- 
position was generous and Itbeml ; though he supported the pre- 
tensions of tfoe Church of Home with a strong hand, in opposition 
to Ihe disciples of WickliBT, who were now contesting its claiiii:» 
with much boldness. He gave 1 000 marks towards the nave of 
tli€ Church, which the Monks had begun lo rebuild at their own 
diarize, as:9isted by con tribiit ions from the nobility and gentry. 
He aJso prevailed on the King, Richard the Second, to bestow 
lOOOl. for the same puqjose; and at his own cost, he rebuilt the 
lodgings and kitchen of the Infirmary; contributed 26(51, 13», 4d.. 
towards rejiairing the precinct walls of the Monastery; and ex- 
pended 301. in making a new glass window in the nave of the Cfi- 
the^tral in lionor of St. Alphage. By his will, he likewise directed 
fhal 120Q1. or upwards, according to the discretion of his executors, 
should be ** laid out by them for a new work, or building of one 
side of tlie cloister, to be carried on in a straight line from the 
gate of the Palace unto the Church " He died in July, 139^, at 
\m Palace at Maidstone, where also he appears to have been bu- 
ried; though some hbtorians affirm, that he was interred in the 
Cathedral at Canterbury, by the King's conunand. 

Thomas Fitz-AhiTif second son of Richard, Eaii of Arundel, 
and generally called TTiomas Arundel, was next translated to this 
See from the Archbishopric of York. He was a prelate of great 
abilities^ and through hts high birth, and the interest of \m futiuly, 
had been preferred to the Sec of Ely at tlie early age of twenty* 
two. The peculiar circumstances of the times, his acknowledged 
talents, and exalted rank, occasioned him to be much involved in 
state affairs; and though be resigned the office of Lord Chancel- 
lor (which he had executed witli great address for several years) 
sooB after his advancement to the Metro-political chair, this did 
not secure bim against the intrigues of his political enemies. la 
llje twenty-first of Richard the Second, he was attaiuted of treason^ ■ 
for having executed tlie commission to * View tlie Slate of the 
Rc^ni -J and confiding in the prouiise of iudcniuity made to him 





by ihc King, be negtected to defend his conduct, and wai sentenced 

to bflmishtneut. His elder brother, the Earl of Arundef, was also 

^ Mited, and condemned to decapitalion about tlie same tune, 

I iir stiflifred accordingly. 

On the banisfiment of Aninih't, Roger Waldcn, the King's Trea- 
surer* was appointed his successor in the See of CantertHir>' by 
the Pope, who had previousl}^ transbted Arundel to the Bishopric 
M* St* Aadrew'% in Scotland. He held it, however, but a short 
lirac; for after the deposition of Ricliard in the following year, 
(anno 1 399,) Arundel re-assimied the Primacy * as his own pro- 
per right, and from which he had never been canonically ejected/ 
Henry the Fourth, whom he had crowued, willi the assistance of 
the Archbishop of York, and had been highly instrumental in rais- 
ing lo the throne, supported him Jn these pretensions; and the 
Pope consented to a decree that no Bishop shonld thenceforth be 
tnQsIaCed to another See against his own will and consent. In 
1407, Arundel was again apfjoinled Chancellor, and lie remained 
in that ofBce, with a short intermission, during four years. He 
died in Febniary, 1414, and was buried in a tomb which he had 
caused to be erected in the nave of the Calljedrah His inany vir- 
tues were shaded by great faults; and the severity which he ex* 
cTcised towards tlie Lollards, can neither admit of palliation nor 

During the Primacy of Arundel, the Monks of Christ Church 
proceeded with the rebuilding of the na%e of the Cathedral, to- 
ytmh the ex|>ense of which, this Archbishop contributed 1000 
Jiiarks^ besides niakhig other donations. In his time, the rectories 
of Godmersham* and Westwell were also appropriated to the CoiK 
vent, in order to assist them in defraying the charges of the new 
vrork, which appears to have been tiuished about 1410. Thb is 

Ff fS inferred 

^ The preamble to ihc grant of Godmersham rectory, which bears 
date in 1397, records, that ' the Prior and Convent had already ex- 
pended myre than 5000 marks of their own money on ihe navc^ and 
oiber necctiary worki» of the Church, and that the work which was 
Wgiio» and what was otherwise of neceisiry to be undertaken there of 




inferred from llie obituary of Clirisl Church, which stales, llial 
Prior Ghillenclen, who died in tlie following yciir, * full^ completed, 
with the help of Archbishop Arundel, the rebuilding of tlie nave, 
■logctiier with the Chapel of the Virgin Marv^ situated m the same/ 
H€n7y CMchelcy, or Chichley, ifie successor of Aruiulcl, a na- 
tive of Higham Ferrers, in Nortliamptonshirc, and then Bishop of 
St. David 's» was a great patroo of learning, and^ besides promot- 
ing its extension by various other means, be founded the CoUeges 
of St, Bernard, (uow St. John's,) and that of i\ll Sonls, atOxfonJ, 
where he had completed his education. lie likewise built a col- 
legiate Church and Hospital in his native town ; and creeled the 
great tower in Lambeth Pnlnce» called afterwards llie Lollardi 
Tower, from it* having bc^n used as a place of confinement 
for tlic unfortunate schismatics so den omnia ted» and of whom 
Chicheleyf with all liis estimable qualities, must, in some degree^ 
be regarded as a persecutor. In an instrument copied intQ RymerV 
Fd^dera* ami bearing date in October, 14lG, be signs himself^ 
* Legate of tlie Apostolic See;" though on several occasions he cx- 
irt^d himself to repel the attempted usurpations of the Court of 
lome. His benefactions to his own Church were considerable; 
L|ie enriched it with niany ornaments of great value, and [*artly re- 
Ibuilt the soutli-west lower, and also the libraiVi which he replenisli- 
with books. In Iiis latter days, being depressed by intirmities, 
l)ic requested permission from Pope Eugenius to resign his Arch* 
[bishopric, but died before it could be obtained, iu April, 1443. 

His successor, John Stafford^ Bishop of Batli and Wells, soi^ 
|of Sir Humphrey Staflbrd, wlio was translated hillier through his 
krccommendation, was an eminent statesman. He was held in 
l|uuch favor by Henry the Fiflli, who made him Keeper of the 


llheir Cloiitcr, which wai pulled down, and ihcir Chapter-House, which 
1%'as in imminent danger of ruitii could not be perfcccly and decently 
(repaired for less than (iOOO marks.* — Sumncr^'i Appendix, No* XXIX* 
[The gram or\\'estvveIl rectory^ dated in t40i, itaies that the Convent 
^ad rhen cxpeaded 8(K){) raarlcs in the new work. 

♦ Vol. IX. p. 401. 



J^mySeal; and soim atUr I he death of thul Sovcrei^, he wad 
apfiaiiited TrcaMirer of hU Eij;jlaiid. Irt J 434 he wnt* |>romot<^d 
Jo the Chancel lots liip, which he held dnring eighteen years. Hv 
died in July, 1452; ami W'us succeeded by John Kcntp, Arrh- 
bhltop of Vt>rk, wlio was bom at OhMili^ih, in tiie Parish ot'Wyc* 
m this county. He was educated at lilertoij College, Ovibrd, 
where iie took his degree of Doctor of Laws; and was constituted 
Arclwleiicon of Durlriiui, Dean of the Arches, and Vicar Geturalto 
iVrchbihliop Stafibrd. Henry the Fifth, who entertained a high 
opinion of his talents, umde him Ciiief Justiciary of Normandy, 
find appoitiled him Ambassador lo treat with Ferdinand of Arragon, 
r a league of perpetual amity, and for tlie marriage of the dangh- 
of ihat Prince with tiie King. His ecclesiastical promotions were 
rapid; within dxe years he was appointed in succession lo ihr 
^ of Rochester, Chichester, London, and York* In 1439, Iw 
s created a Cardinal, by the liilc of SLBalbina, which was sub- 
tiently changed for that of St. Huliina. before his advanctmeat 
die See of Canterbury, he was made Chancellor, which office 
had twice ; and in two Parliaments, m which he presided, held 
Reading, in the thirty-finit and ihirfy'Secijnd years of Henry thie 
ixtlif he appeared by the style of ^ John the Cardiniil, Archbishop 
"nf Canterbury, and Chancellor of Eughind; He died in April, 
1454, having previously founded a College tor Seculars in his ua* 
L|||ii'e parish, besides performing various other acts of munificence 
"«nd cbarity. 

ThofHas Bourg/ichier, or, at it is commonly spelt, Boitrchkr, 

Ehoj> of Ely, second son of William, Lord Bourchier, Earl of 
e, and the Counters of Suflblk, was promoted to the vacant 
Lir on the dealh of Archl>i;ihop Kemp, He was edticaled at 
Oxford, and was three years CUiancell or of that Univeraity; dur- 

P'lng which he was promoted lo the See of W'ortestcr, but was at- 
jeiwards translated to RIy. In 14.55 he was constituted Chancel- 
br of England, but resigned that oflice at Coventry, ui H<)0. i» 
\\65 he was created a Cardinal, by tlie title of St. CvTiarus. In 
the following year he entertained Edward the Fourth, and his 
Uueen, £«ijcab€th AA'Idville, at Canterbnrv, during several days, 

Fff4 OH 

9i£ Km. . 

•■tlidrooiiiingto|»y theirdtvotioiisatBedcet^sth^ Hepi^* 
mdtd mer this See thirtjF-tvo yon; ud during tbat tiiRe cniwB-> 
ad tbrae Kings; Edwaid the iVNntb, RiohudtheThiid^aiidHeii* 
iy the Sefwith. He died io Mnth, I486; and was saooeaded fay 
John Marum» Bishop of Ely, the ftiOfid adberant to liie wtA 
Ind anfortnnate Henry the Sixth. Hewasa Dati?e of Dorsetshh^i^ 
and had improfed his natnnl abilities by sefere study, sonata 
•become a Teiy able statesman. After the acoeisionof Bdnrmd tba 
Fourth, be became a great ftvoiite with thatKiag, whci a ppointad 
him one of the executors of bis wilL In the second of Henry tbe 
Seventfi, he was made Chancellor of England ; and about eeian 
years fifterwards, m September, 1493, he was created a Cardutal, 
by the title of St. Anastatia. He died of a quairtan agae^ in Octo* 
ber, 1500; having been a liberal benefactor to this See, Hiscbh 
racter has received the commendation of most hbtorians. 
* Hemy Deane, or Det^, his successor, had been Bishopof Ban- 
gor, and, while m that See, had been enqdoyed, by Henry the 
Seventh, in several negociations, particularly with Scotland. He waa 
afterwards made Chancellor and Justiciary. of Ireland; and, on 
hb return from that kingdom, vras translated to Sanim, and thenoe^ 
on the death of Morton, to Canterbuiy. He was afterwards ap» 
pointed Pope's Legate, and was promoted to the Chancellorship, 
He died in 1502, and was succeeded by William Warkam, Bishop 
of London, who was bom at Malsanger, ni Hampshire.! He was 
a prelate of eminent abilities, but endured many vexations through 
the overbearing disposition of Cardinal Wobey. On his decease, 
in August, 1532, the celebrated TTiamas Cranmcr was promoted 
to the vacant chair, which he accepted in obedi«)ce to the King^s 
wishes, more than from his own inclination. The subsequent 
changes in ecclesiastical afiairs were probably not unexpected by hira ; 
for, before bis consecration m St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, 
he made a solemn protestation in presence of a public notary, that 
' the oath he was then about to take to the Pope, should not bind 


« See particulars of his life under Bere Regis, Vol. IV. p. 477.^ 

t See under Malsanger,- Vol VI. p. 255. 



htm from doing whatsoever be was botind to do, to God, the 
Church, or the King.' He was htg^lWy insfnimental m promoting 
the Reformation; aud in piety, learning, address, benevolence, 
and opcnneas of heart, was never exceeded by any Archhbbop of 
this See. His share in promoting tlie divorce between Queen Ca- 
therine Bnd the sfern Henry, excited the bjller enmity of the bi- 
gotted Mary, in whose first year he was attainted of Higli Treason, 
and though pardoned for that often cc, was dej>raded, and excotiK* 
nnmicated, and afterwards burnt as a heretic at Ox ford p in March, 

The successor of Cranmer was Cardinal Regimfd PoU, fourth 
ton of Sir Richard Pole, by Margaret, Counless of Sahsbnry. He 
^ WBs bom, according to Camden, at Stoverton Castle, in Staflbrd- 
ihirt; and partly educated in the Carthusian Monastery at Shene, 
' from which he went to Oxford, and lliere became Fellow of Cor- 
pus Chrtstj College. Henry the Eighth seat htm to pursue his 
r itudies on the Continent, and, after some time, he settled at Pa« 
dna, where he resided several years, during uhicli time the King 
l:3iiade him Dean of Exeter, He afterwards returned to England; 
1 "but, on the agitation of the question of divorce between Henry and 
Queen, again visited the Continent, being unu illirig to become 
hi the discussion* His acknowledged learning, and high 
uk, rendered this impossible ; and he is sluled to have sought an 
ifcrvicw with the King, tor the purpose of giving an opinion 
able to his wishes; yet, till he ' resolved to do it in another 
vie,' soys Wood,* * he could not speak a word to him;' but ho 
then found his tongue, and spoke to the King his mind ; which 
ot being pleasing to him, lie looked \ery angry on him, put his 
sometimes to hrs poinard hanging at his girdle, with an in<^ 
ition to kill him, but was overcome with the simpUcity, humility, 
' aod submission of his di*>course/*t Pole, however, was sufficiently 
ahrmed to resolve to quit the kingdom; and, alter visiting several 
foreigti cities, he again retired to Padua, where he received the 
Kio^s summons to return to England ; but i efushig to obey it, was 


AUicnec Qxon. p. \i6. 

t Ibid. 

deprived 4>f his dignities, and declared a traitor. Soon afterwards tbt 
Pope cricatcd him a Cardinal, and appointed him Ambassador to tlic 
Euiperor, and the King of France, in order to secure his influence 
in opposition to Henry's measures, who was now preparing to tlirow 
off all allegiance to the Papal See^ In thb employment, the 8itu»» 
tion of Pole was apconipapied by considerable danger; for Henry 
tned various ways to get him uito hb power, yet t|ie prudence of 
the prelate defeated his plans. Hb attachment to the Roniisb 
Qhurch was founded neither on interest nor ambition, but on rea) 
principle; as was evidently shown by hb refusal to accept the mi- 
tre of the Roman Pontiff, though twice chosen Pope by the Con- 
clave after the death of Paul the Third, on account of certain iiv 
regularities that had taken place during e^di electioq. After the 
accession of Queen Mar}', his attainder was taken pff, and he was 
invited to return to England ; and, on the death of Cranmer, waf 
)>romot)^ to thb See. Having bcpn inv^st^d wjth Legantine power 
by Paul the Fourth, he governed the church with much mildness; 
and is said to have, on several occasions, restrained the iipplacabi^ 
fury of Bonner against the Prote3tants. He died about sixteen 
hours alter the death of the Queen, on the eighteenth of NovenH 
ber, 1 j^8. " He was a person," says Wood, " of great eloquence, 
learning, and judgment ; of singular piety, charity, and exemplary 
life ; an excellent canonist, and well read in the laws of ecclcsiasti* 
cal polity.'' He was the last of the Archbbhops that have beeo 
interred in Canterbury Cathedral^ 

MatiJuvj Parker, a native of Nonvjch, who had been Chaplain 
\o Henry the Eighth, a|id a tutor to the Princess Elhsabetli, was, 
on the death of Pole, recalled from the privacy uito which he had 
been forped bv Queen Mary, and promoted to tlib See. He was a 
great patron qf learning; and, besides his own work, Dc Antiqui* 
\(Ue Briiajtnicte Eccksia, fee, he published editions of the hbto- 
fians, Matthew Paris, Mattliew of Westminster, and Walsingham ; 
and also the Four Gospels in the Saxon language. Browne Willb, 
yilio speaks of him in a high strain of panegyric, declares him to 
' have been raised up by Providence, to retrieve the learned nionu- 
mcnts of our forci'athcrs, which had been so miserably di$|X'rscd ai 


\he DissoluliQn of llie Monasteiies, that notbhig less tlran llie pro* 
Lfl^ taction of so great a man could have saved tljtftu frotii being irrer, 
El vocabl^ lost.* His mraluable collection of niauuscripts, and scarce, 
Cr printed books, in the Ubrar}' wbicli lie built for llieir reception, at 
W Bt'Jinet College, Cambridge, prove to a coDsidcnibt^ extent, tlie 
jlisfiicss of this eulogium. His beneticeiice was great ; aiid thoug1i« 
iji his general conduct, he is thought to liave supported the pre? 
rc^tives of the Sovereign nilh tt>o ardent a zeal. Jib actions were 
iposllj pniise-worth)' and liberal. He repaijcd, and partly rebuilt, 
the Palace at Canterbury; where in 15/3, he gave a sumptuous 
enlerlainmeot to the Queen, during Iter pro^^ress through Kent. 
IJcdied iu Maif> 1575, and was Imried, agreeabl}' to his own dc- 
milt, in tlie Chapel at Lanih^th Palace. 

Edmund Grindall, Archbishop of York, a native of Cumberr 
laud,* was next translated to this See. He was, says Camden, 
'. lieU^otas ami grave man,' and, aa appears from other writers. 
^<)inn^'Lat superstitious likewise. I^Iis belief in the * prophecies' of 
M»c turbulent ministers of the times, lost hini the Qtieen's favor; 
%od ia the btlcr p^rt of his life he became blind, and he continued 
I J||iT for about two years previous to bis deceasff, which happened 
"'^d July, 1583: he was buried at Croydon. His successor, Johi\ 
f^ldtgtflg was bom at Cireat Griiiisby, in Lincoln shire, and wai 
educated under the celebrated mnrtyT, John Bradlord, at Pem- 
broke Hall« Cambridge* In 1577 l^^ ^vas consecrated Bishop of 
"Worcester, and iu the nevt year was appointed Vice President of 
Ithe I^Iarches in Wales. Alter his exahation to ihe See of CankT* 
lury, the Queen would huve made him Lprd Chancellor^ but he 
<lechned that high oifice. He was Ibnd of miliiary splendor, and 
)ivii^ a| a time whea invasion^ were threatened, and insnrreclioni 
l^ttemptedt hud all hi^ domestics trained to arms, and was once 
^ccpmpsinicd to Canterbury with a train of 500 horse, one hundred 
pf.^bich Vi€i^ liis own servants. He died at Lanibcllu ii) Februa- 
ry, l6'03, and was buried at Croyclou, Richard Buncrnft^ Bisliojj 
^i London, \^ho succeeded him, was a natiye of Furnwoith, in 


• S«^ Vol. II. p. ^9, and Vc^l. UL p. i?24. 



Dcashire, and bad been promofed by Elizabeth, 5u tbe intertvl 
of Sir Cfiristopber Hattmi, to whom he was Chaplain. He after- 
wards became a great favorite with James the Fint, whom be bad 
highly pleased by his conduct in the disputations at Hampton Coart. 
His character has been variously represented, according to the 
temper and party of the wrilcrs, who» as they have hiipj>encd to 
be high-churchmen, or scetarists, have praised him for liis Brmnejs^ 
or denounced hitu for his intolerance. He was certaitily a staunch 
supporter of the Royal prero^five, and that in op|K>miion to the 
principles of general liberty. The College founded by James at 
Chelsea, for a certain number of learned dtvtnc5« was indebted for 
its origin to bis infinence; yet the scheme was afterwards entirely 
given up. He died in Noremher, l6jO, and was buried in the 
Parish Church at Lambeth. His successor, iJeorge Abbot, a na- 
tive of Guildfonl, in Surrey, was next translated from the Bishop- 
ric of London to this See, His actions have l)een equally partially 
represented as those of Bancroft ; yet he appears to have been an 
able statesman, and to have steadily adhered to the constitutional 
principles which James, and his son, Charies the First, were conti- 
nually violating* In the first year of the latter Sovereign, he was 
accused of renjjssness in his government of the Church, inhibited 
firom proceeding on his Metn>politicaI visitations, and confined 
by order of the King to his Palace at Ford, in this county; yet id 
the next year he was received into favor, and permitted to attend 
the Council* He founded an Hospital in his native town, for tweiH 
ty-one persons; and built a stone conduit at Canterbuiy, for the 
use of the inhabitants, at his own cost* He died in August, l539, 
and was buried in the Virgin Chapel at Guildford* 

Tlie celebrated WiUiam Laud, a ualive of Reading, in Betk^ 
shire,* was next exalted to the Primacy : he was a man of talents 
and learning; and of an active and determined spirit, which pro- 
cured him many enemies. His support of the unconstitutional 
measures of diaries the First, occasioned his arrest at the com* 
menccment of the Civil Wars, and, after an imprisonment of al^ 






^ Sec particulars of hi« life under ReaditJg, vol, L p. \^ — 4. 



most four ycars^ tie was broiiglit to tiial, for liigb txeasoii, and 
cotidenmetl to deaUi, on the general charge, of endeavonng tQ 
* subvert I fie laws, I he Protestaut religbij, and the rights of Par* 
liainent/ Shortly aficnvards, on the teoth of January, 16^5^ he 
was beheaded on Tower Hill. His body was at first buried m 
tbc Church of All-hallows Barking; but, m the year 1663, it wat 
removed to^ atid re-interred in the Chapel of SU John'4 

From the period of die death of Laud till the Kestoration, the 
Chorcli establisiinicQt nas completely abrogated ; but when the in: 
tri^iic^ of General Monk bad secured tlie return nf Charleys the 
Second, the ancient system was restored. WUUam J^/jon, who had 
beett Bishop of London, and Lord High Treasurer in t!ic lime of 
Charles the First, whom he had served with tidelity, and wlioai be 
had attended in his last moments on the scatlbtd, Wds then recalled 
front bis retirement, and promoted to the Metro-political chair. 
He age mod infirmities, however* almost disqualitied him from the 
pfrfafToauce of the duties of the Primacy; yet, during the short 
period of three years that he enjojed it> he re-built the Great Halt 
of Lambeth Palace, and made considerable repairs in the Pahice 
of Croydoti. He died at the age of eighty-one, in Jnne, l663, 
and was buried at St, John's College, Cambridge, to uhicfa foun- 
dmljoj] he bad bequeathed 70OOI* besides leaving 20001. towards 
tlie repairs of St. Pauls Catbedrril, as well as many other legaciej*. 
Gilbert SMdon, the successor of Juxon, was born at Slantoo, in 
QjaflTiwdshire, and received Iiij:i education at Oxford. During tlic 
Oivil Wars, he was deprived of all his preferments, and for a short 
time imprisoned ; hut, after his release, he retired from public life« 
till the Resloralion again brought him from his retreat, and he 
v^jks promoted to the Bisliopric of London. He was much engaged 
ggw stale afiairs during the tirst years of itis PriniHcy; and was so 
ry^fticulaily severe in his prosecut ion of the Noji-coulormiats^ that, 
t^lA«nigh he appears to have acted from priJidple, he incurred so 
fxiiich odivmi, that be at last judged it expedient to relinquish all 
coitcem in public aflairi. Hb charities were very great; and lie 
ejtpeuded large sums iti building, lie erected tlie Theatre at Ox- 

ford, at m(<co5t of more tliau l6,000l. and ^are 20001. also, ffll 
ilie ptircliase of lands lo keep it in repair. The whole amount of 
lii* cx|H'n<lifiire for pious and cbaritable uses, in the seventeen 
yean pretediiifr hb decease, amouiiicd to 5(),000L He dfed in 
Novenil>tr, lb77, arid was interred at Cro\don. Me was succeed- 
td hy iViffiam Sttncroft, a native of Fresingficld, in Suffolk, who 
htuf been Dvnn of Sr. Paul's^ and was extremely artive in his en- 
deavors lo promote the re-buildlng of liis Cathcdml, after iht 
drcatlfu) fire In I G66, Tlioui;h named by James ihc Second m 
the * ComiTiii'iion for Ecclesiastical Affairs/ he was one of tlie 
seven Prelalis committed to the Tower by that King, for his re- 
fusid to concur iii ibc publiculiou of the famous Declaratiott for 
Liberty of Conscience. After James bad abdicated the Crown, 
the Archbisho]! Joined with tlie Lords spirilual and tcmpoi^!, in 
Use Declaration for a free Parliament, &:c, to the Prince of 
Orange; vet, probalily trom conscientious scruples, he refused 
eilber lo alleud the Couvetition in 1(J88, or to take the new oath 
of aUcgta(»ce, when \VilHam and Mary were established on the 
throne. He was in consctpiencc suspended from his funetioos; 
aiul sentence of deprivation being pronounced against him, he 
Has cjectefl fioni !n's Palace at Lambeth in June, 1 590: sooft 
at*lcr\vards he retired to his native place, where he died in Novem- 
l>er, l508: lie was buried in the Church-yard at Fresingfidd, 
a'H'eeably lo fii^ own desire: tlie sums which be expended in cha* 
rilable uses are ^lated at ncaHy tS^OOOb 

The next Arihliishop was John TiHonortt Dean of St. Paulls, 
i^ho was hetd in bigli esteem by Williajn and Mary, and was a 
n»ait of great talents, and of extensive benevolence and leaming. 
He was tlie son of a clothier at Sawerby, near Ha!if<ix, in Yciric- 
shire, and received his education at Cambridge. He enjoyed tiie 
Primacy but litile more ibuu three years, being suddenly aiiacked 
with die i}t:*id \uhy, of whicli he died witbin five dajs^ in Novem- 
ber, Uip4, King William J in deploring his loss, is ^id to liave 
used lliese expressive worda: ** I never knew an honester man, and 
i never bad a bv tier friend/' Ite was buried in the Church of 
Stp Lawrence Je\uy, in London, of which he bad been lecturer. 





His wtcce&ior xvm Thnma$ Tcnnison, Bishop of I^iidon, u native 

of Cottciiliain,* \\\ Cambridgoshirc. lie wm a Prclule of s;rcar 

piety and cxallcd benevolence: tlie legacies wliieb lie bequeulbcd 

at his deatb, which bappeticd in Dectimher, 1715, witc nncoru- 

nionly numerous: be was interred in Lunihelh Ctuircb< IVilUatn 

Wake^ Bishop of Lincoln, was next promoted lo rhis Sce» tfirongb 

the recomnieiublioii of the dccea^ied Archbiiihop, He wuh horn 

^t Bluudtbrd, in Doniet^hirc^ and received his education at tlie 

College of Cbriit Cbun h, Oxtbrd, of wineb be afterward;, be* 

caiuc Dean; and, ou \m deaUi, liequeiUhed (o it bis vuhrablc hbrary 

of printed books and manuscripts, together with a very rich and 

collection of coin^. ffe €xj>cnded about H,<X)0L in re- 

ig the Palaces of Lambedi and Croydon; and gave large 

ims to the distressed aod indigeat. He died in January, 1737, 

id was buried in the Church at Croydon. 

John Putta\ Biibop of Oxford, was next translated lo this See. 

e was a native of Wakefield, in Yorkshire, and was Tory caHy 

distinguisljed for bis bkiil in the Grciek and Latin languages. 

After bU advance to the Primacy, be paid great atlenlion to the 

afEiirs of his Cbureli^ and was conf>id^red a^ a zealous and steady 

H|Lpaardian of ecclesiastical rights; though neither intolerant, tior 

^^pigolted. He wasi author of the * Autit|yihes of (ireere;' and 

^B^ibllstied editions of several ancient writers, lie died iu (ktof)er, 

. iJ^Tf >n<i ^^^^ interred at Croydon. His successor, Thomas 

1 Herring, was bom at Walsoken, in Norfolk, arjd having lK?en in- 

3Lriicted in the rudiments of learning at the Scliool of Wisheach, 

lie completed bis studies at Cambridge. He was trai^slated fiom 

Hie See of V^ork to Canterbury, in which liigh .station his tuunihiy 

^ftud moderation procured him geneml esteem. 1 le has the cba- 

of a great and good man; and lliese truly illustrious epithets 

not more t[ian connncnsurate with bis <le*^erts. He died in 

diarchy 17^7* 3ud was buried at Croydon, in the same vault with 

Amis imDtediaic predecessors, Matihcun IJtaton, Arehhisliop of York, 

^•nd a native of Marbke, in that comity, was next promoted to thi^ 


See paaiculars of hii lifc» Vol. IL p. J 1.^. 



See; b»t died in ih^ ensuing year, through an inflanimatloii in hi^ 
bowelS) occusioncfl by too long abstaining from food during a te* 
dious altcncliuice in the liouse of I^rds, He was succeeded by 
Thomat Seeker, Bishop of Oxford, a native of Sibthorpt m No^ 
tinghamsbirc. He was \he son of a Protestant dissenter, and re- 
ceived bis edncalioii in ditrcrrnt private sdioob, yet with so niudt 
quickness, that at the age of nineteen, he is said not only to h%ve 
made a considerable pro*^rciis io the Latin and Greek languages^ 
but also to have actpiircd a knowledge of French, Hebrew, Chsl* 
dee, and Syriac. Till tlie age of twenty-three, he continued to 
pursue the study of divinity; when some doubts arisiog io his 
mind, on particular doctrinal fKjints, be commenced the study of 
physic, with intent to pursue it as a profession. Having, howe^CTi 
m the course of the follmving three or four years» satisfied bis 
mind on those subjects of religious enquiry tliat had formerly per- 
plexed hinj, be was mduceJ to take orders; and bis learning and 
general ktiowledge quickly insured his promotion, His manners 
were sotne\ilrat reserved; but the warmth and benevolence of 
his heart always inclined him to promote every good work ; and 
his liberality was very great. His death was preceded by long- 
continued and severe agony, occasioned by a carious thigh-bone, 
which at length broke, and be expired within two days afterwards^ 
jHe was buried, agreeably Co bis own directions, in a covered ps^ 
sage leading from the Palnce at Lambeth to tf)e Church there. 
His successor, Frederic CktmxijallU, seventli son of Charles, foiuth 
Lord Cornwall is, and twin^brotlier to the late XJeutenant Geneml 
Edward Comwallis, was next translated from the Bishopric of 
Lichtield and Coventry to this Sec. His aflability and benevo- 
lence procuretl him universal respect; and bis condescensiofi and 
hospitality were ef]ua)]y praise-worthy. He died in 17 B3^ and 
was buried in tiie Church at Lambeth. Joht Moore ^ the late ve- 
aerable Priniale, a native of the city of Glocester, was next ap- 
pointed to this Archbishopric. In his early life, be vms tutor to 
tlie two younger sous of tlie late Dnke of Marlborough ; and to 
bis coiinectioti with that family, and bis disinterested conduct on 
a particular and imtiortant occasion^ bis future preferments were 

I OWBlg. 





Owiug* On his deceases in lli05, Di\ Chtrks Mannns Sutiatt^ 
Bbhop of Nonvidi, wa^ eiiahed to the vacant Chairs and is the 
picseiit pOiiscssor of tlic Primacy* 

From die ngc of Aui^usline to I he present period, the ntiiubcr 
of Uie Arclibisho|>s who have had possession of this See, auioiints 
to ninety; and many of them l»ave been men of the most ex1ciisiv« 
talents, knowledge, and virtue. The prerogatives and indeper^deut 
privileges of the Archbishops are si ill numerous, and of h'is,h in- 
terest; though far le^s so than in tlie times precediu^; the Refor- 
mation** Hi^ title is * Primate and Mttropohtau of all Cng[land;' 
and he styles himself, * Pt'ovidemin Divinn dtntuar, Arrhifpisca* 
pt/i;'— • By Divine Providence, Arclihishop of Canterbury/ In 
ParUament, and all other Assembhes of Council, he takes precc- 
ilence as first Peer of the realm, next to tlie Royal Family. He k 
always a Pri^^ Counsellor iu right of his Primacy; and has tlic 
pririle^ of crowning, niarr\inj[r and chrislenlng the Sovereifi^ris 
sind Royal Family of England* He has the power of conferring 
degrees in the several faculties of law, physic, and divinity; (thougli 
lhi% prero^ftve is seldom exercised,) excepting within the imnie- 
diale jttrisdiclion of the two Universities. His province compre- 
hends the Sec* of twenty-one SnflVagan Biisliops; and between 
fisfhty and ninety Churches, in different dioceses, are also imnjedi* 
m\y subject to hini, under the appellation of his Pca^liarx, He 
liiisTthe nomination of the several offices belonging to the ecctesias- 
iioil courts, over which he presides; and he has the riglit of co»- 
V.n Vjt. Feb. 1807, <^ g g , ferring 

*» In the Catholic limes, ihc A/chhiihop of Canterbury wa« htM to 
be of iucb eialtcd rank at&d digiviiy, ihat all Kogiand wat, in some re- 
spects* reputed ai hU di«x«ic. '* live Bithop of London was considered 
d« tui Dean in the College of Biihops^ hi* oiTJce being lo summon coun- 
cils ; tliC Bishop of Winton, his Chant c!br ; the liiiUop of Lincoln^ hii 
Vic^-Chantellur; the Bishop of Sarum was hii Pieccnlor, to btgin ihc 
icrifkc when he wai pre*ent ; ibc Hi*hcp of Worcester wai his Chap- 
Ui«i ; and Rachciter wa$ \m Crott bearer : and he conietidcd strenuously 
for the tame obedience from the Archbishop of York, as he hrmiclf paid 
to the See of Rome/* Hasted^ (rom Selden*i Title* of Honor, p* 22^^ 
«i <i ?arker> Antiq* BriL p. SO. 

aSf KSHT. 

faring an ▼■cant benefices withb his pnmnee mUA defotte im 
his collation by lapse of time, under whatever dreumstanoes, ht^ 
sides various other privileges in ecclesiastical affiun of the faigbcst 

In the Saxon times, the Archbishops had the privilege of eobn 
hg mc^ney; and silver pennies of Athelard, WuUxed, Ceolnoth, and 
Pfegmund, are stated to be still extant.* In the regoktioiis made 
by King Athelstan, seven Biints were allowed at Cantcribniy, two 
of which were to be the Arehbishop'is; but, from the time of thb 
Sovereign, it is observable, ' that no Metra|X>litical eom bu ever 
been seen with an Archbishop's name or effigies.'t King Mm, by • 
grant dated in Iris first year, confirms * to Hubert, Ardyinshop of 
Canterbury, and his successors for ever, three Minti in the city of 
Canterbury, which Kmg Richard, his brother, had lertoied to 
Archbisliop Baldwin/ &c. Edward the Second, in his first year, 
granted hb letters testimonial to Everie de Friscombald, JCn^per of 
his Exchange in Cauterbuiy, that the Arrhbishc^ had a rights 
under certain grants which had been produced by Um, to tfuce 
Mints, and three ccuaages, {cimau a monetariofj in the atf ofCan* 
lerbttiy ; and these graats were subsequently confirmed by difiincnt 
Sovereigns. Archbishop Cranmer was the hst who possessed thb 
privilege of coining money, all private Mmts throughout the reahn 
being afterwards suppressed by Royal authority. 

Since the abolition of the Papal power in this kingdom, the 
mode of electmg the Archbishops has been as follows. ** Tbe 
vacancy of the See having been notified, a Conge de Elite, or license 
to elect, is issued under the Great Seal, and directed to. the Dean 
and Chapter of Canterbury; haviqg inclosed in it, a small sheet of 
paper, containing a recommendation of the person to be elected, 
under the King's sign manual. When the Chapter b assembled, 
the license and letter of reconmiendation being read, another per- 

* Tliete, or one or other of them, have been engraved by Caroden» 
Speed, Selden, Sir Andrew Fountain, Hicket, and Feggc. 

^ Peggc*s DitscrutioD, p. SI. 



son, cillier one of the Prebendaries, or a Minor Canon, of this 
Church, b noniiiiateil as a candidate with liiin who is recom- 
mended ; but the reniembnince of a prcmimirs^ with other cogent 
reasons, ahvays renders the Royal candidate successful, and lliaf 
by a unanimous suffrage of the Ch;i]>ter; nor has Ins o^ipouent 
ever been known, since the reign of Henry the Eti^hth, to have 
gained a single voice in his favor, AAer t]ie return of this clec- 
tioft, the Royal confirmation succeeds of course, and the new 
Archbi&ltop is aftenvards consecrated by two Bishops, generally at 
liis own Chapel at Lambeth Palace/'* The ceremony of the in- 
thronization was in former timei pejfomted with great solemnity 
and splendor; and the Archhiihops have tven been honored witli 
the company of the Sovereign, as guests at their table on the oc- 
casion : of lute, this ceremony excites but little hiterest, the Arch- 
bishop being generally Inthroncd by proxy, and without pomp* 

At the time of the Dissolution, the yearly revenues of the Arch- 
bishopric are stated to have been upwards of 32O0L but many of 
the possessions of the See being forcibly ahenated during the reigns 
of Henry the Eigfith, Edward the Sixths and Queen Elizabeth, the 
amount of tlie income was proportionably decreased. From tJie 
increase in the ^luc of lands, however, and from other sources, 
cotmected with the privileges of the Archbishops, the present 
revenues of this See are known to amoimt to upwards of i 2,0001. 
annua !ly« 

The dissolution of the Priory of Christ Church, in the time of 

Henry the Eiglitli, *• was not brought on by one sudden blow, 

but by slow degrees, lest, from the veneration and sanctity in 

tvbich it was held by all ranks of people, the fall of it might have 

raised a pubhc tumult and commotion throughout the realm. 

The first step which appears to liave been taken towards it, was lo 

al>rogate tho«»e festivals, or holidays, that should occur in harvest 

tittle, which was to be accounted from the first of July to the 

f %^'euty-muth uf September; by which, as was intended, the high 

fiE^^!i%iii of the translation of St. Thomas, annually celebrated on 

G g g 2 July 

^ lUncd'l Kent, Vg|, XILp. 527,-8, Svn. 


«24 ICENT. 

July iht seventh, was prohibited to be obserred otheiwtse than 
by the accustomed service, and without the usual forim^ties thmt 
were customary on high festivals, this being one of those iqjuno- 
tions ordered by the King in 1536. Two years afterwards, a se-; 
cond attack was made upon this Priory, mort bold and dariqg 
tlian the former; for the blow was directly, and openly aimed at 
tlie reputed glory of this Church, and the honor a^id veneratioo 
paid to its venerated saiut, St Thomas, by not only spcdally pro> 
bibiting the ob^rvance of tlie festivals to his memory, but also 
enjoining the entire omission of the service instituted for his com* 
niemoration; and Archbisliop Cranmer himself gave a fair prece- 
dent for disowning all regard to this feast, by not fasting, as was 
the custom, on tlie eve of it, but supping on flesh in his parlour 
with his domestics. In the following year, the King determiniiig 
to forward tlie downfall of this Saint effectually, sent forth a new 
and severe injunction, in tlie preamble of which Becket was de* 
clared to liavc been ' a stubborn rebel, and a traitor to his Prince:' 
U enjoined, that he should not be esteemed or called a saint; that 
his images, or pictures, should be pulled down throughout the 
wliolc realm, and cast down out of all Churches; that his name 
should be razed out of all books; and the festival service of his 
days, the collects, antiplions, &c. should for ever remain in dis- 
use, upon pain of his indignation, and imprisonment at his Grace's 
pleasure/'* About the same time, the shrine of Becket was de- 
spoiled of all its jewels and splendid ornaments, which were taken 
to the King's use ; and the hallowed bones of the Saint himself, ac- 
cording to Stow, were, by order of the Lord Cromwell, burnt to 
ashes upun the spot where they had been so frequently adored 
by superstitious multitudes. 

In the next year, (amio 1539,) on the fourth of April, the 
Priory was resigned into the King's hands, its yearly revenues be- 
ing tlicn estimated, according to Speed, at 24891. 4s. 9d. yet this 
sum seems to have been far inferior to the real value of its pos- 
sessions. The deed of surrender was signed by the Prior, and 


* Hasted's Kent, Vol. XII. p. 455,-7. 8vo. 


KENT, 6<f5 

tweritv-fotir Mouk*; but the wbok mimber of tbe Monks was at 
(bt ume fifr>-thre€. Six of tb^scj brcliuiiug the Prior, Thomas 
Gotrfffeff, were afterwards advanced to Frc bends on the uew ibun- 
ifilieKF, which Henry establisbi^d here for n Dean, and twelve Ca- 
WW, or Prebeiid-AneSj with six Pfeachen, six Miuor Canons, aii 
Sttbstitutes, twelve Lay Clerka, ten Choristers, two Maiters^ and 
fifi\ Scholars, twelve Ahns-nieti^ &c.* 

Many of the Priors and Monks of tim Churth, were men of 

foktni talents and teaming; mid were also possessed of very too- 

idefable sdcDlific kiiowletlge; as was the case, indeed, in nut- 

_ amm other Monasteries tn the ceniitriea immedratcly follow* 

p % the Norman Conquest. Osbernt a Monk of this House, who 

floarisbed in the eleventh centiir>% wrote the Lives of the Arch- 

liKshops Dunstan and Alphagc; with other works. The abilities of 

Pibr£rwu//>A, who was a<>envanis Bishaji of Rochester, have beea 

aliwdy noHcecJ: in his lime lived Foig/irdt a Monk of Christ 

ChiTcij, who wrote the Life of St, John of Beverley, and also of 

Arthhiihop Odo ; the former of wUkh is yet in manuscript in the 

CoKonian Libra ry.f Conrad, the successor af Ernut|ih, was 

«f Eslly skilful with him as an architect, if we may depend on the 

fit^npliofis left us by the Monki?ih writers of the choir of this 

Chmth, which he rebuilt. Prior Wibfrt, wIhj died in October, 

Il67f was a ' man worthy to be commended,' says Gcrvase, * and 

admirable in good works/ He was a great benefactor to the 

Cbtircb; and one of his gifts, if there is no mistake in the record, 

must be regarded as a great curiosity; this was a large bell, 

which required thirty-two men to ring it. J Benedict , who was 

tnoslated from Christ Church to Peterborough, where he ^vas 

G g g 3 chosea 

* Tanner's Noiitia. ^ 

t Faustina, B. iv. 8. Dart's Hist. aec. of the Catlfl8|ral Qiurch of 
Canierbnry, p. 179. ^J 

} ' Signum quoque niagnum inclocario posuit^ qiiod tn'ginta duo 
homines ad svnandum tra/iunt, ^c/ Obituar, Cant, quoted by Dart, 
p. ISO. 

9^6 fLBNT. 

chosen Abbot, was a great fii?or&e widi Rkfaaid the Rnt The 
utones of the pavement where Becket ftU» and which ynKt^tnati 
with the blood of that tarbulent Piehte, th« Prior k MM to 
hare carried with him to Peterboroogfa, where he ftraaed them into 
an altar,* He wrote a Treatise on the Life and Mindet of Bcdbet; 
and a Histoiy of the Life and Tnmsaetioiis of Hemy the Seeond, 
now in the Cottonian Libiaiy, and of which Hoveden and Bromp* 
ton made much use in their respective hist<Nrics.t Biciard Piuio^ 
a Monk, who lived m the time of Prior\^/iiiiy author of the Life 
and Banishment of St. Thomas of Canterboiy, and other wocfcsi 
is much commended by Lehmd, for his skill in poetry, riietoriG, 
mathematics, philosophy, divinity, and ecdesiaitical histoiy: he 
died in 1118. About 1190 lived William FUsSkpkem, who 
was also a learhed Monk of this Churdi, and wrote sevenl books 
concerning Becket, Henry the Second, &c« 

Another learned Monk of Christ Church was the cdehiated 
Gervase, or Qervasius Durohcrnenmf as he was afterwards caUed, 
who flourished in the twelfth, and beginning of thi^ thirteenth ceo* 
turies. He wrote a Chronicle of En^and, the lives of lbs Arch* 
|>i$hops of Canterbury, and several oth<*r woriu; and was eontean- 
poraiy with Nigellus Wittker^ or Wetekery another Mook, and 
Chaunter of the Gathcdral, whom Leland has mentioned for his 
various learning : he was author of several treatises, Hemry de 
Eastryy who became Prior in 1285, was a great benefectmr to his 
Convent, which, by hb prudent management and carefulness, was 
discharged froroa considerable debt: he also repaired many of the 
buildings of the Priory, and erected various new edifices for the 
additional convenience of the Monks; and in ^ hb time, and princir 
pally by hb means, their estates were plentifully supplied with 
vines:' he died in the year 1331. In hb time, about the year 
1324, Stephen de Feversham b recorded, by Leland, as the first of 
the society of Monks who read theology in. the dobters here. 
John de Thanet, who was a contemporary with tlib and the suc- 
ceeding Prior, vms particularly skilled in mathematics and music, 


* DarfsCath. of Canterbury, p. 18Q. t ^^'^i- 



wrote some legends of saints. Edward A I bone , « Monk, who 
lived alsa about this period^ is mudi commended by Leland for 
bis Enquiry into Divine Mysteries. 

Robert Uaihbrandt who became Prior in 13JS, and governed 
with great honor till his death in 1370, built several new edjUces^ 
both witliin and without the Convent ; and increased its possessions 
by the purchasing of \'arious Manors, and much laud : in his time 
, occurred the great pestilence which raged throughout Europe, and 
to which nearly all the I^Iouks of Christ Church fell victims. John 
^^^Fynch de Winchehcyy ulio was made Prior in 1377, procured a 
^■Puil from the Po|>e, Urban the Stxlli, gruntmg hira and his sue- 
|HeessorSt the privilege of wearing tfic mitre, tunic, dalmatic, and 
^ gloves; and his successor, Thomas ChiNcndcn, procured a grant to 
add to those tlie use of the pahtorat stall'^ and sandals, durin<!; the 
absence of the Archbi?>hap. * Chill endcue, or Chislesdene/ say« 
Leland, * was the greatest builder of a Prior tliat ever was in 
Chrittes Churche. He was a great setter fortli of the new build- 
ing of the body of tlie Churche. He bullded of new the goodly 
BCloistre, the Cfwpter* House, the new Conduit of water, the Priory 
Chaumbre, the Prior^s Cha|>elle, the great Dormitorie, and 
tbe Frater; the Bakeltouse, the Brewhouse, the Esclieker, the 
faire Inne yn the High Streete of Cautorbjri; and also made 
the waulles of moste of tlje circuite^ beside the towne wanlle, 
of the enclosure of the Abbaye. This Chi Hen dene was a Doctor 
of both tlie I^wes or he was made a Monk; and Bishop Ware*- 
^_ iam suide, that he wrote certain CommeDtaries coJiceming tljc 
^■bwes, and that clerkely/'* lie also enriched the Church witJi 
many ornan[ients. In his time hved William de Gillmgham, a 
Monk, who has been nmch commended by Pilscus as an his- 
^L John LangdoUt a Monk of Christ Church at tJie beginning of 
^'ihe tifteenth century, and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, publish- 
ed a Chronicle of England, which Kadborne has spoken of in high 


♦ Itln, Vol. VI. f. 3. p. 6. 
t See under Gillingham^ p. G$X 



jation. nomas Goldsione^ the first of tliiit 
Icted Prior in the year I4+p, was a greiit l>ciiO» 
listtry. He built tiie beautiful Cha|>el of tJie 

north part of the we^t trwisept ; and also^ saji 
I tour }u the westc ende of the Chyrchc/ Coo- 
m was John StoTt^, who * wrote of (he obiitj, 
tible tilings of \m ftloiiastery/ &c* IVilliam 
pho^n Prior iu SepteuibeTj 1472, was a man of 

had studied in Italy, where he made a collec* 
ent Greek and Latin authors that he could pro* 
cd them to tlie library of this Convent, In 

^veiith sent bbi oti an eniliassy to the Pope, 
I the Court of France; ' in both of which he ac- 
llli great lionor, and obtained for his Convent 
fuunuuilies/ He died in December, 1494; 

all tjje books ^vhicli he bad given to the libntry 
luany others of high price, in a fire which ha]>* 
lislery tluough Ihe carel«;ssues3 of sonic drunken 
fs Gotilstontf llie second of that iianic, and also 

was a great 

leaniJiigj succeeded SeUing, He 


— -s 

ai burird in ih€ north end of ihe we*t traniept, 

llnlaiij with Brasses, was remaining tta Somner's lime, 

criptioii !n his mcmOTy i Hicjacti r€T€rendiis Puier 


(mnk wjih Hcni^' the Sei^eiirJi^ who sent him Atiik^s^dof to 
Cimrles, Kiug of France. lib beacfnctioiifl to the Cburch w^ne 
PfflDcmus ami valuable. With the ar^sistance of ArthbhUo^ Mor- 
im, lie completed the beaiitilul towet in the centre of the Citlie* 
dtaJf and adorned llie choir wish a rich and co^^tljr mh of t^jieslry 
jiangiiigs. He also furnished the Chureh %vith many oriiam<^nU ; 
ttboiit and repiinrd nniny of the edifices belonging to tlie Coii- 
Ttn!, and erected the e1e|0:ant gate, now cnlled Chmt Church GjiIi*, 
Bitht «ntnuice of Ihe Catliedml precmcfs from the niiddfe of the 
at?« He died in September, 1517: acveml of the Monks in hii 
lime were celebrated for their leaming. Vtmms Goi dwell, the 
list Prior on this foundation, was elected on the death of Gold- 
itoue, aod conthiued In his office till all the pos3eisiaii& of the ^fo^ 
Dfitster)' were finally surrendered to Henry I lie Eighlh, in 15.}<^, 
He was a person of niuch talents and virtue; and though appoint- 
ed la a Prebend on the new establishment, he appar^ to hme w* 
%d on a i^etiftion of SoL yearly. The anns of the Priory wert 
2ittte^ on a pltiin cross^ ^I'gcnt^ the letters ^ in old English cha- 

Though the Priors of Clinst Church obtained the privilege of 
wiztuiug tlie mitre from the Pope, they do not seem ever to h^vt 
keu regularly sunmioned to Parliament, ft iiiijieari fro in SetileOi 
that the first summons bore date in the forty-ninth of Henry the 
Third. The next time, which he mentions, when the * Prior of 
the Holy Trinity in Canterbury* had summons to Parliament, was 
in the twenty-third of Edward the First. Another summons to the 
Prior of this Church occurs in the twenty-fourth of the same 
reign; and again, in the twenty-fifth and twenty-seventh of the 


Hujus presidio res ista domestica rata est, 

Et redimita annis plurimis egregic. 
PerxigU hie Pastor dunum atquc incoinmoda ciincta 

A grege commissofortitcr txpulerat, 
Duin brevi iumulo laid hoc, to- a /lngliafaiHam 

Predicat, <!i' ianto lugeat orba pat re. 
Hue iter omnis habcns, stct, perltgat 4* memor ejus 

Oret ut ascendat spirilus alt a poU. 



saine Kip|;. In the tliirtcciUli siicl fourteentli of Edward the Se- 
cond, and in tlie tiftb of Henry the FourUi, the Priors of Cbrisl 
Church were again siininioned ; but after the latter period, wot any 
Prior of this Churcli appears to have been called to Parliaraeut. 

After the tnurder of Becket, the former Seal of the Priory, ou 
one side of which had been the figure of Our Saviour, with the 
text Ego sum vie Veritas et vita, was changed for another 
three inches aud three quarters in diameter; on one side of w hich 
was represented llie Martyrdom o*' Becket, with Uiese words round 
tlie rim; Est hvicvita mori, pbo gi a uvm vixit amori*^ 


the reverse was a representation of the Church ; under the door of 
which was the word METROPOLl^s; over the middle door, below 
the bust, iu the pediment^ r. domvs. L X. P. on the surrounding 
Convent wall, mvri. metropol. isti X. the inscription being 
Sigillum: Ecclesie: xristi cantlarie: prime: sedis 
BRIT ANNIE. Tl its seal continued in use till the Dissolution, 

Tlte CATHEDRAL at Canterbury Is a magnificent ami nobk 
pile, not less interesting from its architectural i^plendor, tjmn firoin 
the admirable ingenuity and skill dbplayed in the construction of 
Its diflVrent paHs, in tlie beauty of its ornaments, and the excel- 
lence of its raonunjcntal sculpture* It exhibits specimens of the style 
of almost every age, from the advent of the Normans to the rime of 
tlie Dissolution; and the correct neas of its proportions arc, In ge- 
neral, of equal eminence with the richness of its decorations. 
It stands in the north-easlern quarter of the city, and, with the 
various other buildings l^elonging to the establishment, occupies a 
very large extejit of £j;round« Its general tbrm is that of a double 
cross, terminaling circnlaily at the east end, and having two mas* 
sive towen at the west cud : another, and more elegant tower, 
rises from the inlersection of the nave and west transept* 

Tlie IVeH FrotU is not uniform : it consi:>ts of a centre, having 
a low recessed entrance in (lie pointed style, with a large and ele- 
gant nindow above, between two lowers: that to the norUi-west 
b nf Norman architecture, and doubtless formed a portion of Lan- 
ffOQc's Cathedral^ thou|;h ^ome paits of it have been altered;-' 




upon Uiis wss formerly an octagonal spire, bnilr at tbe cost of 

Arciibishop Ariiutiel, wlio also gave five bi^lU, vvhicb were after- 

^^witrds bung in ibis tower, wbiLb occasioDed it to be called tbe 

y^ruodel steeple. The spire was taken down soon after tbe great 

^ortn to 17OJ, in wbich it was nuicli damaged; and the bells 

^wrcre removed about the year 1720, the louver being found to be 

^eatly weakened; partly from its age, and partly through the 

sdterntioDs tlmt had l>eeo made in it about Ibe beginning of Ibe 

Afleentb century, to adapt its interior to the ucw work of the nave. 

The south-west tower, called the Chicbeley steeple, from the re- 

t>uildiug of it having been begun by that IVehtte, is supported 

on the west side by two immense graduated buttresses, ornament- 

^^Kd by niches; the upper part is embattled, and tuilshed by four 

^^Uogant pinnacles at ihe angles, with smaller ones between : this 

<ower was not completed till tbe time of Prior Gotdstone, the ^rst 

^■pf lb*l name, who presided o^er the Monastery from the year 

^El449 to 14()3. The west entrance^ now rarely used, oficns be- 

^eatli a large pointed arch, and Is ornamented with various shields, 

I^^Uld caqppied niclies. Tbe large window above is finely propor- 
^ooed, and is tilled with richly stained glass. It consists of sis 
^ ^aoges of ciuquefoil-beaded lights ; three of which are larger tbaa 
r ^*hc others, separated by transoms, with crockets above, 

Tbe Soujh Purchf which now forms the principal entrance to 

'^be Cathedral, and coatrtbutes to sustain the south side of I lie 

» -Chicbeley steeple, b a large and hand»r>nie fabric, embattled* On 

each side of tbe entrance is a large niche; and along the face of 

. tbe porch above b a range of live other arcbc*>i that in the centre 

I baviog had a double canopy: all the pedestals and canopies have 

I been elegantly wrought* The roof is vaulted with stone, beauti- 

I fully groineil ; the ribs springing froui lour small columns, and the 

points of the intersections being carved into shields of arms, twenty* 

I eight in number, and forming a kind of double circle. At the 

tkics are brge cin(|uefoiJ blank arcfies, an<l over them angeU sus- 

lammg sliields in compartments: at tlie outer angles of the pordt, 

fipoutfi issuing from the moulbs of demons, 

2 The 

M3t SXKT. 

The sooth side of the Cathedral is marked by a great dnrersity 
of character, both in its archkeeliire and enrkhmeiita. Flora the 
tooth |)orch to the western transept, b a range of seven krge gn- 
dilated buttresses, having ornamental niches above the second 
stage, and terminating in pinriacles. Between these are the huge 
pointed whidows of the south aisle, which are each divided into 
three ranges of lights, by moUions and transoms^ and have smaller 
l^ts and crockets above, rising to the ceotie of the arch. From 
ibt njpper stage of each buttress, just below the parapet, n croaa 
springer branches off, to unite vrith and strengthen the b nttre ew a 
that sustain tlie roof of the nave, which also terminate in pinnaclcai. 
The end of the transept is likewise supported by massive buttteasea ; 
between which is a very large and handsome window; and beUnr 
that, the entrance called the south door, which hat a deseent of six 
steps into the Cathedral. 

St. Michael's Chapel adjoins to this transept, beyond wfaidl 
commences the original work of Lanfranc ; and the second tran- 
•ept, with a very considerable pioportien of the remainder of the 
building towards the east end, is of Norman architectnie. The 
lower part has a range of curious semicircular intersectmg arehet^ 
tpringiug from short columns, having enormous capitals and baaea. 
The mouldings are various ; plain, billetted, and corded : many ef 
the capitals are also plain ; many others are richly sculptured with 
figures, and others with foliage. Some of the shafb themselves 
are curiously sculptured with wreaths, net-work, and other fimciAil 
ornaments. Above the second range of Norman windows, be^ 
tween the transepts, arc various smaller pointed windows of a later 
date. In the angle formed by the east transept, is a small square 
tower, the upper part of which is highly enriched by ranges of 
ornamental Norman arches, and interlaced with net-works: some 
of the arches intersect each other. In the end of the east trai^ 
tept, among other windows, is a very large circular one, curiously 
divided by bands of iron for the support of the glazing : at the 
bottom are two cnti antes leading into the crypt. 

Further eastward is the Chapel of St. Anselm, as the lower part 
of another Norman tower is now called, from its having formerly 



fontaimfti llie ^!iriue of tliat $%hit : tlie soulU whiilnv ik lia« 

Info aJtercd into tljc point cf I style, and is very tmii Tlie 

CatJitiljiil pn^cfiicts are tieie iltvided into two pjifts I cmbttN 

I lid wail of Jlint, and a Norman gateway, ojienitjg hy scml- 

1 cortiJfr arcb^ adorucd v^ illi siig-zsig and fj ctted onian* 
H Fnmt St. Aujehti*^ Chsipelj llit^ \ilioIe Qa^stern pnrt i M 

r dral bcgitu to iusuine a cirailar form, ivhkli ti aoi [^ 

iKp buttresses, and tJie more reectit fliLrtc calkd Bee, ^; 

tljkis alio circular, ami ternihmtcs the building on th "**« 

iKiitIt side of the Cmthedml possesses a geoeral »>>' 
ibi KMith ; but caiinot he so well seen, from the rar; * ! 

to whkh it adjoins, or nearly as tlie Treasury^ I 
(ef.Hoase, and Cloisters. Tli^ Jiily ronmining | n ' 

thklj tt is neces^ry to describe, b tlie Grcfit ' r, riiei 

fn>iu the uitersentioi] of iIjc west traiisept witlj the nave jlioir. 

Tills IS one of the most diaste and beatititui specimen? of the 
pointed stjle of architecture in this country ; its proportions, lyni- 
nietr]i; and workmnnsh^^ are aJl fidiutriible* It rises to a eoiisJ^^. 
dmlile height above the roof; and, from its summit, comn^ands t 
inost extensive itnd ridi prospect of the whole of Canterbm^, aod 
»iie Ijigbly^cullimted tract that surrounds it. The ajigles form oo- 
(afc^rral columns, whicb rise above the battlements in hlgli clus* 
tered pinnacles of llje most elegant sculpture: u smaller ctilmiio, 
or buttress, runs between them up the middle of each side, and 
^ terminates above the battlements in a pinnacle, but of less 
height and complexity than the others. Each face of the tower 
displays two ranges of double high pointed arches, divided by 
mallions and transoms, and tinely ornamented witli quatrefoils, kc. 
in the spandrils above. In the space between the upj^er and lower 
windows, is a rich band of diamond squares, containing roses in 
tbc centre, and other tasteful ornaments: the battlements are ele- 
gantly pierced. 

On entering the interior of the Cathedral from the sonth porch, 
the light and elegant appearance of the nave, and the beauty of 
its vaulted roof, never fail to excite the admiration of the specta- 
tor. The whole |>erspective from the \>est end, is, indeed, ex- 


tJ4 lt«llf. 

tremely fine; though it is partly tennkntod it the caMnbeioF tU 
choir, by the rich screen^ and the organ abofe. ' Iflhe lofver fiairb 
of the western towers are open to the aisles and nave: the vaidting 
of the south-west towers is wrought into Tery beautiful traoeiy, 
forming a chicle in the centre: that of the north-west tower is «bo 
formed mto a circle, but less ornamental: beneath this tower is flie 
Archbishop's Consbtory Courts which is Tery neatly fitted up. 

The flat on each side, and above 4he west entrance, is otnt- 
mented with cinquefoil-headed blank arches; over which runs an 
embattled cornice. The great West Window is filled widi punted 
ghusy mostly in good preservation, and representbg ranges of sm- 
gle figures, as Saints, Apostles, Sovereigns, &c. In the up p er mo st 
]%ht are the arms of Richard the Second, impaling those of Ed-> 
ward the Confessor, whom he had chosen as hb patron. Hie 
figures of the Sovereigns, wliich are thougjht to have fbrmeily 
filled the whole of the three lower compartments, are now re* 
duced to one range, consbting of whole4engths of Canute, Ed- 
"ward the Confessor, Harold, William the Conqueror, WHIiafii Rii- 
fiis, Henry tlie First, and Stephen, standing under rich mchef, 
fkirly wrought in the pointed style: below these are various rangeii 
of shields of arms of the benefactors, &c. to the Cathedral, of 
more modem origin. 

Tlie Nave b separated from the aisles by eight distinct piers or 
columns on each side, independent of the half piers against the 
%vest wall, an<1 of the immense pillars on which the arches of the 
centre tower are sustained. The inner parts of each pier is woilc- 
ed into three small circular columns, rising nearly to the upper 
windows, and thence spreading out into the groins and ramifica- 
tions of the roof. Above each of the large plain-pointed arches, 
that spring from the inner small columns, and the i^ndrils of 
which are filled up by cinqucfoil ornaments, contained withm cir- 
cles and trefoils, is a range of five blank arches : over these are 
the windows of the nave, each having a large pointed arch above, 
which springs from the flutings of the piers : a gallery, or passage, 
rans through the wall to tlie west towers, to which the light is ad- 
mitted through oblong square apertures. The aisles arc nearly 



uuj^pn vrif H the nti\e ; the windows are Li^rgr mkA t ml 

the whole mnge of tbp buikliiig has aa airy mid gnwi ect, 

the Iwo «<steniuwjJt of the iinmeiise columns^ ihi 
^rt(a TGW€f% liavr bcfU slrcngtlieiied b^^ the iuaet i of stone 
Imoei; which, Iioivcvcr* are so judicioualy piaccil, and ar« af *ncU 
d^pwt iTorkmatishiff, a» to supcrftcde M nhm of deformity or 
W€akiies?i» One of these ex ten da across the nave ; f tic second tind 
did runs between the above columns, and the coiiiiguons pirn 
nriKird; two oHiers cross the aisles; and anothcir extends \ye- 
tiecn Ibe $oulh-west and soytii^enst colaitins of ihe to>ier: all 
Ikse ife ^neJj pierced wjth quittrefotls in circles and ^fpiares, aixi 
are otlienmbe ornamented: they arc iiuli^iied Mim liy i^btuie 
Kdiei^ and at top by architra^'es and cornkf-j, einbattl«fd« Iniiiic^ 
iktely below tlic comkc on tlie south mic of the ea^tcriniio^t 
bfa«*, js llie motto and it^bus of Pnor Gold&lQue, ll*e second oC 
(iiat nurne, cut m the stone- work in ancient characters.* The area 
fomied b^ the great columns is almost thirty-tiv€ feet »quure: the 
foorarclies on which the lower rtseSj are very hnejy propoiiioned ; 
uid die inlerior part of the tower bebg open to a cfHi^^ideiiibk 
^m^tf gh^es this portbn of the Catliedral a very grand und intc- 
tuiiif effect, llie ipaccs inmietltately above the great Hrchcs^ uml 
i)«i»ath the! lomer band, are filled up by arcades* On each side 
of the lower division of the tower are three elegant iK)inted ardies, 
each sub-divided into four; two above, and two below; the latter 
being open to a gallery which traverses the whole tower, and hav- 
ing above them an embattled cornice. In tlie upper division, on 
each side, are two long windows, each divided into four lights, be- 
sides crockets. The vaulting springs from corbels between these 
wmdows, and from the capitals of pillars in the angles; and spreads 
beneath the roof in beautiful fan-work, ornamented with rich pen- 
dants, and forming a circle in the centre ; the covering of which is 


^ The motto is f^on nobid Domine non nobi/3, fstt nomine tuo Ha 
Iforium : the rebus is a shield charged with three stones, Or, between 
the letters C ip. This is situated after the word nolrix, in the mid- 
dle of the line. 


%mi paitem.* The rebus of Prior GolJston* 
k'ater part of this towcr^ h sculptured i^ithin th 
])iig its otiier Dnrdtiieiita, are the devkes of Ih 

and Wiifhain, 
y( the uave, a triple flight of step* leads «p t» J 
I he eulmnce lo which is a most br.iiitifu1 stoii»« 
(he luperb Organ (hat was hrotight from West:* 
liere it had been origtoally erected for th«t Coin ■ 
Indeh The screen is slated to have been niad^ < 
I Prior Henry de Eastry^ or Estria^ between Ui^ 
I3 1 ^t and though wrought at such a distiiat pe-^ 
Ixcellent state of preservation. The opening in— 
ligh the centre, forms a very elegant recessed^ ^ 
[rather series of arches, displaying vartoust snialL 
sculptured with roses, vine brandies, and others 
In these b a double rang^ of rich niches, sik \\ 
centre, aj]d finished by tower canopies, vei 
tiiesc ^lere formerly the statues of the ApostTi 
below them, over the iiiiddte of the dooni^ayp^ 
the Vir^n Alary, m a smiU niche ^ with a m\\m 
|iy. From the basement of the screen, on each j 
es three large comparlmeiUs, sub- divided into 
naniental niches, and having a cornice of grajie 
|bo\'e ihenu I innied lately over these compurt- 
niches, coiitainiug fuU-lctigth statues of n^ 


r to 




t Muppmrslotiare held a f^imibr object* hitt tTif hand stistalomg 

itlii»beeti broken off; the snth holds si n^pre^titaCion of a Saton 

iChilfcij, Hfid probablj was intended for Uie tis^re of Kiri<; Ethel- 

rkrt tiie teuultr of Chmt Church in mnjimcttomvith Augustine; 

thom tbe 9tlier figures wtire designed to represent, seemi impoS" 

to delennijtc, as the features do not re!»e!Dble those of my 

Itk^esaeshave I "^ ranopim 

^ti^d, we beau^ i i, so a» 

I form starSi &c. and the design and taste with v/htch tlie upper 

are executed, and the eiubemnce of fancv and invefitlon 

they display^ are truly admirable. The suinmit of the 

Sotto ta embattled, atnl eleg;intly decorated ivttb various small 

MAea> nod open*^ork arches between them : under tlie cornice 

' li^Ovr ib^ae, b a r«m*p <rf hJC uiatA^ ulth extended \ung%, «us- 

tiinbg shields. 

The fftst TramrfU is hmli ui a style of similar ck'jajance to the 
iwfej and the ends nf it being on the same level with the pavement 
I rffl«t part of tlie edihre, form distinct divisions; though a com- 
HubimUation has been preserved between tltem by a passage leading 
^pHtiikr the ascent into the choir. The north division^ from having 
Vikfea ibft place where Becket fell when assailed by his murderers, 
k called the Murtyrdomi and here, in the tune^ previotts to the 
Efortnalion, was a small altar of wood, con^crAted to tlie Hle^- 
Virgin, on which was placed tlie point of tlie sword that had 
I broken off in conmiitting tht assassination.* The great win- 
at this end of the transept, as well as that at the south end. 
Vol.. VU. March, IS07. Hhh is 

ratmi Colhq, Pcregrinnth Bflig, See alio hefnte, p. TPC. nhtc f. 
pavement of ihe Mflftyrdcimt is a *matl oblofisj squire iton^, 
at of which bai been cut a piece about five inchei icjiiare, iKat ii it id 
fcave been tprinklcd with the bniin* of the Archhiibop, artd to have 
been carried to Rome, as a most lacred relic. The larger ^tonei which 
blo&d of Becket had Kaincd* were conveyed to Peierborough hy 
or Benedict, when he wai choten Abbot of that Monaitcry ; (See 
W6j) a litnarion to which he i< con jeci tired to have betn elevated, 
^ng tt in bii power to enrich hit new abode with lucb ioeiti- 



is divided by multioRS and tmisams into numerotis lights, contiio- 
tng a great variety of compartiiieots, riclily adorned with painted 
glass, lit its ori^nal state, liowever, it was far more beautiful^ as 
Tnay be inferred trom the description lefl us by the Rev. Richaid 
Ctilmer, generally sty loci Blue Dick^ who was appointed one of 
the Six Preachers in this Cathcdial at rlie commencemei^t of the 
Civil Wars, on die recommendation of the Mayor, &c. of Can- 
terbury ; and who was t}ie principal |)erson coucemed in its muti- 
lation at that disastrous period. 

** The Commissioners/' says Culmcr, " fell presently to woii 
on the great idolatrous window, standing on the left liand as yon 
go up into the choir ; for which window some aflinn many tltou- ^ 
sand pounds had been offered by outlandish Papists. In that win — 
dow was the picture of God Uie Father, and of Christ, besides a ,m^ J 
kiige crucifix, and the picture of the Holy Ghost in the ibrm of^^M 
a dove, and of the twelve Apostles: and in that window were se- -^^si 
vcn large pictures of the Virgin Mary, in seven several glorioas ^ 
appearances; as of the Angels lifb'ng her into Heaven^ and the^ 

sun, moon, and stars, under her fett; and every picture had an in i 

scription under it, beginning with Gaudc Maria, as ' Gaudc Marian 
spansa Dei;* that is, Rejoice, Mary, thou Spouse of God. Tlicre- 
were in this window, many other pictures of Popish Saints, as of^ * 
8t. George, &c, but their prime Cathechral Saint, Archbi$hap< 
Btcktt, was most rarely pictured in that window, m full propor-^— ^ 
tion, with cope, rocket, mitre, crosier, and his pontificalibus* -^— 
And in the foot of that huge window was a title intimHtlng, that 
window 1o be dedicated to the Virgin Mary: " In laudtmti hona* 
rem Beatissimct Virginis Manet Matris Dei,'* &cc* In narrating 
his own share m the demolition, this tasteless zealot describes tiirn* 
self us standing on the top of tlie dty ladder, with a whole pike 
in his hand, ^ rattling down proud Becket's glassy bones» when 
others then present would not venture so high/f Tbe 

* Dean and Chapter Newei from Canterbury, Ice* 

f Goiiliog relatet the following circunmance at occurring while GuJ* 
mcr wai engaged in deitroying the glass. "A (owniman^ who wst 

Tht destmcliou of the adommenU of tbU ' idolatrous wmdow,' 
ft, hcwcver, partly confined to what, in the language of the 
times, were called * superstitious imaj^ea;' aud the portraits and arms 
oi die fiimily of Ed\^ard the Fourlji, with three ranges of Prophets, 
AposBti^i and Bishops, are still let\ to enable us to form a judg- 
ment of its former beauty: yet many (rdnsposilions, and f*dse 
mntclitngSy have been made in tilting up the vacancies; and much 
Gf tiic g!tt» which the window now contains, has been brought 
from other parts of the church* The head of the arcli is nearly 
io its ori^ual state, and coutaliis, in the uppermost |>oiut, two 
mbieldt of armsi one of France and England^ quarterly; and the 
other of Canterbury impaling Bourciiier. Below these in the smaller 
lights, are the ranges of Prophets, Apo^tk's, and Bishaps, in suc- 
^emve order, with their names beneath in bhck letter. The iip' 
pcrmost of the three ranges of hirge comp^irlmenU con tin us various 
^ui^lSy witli escutdieons of amis, some of wliicK refer to I he figures 
mo the middle range, but have evidently been misplaced. In tliL; 
latler divimn are the figures of Edward (he Fourtli, who is stated 
Wo have been * tlie munificcnl donor of Ihis window ;' his Queen, 
EtizabeUt Widville; their two sons, the Prince of Wales aiid the 
I>uke of York; and five of the Prtniresses: all of them are repre- 
sented kneeling, ivith their faces turned towards the centre coiu- 
pmttnaenf^ where u-as probaI>ly llie great crucifix spoken of by Cul* 
oier, but which having been destroyed by that fanalic, has had 
H« piftoe supplied by two figures of Sovereigns in annour, standing 
tmder ridi Gothic niclie s : these were supposed, by the late Mr. 
I>en[ie, to be intended for Edward the Third, and his Queen 
Pbilij^.^ The figures of Fxiward the Fourth, and tlie two 

H h h 2 Princes, 

amung tt»«i*c uho wcr« looking at hiin, desired io know what he wai 
doing. • 1 am doing tUe wmk of the Ijird/ replied Ciilmer. 'Then/ 
uid the (nher, ' if i^ please the Lord, I will help you/ and be imme- 
dmtlf tbrew a stone with in good a will, that if the Saint had not duck- 
ed, he might have laid liii own bones among the mbbuhbe wai making/* 

• yonriog** Walkt p. 28i>, note. Fifth Edit. The very particular 
^^icnpcion of ihi« window, inserted ia Gr/silmg, bui luppoied to hav« 
been vvrittcG by the late Dr , Beauvoirj occupiei from p. 270 to Q90. 

«4a kakt; 

Princes, Me hOAed in ricli white Mtin tttlnienis, wilh nmntles 6f 
crimsoD, emiiiied rowtd'the shoulders: the head of Prince Edward - 
Ins been demolished, and rephoed hj the head of a Saint;, bat? 
the other parte are m good preseiTatiOD. I^e dress of the Qoete* 
ist diao of white satm, the sleeves coming down to the wristi^ with'*- 
a rich crimson mantle, having a colfau* edged with ermine: all the* 
Princesses are incrimson,'but thehand andneck of oneof thens* 
has t>een supplied by those of a man. Tito lower lange of ookn*: 
partmenrs, which contained the * seven setMil glori<Nis i^ipearancea 
of the Virgin Maiy,' are now embellblied with Tarions coats' of 
arms brought from other windows to supply the vacancies. 

The east side of this end of the tnosept, is separated by a light ' 
and elegant stone Screen from the Chapel of the Viigin Mary, or 
Deah^s Chapel, sis it n now denominated, (Mn its contahung the ' 
mommients of several of the Deans of this Cathedral. The lowe» 
part of the Screen is oniaiuented with four compartments of ar- 
cades ; and above the doorway are several divisions of (Herced arches^ 
Imvmg a high and elegant pyramid, adorned with friials, riaog 
above each. The Chapel of the Virgin, though small, is one of 
tlie most beautiful examples of the unparalleled elegance of which 
the English, or pointed style of architecture is susceptible, of »iy 
in the Kingdom. It was built by Prior Goldstone, the first of that 
name, between the years 1449 and 1468; in which latter year he 
died, and was buried here, withih liis own Chapel, though the 
immediate spot of his interment is not known. The vauhing of 
llie roof is higlily decbrated by tracery and fan-work, most excd- 
Icntly wrought, and in a very fine taste. The east window is also 
peculiarly elegant, and has among the mouldings, a line of oak 
and vine leaves, terminating in canopied niches of rich patterns: 
all the other parts of tlie interior of this fabric arc very beautiful, 
tliough some of the ornaments have been destroyed, and others 
obscured by the introduction of monuments. 

Tlie painted glass iu the great window at the south end of this 
transept, has been mostly brought from the other windows of the 
Catlicdral, and from the want of proper arrangement appears to 
disadvantage; though some of the subjects arc well designed, and 





if licfa tnil ymS colorini;. On tlie east sid^ of thra v?r>j;r, und 
coFTfi^MHirlingf in sifuntion, tJioufrh ttot in b<ynuf\\ in the Cbapel of 
tbt Vlrpn^ is Si, Michael*n Chitpei^ mhicb LelaijeJ uoticet b> Ihe 
appdlatkn] St. AUDI! s Cliajicl, ami conjtsrlures to have htca *• new 
nade for tlie bf>nor of Erie John of Soruor^Y,** u lio Ik's bitried 
bene with iat Countess, High up over tlie entrance into thli 
Chtpd, m 8 projection of wood, slitcd to have been erected to 
lupport tin organ, and liavin^ in front the figures of St. Aiigu^ine 
md St^ Gregory, painted in stone color. On a level with this, 
above llie Chapel, is a room with a groined roof, fomierly uned 
M an armory, but allerwards ap(>ropriated as a singing st^hool for 
the cbori^lenL 

Tlie CMr it spacious, and extends from the beautiftil srieeil 
beloir the tower almost to tlie turn of the cfrcnJar part of the Ca-* 
tkidral^ beyond the east tratisept. Tlie roof, which, though 
groiined^ is but little ornamented, is supported bv pointed archer, 
icitmg on high and slender columns, alternately circular a^jd or- 
tigcmaL The capitals are varied; ino%t of them being highly 
tnKSght, and bearing a strong ra9en:d)lani^ to those of ttie CoHik 
thtan order. The colunuis at the four angles, (bmied by the crosfu 
Big of the tmnsept, ane surrounded by snmll pillars of Purbeck 
lie, which seem designed to give streogth, as well as forom»- 
Abefve tbe larger arches, on each side, b a range of dun- 
es, with light shafb of Purbeck raarble ; and over tliese 
are tbe windows, Tbe fitting up of the choir b very hatid- 
tfaougb not uniform: the Staffs are of wainscot; those for 
Dean and Prebendaries display an exuberance of rich carving, 
iting foliage, mitres, crownsi* A:c* and are divided into 
mpartments, by fluted pilasters of the Conothian order, sup- 
a bowed canopy. These are of Ihe time of Charles the 
soon after whose restoration, the Cathedral underwent 
a gfnecul nepair, nX ao eirpence of about 12,000L great prt cf 
whkh sum was laid out in repairing tlie huvoc tliut had been nmdc 
here during the supremacy of tJue Parliament . 'llie ArMiJtop's 
>71ar^nc k exalted near the middle of the choir on the south: it 
lara la u comidepibte height, and has its canopy sup|)orted by 

H h h 3 tiirtr 

three flated Corintbfsin colimins on each side. This was made it 
tlje expense of Arcbbtshop TennboD, about the } ear 1704, nheo 
the old nioiikiab stalls, which had remained till then in double 
roivs at the skies of the choir, were removed, and the present 
nuiges of seats constructed id their stead* The Altar Scrten wm 
executed from the designs of Mr. Burrough, afterwards Sb- James : 
the expense was defmyed by a bef|uest of 500l made by Dr. Jobn 
Grandorge, one of the Prebendaries. It is of the Corinthian or* 
der, and very iofly, having a beautiftit pediment^ supported on 
fluted columns, Tlie centntl part, which was originally a blank 
space, has been judiciously opened, and is now glazed wilh plate 
glass, in a framing of cojiper, gill, by which means a line view 
of the whole eastern extremity of tiie Otbedral is obtitined from 
the choir.* The ascent to the altar is by a flight of sijt steps of 
veined marble: Ihe contiguous pavement b of black and wbitt 
marble, diftposed in a neat fancy pattern. 

The side walla of the Aisles of the choir, as well as purls of the 
Mast Tramept, arc of Norman architecture, and unquestionably 
formed part of Lanfranc's Cathedral j though they are soniewhut 
obscured by the alterations ia the pointed style, made subsequent 
to the fire in 1174, and which, in several instances, partake of 
the Norman character. The walls of both aisles display a range 
of squat semi-circular arches rising from short columns, witli lai^ 
heavy capitals, bearing a strong resemblance to those of the same 
age in the Abbey Church at St. Alban's, in Hertfordshire* The 
two large windows of the north aisle, and the three trefoil-beaded 
lights above, are filled with painted glass of very vivid coloringi 
collected from dtflerent wiudows in other parts of the Cathedral, 
'llie groining of the roof, though of the time of Henry theSecondi 
vifi ornamented with zig-zag mouldings, as is that also of both 
iislfs* The north end of the transept displays several ranges of 
kimall pointed arches, rising in tiers, wilh large capitals^ curioustj 


• At the back of the present icreen, attndi the old tcrteoj which 
wai nncr iplcndidly omameiited with blue and gold, and itill displays 
whole length gilt figures of the Apoiilct, 2cc* 



nried: the ufiper wtihIow, Hluch i^ large mod 4 
tome mcnr fine {Kitnted glass, the centre Rfveseiilitif Um igum 
Dukr ridi catiopied niches^ surrounded by tbe Cardtiial Virtues, 
imI the Prophets, iitaklj, Jeremkh, Eiekid, and Daiikl: tlie 
ettt wall fiuiftbes in two brge semi-circular rectsies, in each of 
tiiick hnvf been altars. Tbe south division of this transept has a 
geoeial rtirrespondence n ith the north prt ; tbe Tmriattoos are but 
1^, and not of any particular importance* Tlie sides of botli 
iiles iieit the choir, are partly separated from it by a wali about 
eight feet high, sup(>orting a raoge of elegant pierced arches, each 
hsm^ two trefoil-headed divinioiis in tfje lower part, and a qua- 
defoS above : tbe i^bole is fiuislicd by an embattlenieut ; and on 
the north side, adjobing to the monumeiit of Arcbbisfaop Cbicbe- 
ie^r, ia a ver]/ iiaodsome doorway « in a similar style, opening into 
Ibe choir. 

Oa the north ude of the upper end of tbe north aisle, are the 
Foftpy* the Treasury t and the Audif-Iioom. The tvro former art 
linog vaulted n^Kirtments, apparently constructed to contain Uie 
iJcb vestments, and the gold and silver vessels, jei^cls, relics of 
fliols, atid otiier In^asures belonging to the respective altars. In 
the treasury are now detioiiited the ancient charters and muniments 
af the Church, in large wooden lockers, made to the shape of 
copes. The audit-room was re-built about tbe year 1720; here 
tbe dignitaries of the Cathedral hold their annual chapter, the bu* 
HDesa being first openctl in the ancient Chapter-House of the 
PHoiy, and afterwards adjourned hither. The vestry was ancient* 
ly the Chapel of St, Andrew, which conesponds in situation witji 
thit of St, Anselm at the end of the op])osite aisle : the latter Cba-^ 
pel, before it became the burial-place of Archbishop Anselm, had 
^keen dedicated to St. Peter and St, Paul: its south side exhibits 
hir]ge and liandsome window in the pointed st>le, which was 
in the year 1336, at tbe ex^^nse of 42l 17s. 2d.* Over 
^ib& Chapel b a room having a grated window looking towards the 

H h h 4 djoh-, 

• BatcelyV Soroncr, V. 11. p. 25, and Appendix, No. L C, 

dMir, tqipottd to haTe lieeD formerly uwd •» a imof) &V..f(pk. 

FfOtt the eod of each of the dioir aialet k « high fl(^ 
comraiiiiicatiDg with the semi-ciicoljir iiidei which iamwiM|s t^ 
Okapd^theHi^y Trini^: hi the nkbt of d|i» Chtpel slao|| t||«^ 
gorgeous tbrine of Archbbbop Bediet» togetlier w|tb a Chap9|^4A^ 
diettcd to hii'ineflaary;* whiriiaAerwaidsfivt thenaoiaqf fjpL 
Thomas the Mait^ to the whole fabrio. TI|oiigi| thbpfi^tipii.^ 
Ike Cathcdial was eitded with the obbitkyM madckatSeck^ 
tomb, ood eonseqiiently after the pomted siytaof «rfUteotitte>lip|i 
pbtaioed prevaieiioe» yet it is mioigled with flefflMKulap nrrhm, 
and aif-iag and bittstted oioaments, the ondojabtc^ charactcBpMflpi 
of the Korman style; and thus proves a decisive iUustiati^oi; tk^ 
ftct, that both modes of architecture were WQielym^ emptsyfd^ 
in buildtDgs of the same age. The jcolumns which support t^ 
great arches are ail duplicated, exceptiog jn t|rp instances, vhern 
they are single. Each pair of columns rises from one pUpth, aq4 
sustains ooe impost or comice» from wbich-the arches spriiig; tha 
capitak are richly sculptured with scrolls and volutes of vesygrao^^ 
till forms. The two arches next the altar screen are pomted ; ;ff^ 
two adjoming ones on each side, are semi-circular: beyond t^epn^ 
and extending round the eastern extremity of the Chapel, aie:£v«; 
pointed arches, which gradually become more acute s|s the diai 
tauces between the columns lessen in approaching the centre. Aboiv 
the larger arches runs a trifiariutfis formed by small pointed aiclM| 
in front, having recessed archivaults, supported by clustered pilf 
lars. The intersections of the groin-work ^of the rpof meet ini| 
liendaut rose, immediately over the site of Bed^t's .shrin^. Th^ 
outer windows of the aisle are pointed; but the ardies, like those 
of the choir, are adorned with sig-zag and billet mouldings; sm 
are also the groinings of the roof. 

Tlie pavement round the site of Beckct's shrine, exhibits evident 
traces of the respect that viiis paid to his memory by the counties^ 


^ 2jee Icbnograpby of the Cathedqil in Baitely's Somnetj betweea 
p. 21 and i.»5. 


-^ 'Tinier rhat rame oq pil^iiiat^e to this city. The stones am^ 

5idc worn iuto boliowa b) tlie ktit^s of t tie devotees^ whot^ 
fpetr to bave been taus:Hl that the tmrit of Becket's blood wa& 
t>rtoour&i> '' ' ' ' .sed witlt* 

Ittuperior cttk.*^ of Grace,* i 

^ ifbiiat in llic course of otie yeair, the otfenugs at Christ's AWci 
Urwerc Ol, 0«. <j ' 1 U. 8d. tltoseatij 

IbcSbriiieofBeck If l' 

lilt remains of Becket ware at Brsl iittcf red at the east eod tUb \ 
lift Crypi, or Uiider-croft, where his tomb wat visited by jK^noiia* 
of all rasiks, and of every cotulitton. The humiliattag and severe , 
pcanrc OQilerwcnt here by Henry the Second^ m 1172, isCbttsJ 
teaikd by Lord Lytteltun in bis life of thiil Sovereign. ** Tiia 
Ka^ aa soon as he caiue in sight of the tower of Canterbury CiH 
tkidnlt ^^ ^be di^lanee of tluee milest descended from his horse^ 
wA vraikcd thither baretool, over a road ibut was full of rough 
, sbaip stones, wlitch so wounded his itet, that in many plucet 
atiiined with his blood. Wlien he got to the tomb, he 
ibear btoifielf prostrate Jjefore if, and remained for some tinie iia < 
ferveut prayer; dming which, by bib orders, the Bishop of Lorn 
doiii ill his u^nie, dodared to the ptfople^ that he bad neither conw 
DOr advised^ nor by any artifice contrived « the death of 1 
el; for the truth of which, he np^Kr^ilrd in the most soleimi | 
er fo the tei^tlniony of God; but, as the murderers of thai I 
Prelate had taken occasion^ from his words, too inconsiderately 
ipoken, to commit this offence, he voluutiirily thus3ul>mitted hini^ 
irtf to ibe disd}>line of Christ. Alter this he was scourged, at hii 
owQ request and eoininnid» {in the Chaptfr HouieJ by all tlK 
» of the Couicnt assembled for that piirpoie, from every onil 

• Tu, per Tltoniit mng^inan^ 
qtiinn pro (c hupcnd^tt 

fnc nos^ Vfiristc, smndere 
quo liu)mas asccnaiL 

hfwtitont Life of llcniy IL Vd. VL p. 539; and Bumet*i Hitf. 
of ihe Keiofraaiion, Vol 1* p. *2\\. 



of wbom, and from several bisbopi nud al>bots Ujere present, be 
received ibree or four stripesi. This shurp penauo^ beuig done, 
be retunied to his praven before tbe lombi which he cootiiiiicd 
ail that da\\ and aH flic next night, not eveti suffering a carpet to 
be spread beneath him, but kneeling on the hard pavement. Early 
io the moniiug he went round all the altars of the Chufch, ami 
paid his devotion to the bodies of the saints tliere interred; which 
havijig periomied, he cauic back to Beckct s tomb, where he staid 
tiU ihe hour when mass was said in the Church* at which he as- 
sisted. During all this time he had taken no kind of food; and, 
except when be gave his naked body to be whipt, was clad in sack- 
cloth. Before his departure, (that he might fuller complete the 
expiation of his sin according to the notions of the Church of 
Rome,) he assigned a revenue of forty pounds a year to keep lights 
always burning in honour of Becket about his tomb, Ti^e next 
evening he reached Ix^ndon, where he found it necessary Io be 
blooded^ and re^t some days." 

The extensive publicity which the various circumstances attend- 
ing Ihe death of Becket had given to his fame, very soon attracted 
numerous crowds of pHgrims to his tomb, and even Princes and 
Sovereigns thought it highly meritorious to become his votaries. 
In 1177 » Fhilipt £arl of Flanders, came hither with a numefoua 
fetioue^ and was luel by King Henry, who again visited the sepul- 
chre of the new saint in the succeeding year, on his return from 
Normandy. Hither also, in the July following, came Willianiy 
Archbisfiop of Rheims, with a numerous suite: and in August* 
1179^ Lewis tlie Seventh, King of France^ landed at Dover in the 
fuise of a common pilgntn, for the purpose of paying his devo* 
lions at the tomb of Becket. Henry himself awaited bis arrival; 
and the two Sovereigns came to Canterbury together, accompa- 
nied by a great train of the nobility of both nations, and were re- 
ceived and entertained with much splendor, by the Archbishop 
and bis suflragans, and the Prior and Mpuks of Christ Church, 
Louis, on this ocaisioti, presented a rk:h cup of gold, together 
with the iiimous jewel called the Regal of France^ wljich, after tbe 
DissolutioDy Henry the Eighth had set, and wore as a th umbering. 






He abo granted to the Conveot of Christ Church, 100 mmd$, Or 
lous of wine, aDUually, to be \uk\ by hinisclf and liis sucfessors:* 
aud tlie oblations of gold and silver, made during the two or three 
4ays of his conttuuance here, were so great, tliat ' the relation of 
thero almost exceeded credibility/t In 1180, Henry the Second, 
on returning from Normandy, again paid his devotion;} at the 
tomb of Becket; and again in 1184, m company with Philip, 
Archbishop of Cologne, and Philip, Earl of Flanders, whom he 
eaine bitiier to meet, and to invite to London. King John, and 
Racfain) the First, were also numbered among the early devotees 
at the tomb of Becket; and these examples were followed by mul- 
tttudes of ^lersotii of hiferior rank, who ' crowded widi full hands 
to present tlieir oblations/ 

When the remams of Becket were f ranslated to the sutnptuoui 
sbnoe prepared for tlieir reception in the new Cha|^l of liie Holy 
Trioky, in the year 12204 the solemnity was attended by nJuhilee^ 
(this being the fiftieth year alter the murder,) granted by a BuD of 
Pope HonoriuB the Third ; and this festival was regulariy repeated 
ctery fifty years, till the time of the Dissolution. The different 
¥tp^ however, who gave pemmsion for the jubilees to be cele* 
bntedf made them matters of extraorflinary favor, nor would they 
issue their Bulb till they bad been brib<:d so to do, by tlie most 
capeosive presents. The seventh and la^t jubilee was celebrated 


* • ThW gift, aft appear* from Madox't Hist. Exchequer, p* 10, and 

King John privileged the Monks to receive for ever, free of all 

titni and this immunity was again conBrmed to them by Fdv^ard the 

who, in hb tweaty-second year, issued bti writ, recitmf» 

ereas^ by virtue of the grants of the progenitor! of Lewit of France, 

^ Prior and Convent had and received thirty- three ca*ki of wine friro 

nee yearly ; the King, out of h\% particular grace and affection, and 

Tfegwd to the Convent, and the glorioui martyr, St, Thomai^ granted 

lh%t, for the future, they should take the lame, free of all Cuitomt and 

uics whatcrer.* Ryra. Fwd. Vol. Xlh p. lUO. 

t Radulph dc Diceto, CoL fiO^. 
{ Sea p. 802^. 

^fii the year 1520; bnt Ihe grzni for tlib purpose coiiM not be ol 
(taiaed till after a rcry tedious solicttatjoij, and ibe cxptriiditure 
llarge sums b preseuta," d:c* and not even tlien, ttll an engageiai 
I wa& made with tlie Pope, to give htm * half tbe obliilioris or oi£c]^ 
i faigs made in the Church during the whole year of the jubilcr«f 
f The concourse of people that flocked to Cantcrbuiy during 
^jubilees was very great; atKJ in otie year aJone, anno J 420^ as 
Spears IVom the city records, there were no less thaji 100,000 pep 
kaons who attended the celebration of tlie fifth jubilee; and wb 
^oblations, made at the sluiiie of Beckett were of jocredible 

The immense value of the sbrine itself^ may in some degice tm^ 
ktstimated from the following descriptions by Erasnitu, atid Stow; 
i" the former of whom saw it shortly before the Dissolution ; and the 
► latter refers to its state about the same period. *' They drew up^'* 
^pys Erasmus, **^ a chest or case of wood» which inclosed a cliesl or 
^coffin of gold, together with inestimable riches^ gold being tbt 
meanest thing to be seen there : it slione all over, and sparkled and 
^ (littered with jewels, of the most rare and precious kinds, and of 
^ mn extraordiTiary size, sonic of them being larger than a gooae't 
r€gg. When this was displayed, the Prior, who was always pre- 
fleet, took a while wand, and touchiag every jewel with it, lold the 



** ' In the Be gUteri of thli Church/ &ays Bactciy, * are copies of two 

ettcrs full of the most pressing importuniiies from the King to the Pope» 
Ijaide previous to the siith jubilccj in 1470 ; ajid of two other lettni 
\itom him to ibe College of Cardinak ; of another Icuer from the Queen j 
nd of another from the Prior and Chapter, for ihe continuance of iii« 
fant of Plenary indulgencies, without which, they stated, there 
r#outd he no jubilee; a jubilee being a year ufremi»iioti» and it be mg 
[cujiomary to remit the burthens of all peniteati in the jubilee of the 
[tramlation of the Martyr.* 

[t fiattely'fr Semncr, P. 7. p, liOi tud Appendix, No. XXI, a» b, c» d. 

} See Somner's Ctnierbury, Appendix, No- XLII. for a copy of th« 
criminal Memoruidum driwa up at the time* 



mmt^ and tbe fglae, aiul 11m^ ilouar of it; for tke clilef of itieui ^ 
men %h€ ^lt< of McMi^rciis." 

. 9lill«r t* MimeMrliul more I'lreum^tantial; ** U wm buildc^l,* tajt 
teaoibof, " ulio4it a msuia Uei^litp nU of iKluias thiiri upn^rrl oi 
Inber, piiiiii<?; wiUsiu ttie which^ wa^ a eli«^t of jrnm, r<inl^i>t)iii^ 
te booca of TboiiiiM 6erk«t, scull ami ail, ^ilb tlte wtjutdf^ (>f faiiM 
Ibitiit atiti the peeoe cut out oi' tm sruU tnjfik m the mute woutid.*— 
UiMr bofict (by cominaadeiiiciit of the l^ni CramwcU) vivf^ llmM. 
iBii tb^« brenL — The timber m urk »f ti^ui iiktiite^ on tfie outiide^ 
nu. eoper^ with pbies of pAd^ damu^ked with ^utd mch^ which 
^^tmoA of gcildc was againe ( ov^^red willi jewi^ji tjf goldr, ni rwigi» 
Icm or tiidve, cnuuped witli golde wyer iata the md ground of 
ffMt^taauy of those ring^ Imvitig Ktotu-si In thtnn: bro^tclH-^, imaj^j^ 
prtfioui Oon^, knd great aric^ut ihmU. Tiir sfrfiuib uf 
ibrine, iii gold aod prrtious itonef, iilleil two great dteitJi/ 
sock aft «JUf or scaviui itroiig meti ctmld doi; no more than cotiTe^r 
<ior of Uirm «t ooce out of the Cbiin:Ji,"* 

The 9{»ac€ iiiimcdiat«}ly before lUe siiritiej to the wifat, vm% ntim- 
■actilod wiiU » cunous Mosaic p^vi^aieiit* of a fmtcy palietn^ of 
elikh coiisiilerutdc part 9 yet mnain; tog^ilier witit ^ iiuatijerof 
cirakbir ^ofieSj tbiit huve dbfpliiyetl the signs of tite isodi^Ct im^ 
adwr figures, but are now so much i%oni, as to be atuiost uuiutfi* 

Tte leuii-circular aiglc whkli surrounds the Chapel of the Hoi J 
^l^loilv, opens by a brge arch to the circular buildtng tAM 
WtKkei*9 Crmviit ^vbicb termiuatea the eastern cxtrenuty of the Ca^ 
tbfdml. Tfi€ lower |jart of this, to tlie vauiliug over llie tirst 
moge of windowsj appears to bavc b*^eti constructed ut tlte s-ime 
pmcKl us the Trinity Chapel, and correspond 3 with that iu iu 
pmuled jircbes, and ^Ig-^ag mouldings. The upper part is of a 
later date ; the Mouk^ being employed iu carrying it higfier at thm 
tifiic of the Diaaoiutioti, wbicli at onct put a stop to ihcir pro- 
ceediugi and it uas kft untinbhed till about the nilddle of the last 


• Atiaali of Henry the Eighih* The ihr'me W3i regularly atcecdcd 
kff % Cierk sad other rctainen, and the wfferbgt made at it dgly regii- 
l£ff d. Banei^'i ^om^efj P. L p. 12S« 



c^tiiiS% wbeit some part of the top was taken dawn, mid th^ 
whole finished by a cl»msy kind of eniliattknient. The ribs uoilc 
&I the centre; in a pendant rose; and the ardies are supported hy m 
small, light calumn5, of Petworth marble. Tlic waits have been 
dnianiented ivith pnmtings, of which the le^nds of St. Chfislopher 
and St, George are yet visible ; atid beneath the lattejr has beetf^ 
representation of the Saviour risin^ from lib Sepulchre. In tfee 
large windows is a great deal of pumted glass, on dtfierent subjects 
ooiinected with the 'passion and miracles of St. Thomte;' but 
much of it has suffered by injudicious repafr». In the middle of 
this part of the building stands the S/oh^ Chair, in which the Arch- 
bbhops of Canterbury are eothroned: this, from its stntplicity and 
plainness, apjiears to be of great age. 

The admeasureraeats of this Cathedral are as follows: whole 
length, from east to west, withinside, 514 feet; length of the choir, 
180 feet; length of the nave, to the bottom of the choir steps, 
178 feet; and from thence to the screen at the entrance of tbe 
choir, 36 feet; breadth of the choir bet^vecn the columns, 40 feet; 
extent of the cast transept, from north to south, 154 feet; ditto of M 
the west transept^ I '24 feet ; breadth of the nave, and its aisles* ■ 
7 1 feel; height to the vaulting of theTrijnty Chapel from the pave- 
ment^ 5S feet; ditto of tlie cJioir, 71 i«et; ditto of the naw, 
80 feet ; ditto of the great tower withinside, 1 30 feet : enffdHie 
height of the great tower, 535 feet; ditto of the aouth^wesi 
tower, 130 feet; ditto of the north-west tower» 100 feet,* 

Beneath the whole edifice, from the high ascent of the ch 
the extremity of the builciiiig, runs a spacious and most intet^Mi^ 
Crypt; the western pari of which is of Norman architecture, and 
unquestionably of the tbundation of Lanfranc;t whilst the eisflem 


Gots ling's Canterbury J Introductioo* 


f It hai been a current opinion for many years, that the moreancieat 
part of thit crypt was built ia tht Saxoo timeij and that Lanfranc erec- 
ted his Cathedral on the ancient foundaiiona ; yet theie tuppoiitionf are 
neither supported by the style of the architecture, aor by the tcitimoDy 

«f aocient Auiboriiies. Sec p, 773 ; note. 




! time of Htnry the Second, nnA fonns ii most strikiii|r 

contrast to the other, Sirupficily and strcnglh characterize tlie 

whole of the former; and what onia men ts are found in it, tndepeo- 

t of the sculpture of the rich iiionumenls, vind Virgin Chapel, 

Inter introduction, arc chiefly coolined to the capitals of the 

tort and thick columns that support Uic rnnltin^p in connection 

ith tmraensw piers of niaaoury* These c;tpha)s arc iantastk:alW 

led; some of thera are scnipt<ired with foliaiire, and otitcrs with 

tesqne and olher %ures: on the dilfercnt faces of ojjc of lh« 

ipttals, are fonr human heads. Most of ifie capitals and phiitJis 

wery large, in proportion to the dhmctcr of the smaller cohiinus, 

hich h about one foot four Inches; and their liei:^ht ah out four 

the hnght of the vaulting L* nearly fourteen feet; the arcltcs 

segments of circle;?, 

west end of tl*e €r>pt is generally called the Frrnch CJiurch^ 

its having for many years been appro|niatei] to the relij^iottf 

of the Walloons, md French Refu^cai, who ilctl hither 

m the cruelties of the [nquisitif^n in the Spunish Xetberlatids in 

ret^ of Edward the Sixth ; and whose numbers were oecn- 

lUy increased by tiew accesMons of emigrant:*, driven from 

native land by the intolerant spirit of Pojier>*. Qrtccn Eiiri- 

th w stated to have f^ranfed them this crypt for fheir Churdi; 

ill the ' removal of tiiost of their descenflauts to Sjntaltichl?, and 

union of others with Protestant tamilies/ hav-e retiuced t\mt 

iiubers to a very few; and thc^ iind it more convenient to him 

ordinances of their worship celebrated iji a part of tlie cf\^t 

1 had been previously used as a ve!*try. 

The Transept of the er\pt corresponds vvitli the «*st transept in 

body of the Cathedral. Here, at the south end, Edward th^ 

ilack Prince, in the year 1 363, founded a ChaiUry Cliapel for the 

beoeiit of bis own soiil/ and entlowed It for two Chaplains witli 

the inanor of V*auxhall, near Londoa. This Chapel was fitted up 

the ^t>le of that age; and though now dilapidated^ exhibits 

interesting remains in the ^'aulting of the roof^ the ribs of 

mhich spring iirom the side walls, and unite hi an elegant colonsD 

m the middle of the Chapel. The btersectious are sculptiired 





Hitii various omnnif nts, and among fliimi is u shfcld with the arni^ 
lof the founder. 

Near the middle of the crvpt are the remains of the wry elegant 

}fihape!ofthe Virgin, once beautifijlly orouinentcd in the pointed 

I style of architecture, but now fdst mouldering into ruin. The co» 
(lumns are probably of the original Norman masonry, but caserlj 

* *iind aheretl to make tliem corres]>ond with the new work: they 
inow display a kind of bclt^ running from top to l>oltom in a broad 

' (double spiral; and are crowned with an embrittled coniice, wlucl^ 
is conttnued round llie chapel, and separates the rich open woHb 
between the arche* into two divisions, the uppermost of wbtch teJ^ 
tahiates in finiaU tiud pinnacles* In an ele^nt canopied iikhe 8t 
the east end, above the altar, stood a statue of the Virgin, on i 
rich pedestal, sculptured io relief, with diOerent subjects trom hof 
history : the story o^ the Annunciation may still be traced ; but 
most of tlte other sculptures are destroyed, ** This Chapel/' Riyi 
Erasmus, ** was not shewed but to noblemen an<l especial frieddlt 
—Here the Virgin mother hath an liaI>itation, but somewat dark, 
inclosed with a double sept, or rail of iron, for fear of lhieve<i'i' 
for, indeed, I never saw a thing more laden with riches : lights 
being brought, we saw a more than royal spectacle; in beauty i| 
far surpav^ed that of Walsingham,'* 

The Norman piers and arches round the east end of the Virgitf 
Chapel, form a semi-circuldr aisle; l>cyond which are two imtneRsc 
columns, that seem, from their irregular posilions, to have httA 
iubsequenlly formed as additional suji|>oi1s to the vaulting of llid 
crypt ; and probably, if an opinion may be dednce<l from the or* 
naments of the capitals, at>out the time that the cboir was rebuifl 
by the Priors Erinil|>h and Conrad. Nearly opp4>site to the southenM 
most of these columns, is the entrance into the Vestry of the FrenA 
Church, which is immediately beneath the Chapel of St, Auselnlij 
«nd has an oj^cning into a dark semi-circular apartment, which wni 
snciently fitted up as a Cha|>el, and has various remains of p»in|i 
ingsyet visible upon the walls. In a compartment of the roof is U 
figure designed for the Almighty, seated with awheel, the emblem o| 
EtemitVy under hii feet; and in hi:^ left hand an open book^ iji whic% 





writlen Uie wocda Egammqid ntttt. One of the altars (for 
"e a|ipear to have been tiivo iu tlm small part of the cr^rpt) waa 
to tlie Aii^ ' ' rj'abiieU tlie otber to St. Jotiti Hap* 
Ikf/ and were moat ; ; situated wiihiu a deep setuicircular 

afdi* agaio&t the east waU: the uoder part of tbla arch is painted 
ii nisB eamptuirtienU, scvcii of whicb contain tfte S^\eu Aogels» 
Savoi Ckirciies, aiid Seven Candlesticks, of the Ro?t!latiuns; in 
Ibe «^tli t$ St. Johu writing Uis Apocat>'pse ; and in the ninth are 
Sefea Slsir* within a circle. The oth<;r |>;*mliiigs reltite to the Na» 
Imly uf St. John Baptist ; at the sides arc some Cfterubim, standing 
on wiiii^d wheeb^ with e>es iu tlieir icings and bodies. On the 
ooflli s»cie uf the cr^pt, in the part corresponding with this^ was 
aliar of t}ie Holy Innocents. 

eleven ^cds from tfie east end of the VirginV Cbapel, 
die cvypt i& divided by a stmight wall, Uial through diHerent open* 
Jobs admits a partial vieir into wltat i^ now called the ' Vaults be- 
loogaig to the lirst prebcudar}/ but wlucb, iu rciilily, ts the con- 
timialioa of the crypt, erected under the Cliapel of the Holy Tri* 
flit\ !' ' '! lUe Secoiidf and which displays a s^ies 

«yf ^c that Ciiapel^ though the ofoaiDenldi 

parts are less complex. Its eastern extremity is a drcle^ about 
lUrty feet in diameter, corres|>on(ling with Bed^et's Crown, and 
lamng an arched roof^ the ribs of which converge to the centre. 
AO tills part of the uuder- croft is now appropriated to domestic 


mie aeveml enttanoes into the ar}pt dii^lay much diversity tn 
Ibdr arciatecture. The two principal entrances open from the 
Hunt tmiflept : that on tlie north has a recessed arched doorway, 
haifU^ UtfCe semicircntar ranges o** Norman mouldings of various 
damiieten and on each side, a small column : that on the south 
opem tinder a pointed arcli, above which is a large ornamental 
nkhe with a tower canopv, and a facing of elegant arcades in a 
lioiilar st}rle. 

VoL-VU. March, 1607, lit Ib 

* Dart*» Cantertiuryt p. 34 ; »ad ptaie* 


In tfie timeff prerioiis to the Rfiformatioiiy there appears t» bate 
keen, at teast, thirty-seven or thirty-eight AUan m the diflerenC 
parts of this Cathedral, all of which were veiy qplendidlj iiimishadv 
and someof them in the most superb and gorgeous mannerr The 
High altar, m particular, was ' omMnented as richly as gold, silfer, 
jewellery, and costly art, couU adorn it;' and Erasmus saya tfmt 
* the richest roooarchs might be considered as mere beggaia as 
comparison with the abundance of silver and gold which it eihi* 

<* Daring the unhappy troubles of die great R ebtllio n ,* aqf» 
Hasted, '^ mevkable destruction seemed to tfaiealenthe whole of 
thb beautiful iabric; for, in l64rl, the madness^ of the poaple 
raged to such a height, as prevailed beyond all lesistanoe: ths 
Dean and Canons were turned out of thdr stalls; the is 
figures, and coats of arms in brass, were torn off from the \ 
grave-stones; and the veiy graves themselves were lansacked fiif 


* * The tacristf wat filled with jewellery, and with candlettkkib cops^ 
pixes, and croitef of every size, made of lUver and goU^ nan j of ibem 
richly and curiously^ wrought ; together with veitmenti and copetof ait 
sorts and colon, of daraaik and velvet, all ricdly embroideredr and 
mixed with gold and silver. The number and richness of them were» 
in short, almost beyond estimate, as appears by the Inventory t^en at 
the dissolution of the Priory, when they were carried away for the 
King*s use.' Hasted. See also. Dart's Canterbury, appendix, p. in 
No. vi. from a Mamiscript ii> the Cotton inn library, marked Ga&Mir 
£. iv. t4, f. 1 14. The ReUc§ appear to have been equally numenNW>; 
the mere catalogue of them printed by Dart, appendix,. No. xiii, takes 
up eight folio pages: their vo/iie, in the CathoKc times, most, of course, 
havcd exceeded all kind of calculation, llie vast pomp with which 
religious ceremonies were performed in this Church, may, in some de- 
gree, be estimated by the size of the vxix lights employed on difierent 
occasions. * The weight of the paschal taper was 300 pounds: seven wax 
candles, in seven branches, weighed fifty pounds; namely, fix of them, 
seven pounds a piece; and the seventh, in the middle, -eight ptundsr 
procession candles weighed ten pounds each : and on the feast of Puri&« 
cation every caadle weighed three pounds. 

Battely'i Somner, P. S, Appendix, No, xtx. 

At f^€ of pitinder: und whatever there was of beauty or d cy 
witliin the Cliurch, was deapoiled by i^Hcrilegious outmges* iti tiiii 
ibfkini state it r^mamed till the disyjliitioii of all DcHns and Chaji- 
ln% flifee years afterwards^ when the Goveniinent*^ commUtce 
took possession botli of the Church and iti reveriijes* lu J f J49f 
an Ordinatice of the Slate passed for the puilinij down and sale lUf 
the materids of mil Cathedml cbuinelte^: aiid iiccoriliu^Kv among 
others^ those of this edifice were ^Tihiett^ mid an €*limate wis 
made of the ctiai^e of taking it (Jawn ; ti\ iwitnc nietins* however, 
it fefiffliiied Qtitouched; and at the restoration of Moaarchy* 
and life re-estabitshnieiit of the Chiireh of Riti^Umd, in jG6o^ it 
W%3 Testored to the Deait »nd Chupter ; hnl wai found in so nejo^ 
lided a conditioti, that it became iiecessary to e^t^ieod no less n 
WKim than 12,000U to |mt it iuto a cbcent slate for tlie cekbmtiufi 
of religious mrvwe^ '^^^mm'^^t^^^i^ 

Some further tepatrf were made in thi* Cafliedral aln^ut the 
year I7S7; at which period, also, the nave was new paved v^'idi 
fr^^e-stcme; and on this oecailoa alt the ancient tombs and grave- 
were removed ; tliougb niafiy of tliero had covered the re- 
i of different Archbishops md Priors of this Church I A beau- 
tifol httte Chapel which stood between two buttre^<%s, immediate^ 
Ij ander the Mb window of the south akie, ioto which it opened , 
was pulled ilnwn about the same tJi?ie, f'rotu an i^piiiioii thai it 
looked ' imsigbtly/ though a small sum would have been sufficient 
to pot it into good repair; and it would theu have remained an 
[ subject for the architectural antiquary, it having been 
\ in the time of Henry the Sixth. Latterly, it bore the ap- 
pdlaticm of NeviVi Chapel, from Dean Neyil, who repaired it as 
a bmi^I-plaee forliimself and family, about the beginning of the 
mjgB of Elizabeth; but it was built, as a Chantry Chapel, in 1447» 
liy the Lady Joan Brencbeley, widow of Sir William Brencheley* 
Cbicf Justice of the King's Bendi, in memory of her husband, who 
died in the preceding year, and had been buried near this spot. 

That respect for the mouldering ashes of the dead, which de- 
ceocy requires, and custom has enjoined, is stated to have been 
* but little attended to* when the area of the navo wras levelled for 

1 i i a the 


die new pavemcar; nnd it is ccrlaln Itmt die |>crisbah1e reimi 
©f sevcml prelates were, on ibal occasion, exjmsed, anti p^irtiaU* 
scattered* The more ancient grave^stonesy especially those of 
larger mze, were llien used to make good tlie pavenieut of tli4| 
Chapter-House: others were laid down in the south part of tli^ 
west transe|>t ; aitd the motmmeots of the Nevili^i which had beeii 
erected in the Chapel just spoken ot\ ^^ere removed to the Cha|M»| 
of tiie Virgin, ailjoiniii;» to tlie Martynlom* | 

Among the Prehites recorded to liave been buried in the vssLve^ 
are the Arrhbishops Tmeobald, Islip, and Whitt^ley; and Jobi| 
Bockingham, Bishop of Lincoln. The former, who died on tJi# 
fottrteenlh of the kalends of May, ll6l, waa at first interred im 
the Chapel of the Holy Trinity; but when that part of Lanfiancll 
Cathedral wa^ t^kcn down m the year 1180, hb ' body, still dad 
in its silken vestments,'* was removed, and re-interred m the south 
aiate of tlie nave before St. Mary's Altar,t where it was discovered 
in year 1787, by the workmen who were employed in levelling 
the ^ound for the new pavement " At the east eiid of the nortJi 
ftisle,** says Mr. Boya, whose account of this discovety has bee« 
pnbh'shed in tlie XVth volume of the Arditcologia, *' a.leadei|| 
rotHu wa<$ found a little below the surface, containing the remaim 
of a body that had been wrapped in a robe of velvet, or rich aiJk^ 
fringeil with gold: tliese remains were muth decayed. In the 
cotfin was likewise enclosed an inscription, on a plate of leadt ill 
capital letters, engraved in double strokes, with a sharp pointed; 
instrument, Tl»e lead is much broken, and affected by tbeaeria|| 
acid, and the letters are )>articnlarly so: some of the abbreviatioai 
nnt curionsly complex. 1 read the inscription thus : Hie requicicif 
tencrnbibs rncmorit Teobaldua Qmiuarie Qiy:hUphcopm Bnutnis 
prhids ct apostoticc Midis Icgatua* MccUsic Christ i Ditpciam ficCt 
tpiisivit prOptio an^ento et plttribus omatii operihug » . - , scpulud 
viiii kalmder Maiu^'t This discovery removes all doubt as to 
the real butial-place of Theobald ; though the monumental shriiitfi 


. t Gcrvas d/e CoinbuH. Durob, £ccL X, Script, Col, 1302,4. J 
^ Ibid. 1302, 5. i Archafologia, Vol. XV, p, 504 


trhich trtditicMi has unffonBly niisigned to hiR memorr, stj oti 
the sotilb sii[Ie of ibe Cliapel of the Holy Ttinity, m will be no- 
ticed in proceeding. 

The mmh% of theArehhbhops Islip and Whittesley^ wbicb 
were of Petwortb marble, stood between the colunms at tlie up* 
|ier eod of the nave : botti had been itibid witli their portmitures 
m Bm$$, tmder nch canopies; but tfiest* had hetMi Imig removed. 
The remaitia of the former a^ipeared to have been iuterred in 4 
Stone eoflfm, nearly fitted to the shape of the body : those of the 
latter were found depoiited in a cortinr-^ba^jed hoi low , cut in tli« 
solid foundalion, which extendi from eohimn to column througli- 
cmt the wbote nave. His body had been laid in wood a&hesi ; and 
the leaden ^eal of a Bull of Indulgence, having the signature of 
Pope Gregory tlie Eleveuth, wm found near one of Iils handi * 
Two other Archbishops, and several Priors, had been buried near 
the steps leading to the choir, as appeared by vvirious grave-stoues 
of marble, which had been once richly omntiiented w ttli Bra<«sea.f 
-The slab which covered the remains of Bishop Bokihgham, was 
<jf great sisse, and formed part of the pavement at tlie lower end 
€>f the nave^ where hk skeleton wtis found entire when the new 
pavement was made, Thia Prelate had been Keeper of the Privy 
-SenI in the reign of Ricbard the Second : he was aftervards made 
Bishop of London, but residue d tJint See in the yriir 1J97, and 
became a Moi^ of Christ Church. Among the other persons who 
*!iia memorials in the nave, or its aisles, were Sir William 
^*Se^-VaNs, vi4io served in the French Wars in the time of Ed- 
N^«^ the Third, and died in 1407; Sir John Guildford, one 
of flie Coansellors of Henry the Seventh, who died in 1493 ; Sir 
Willi AM Brencheley, or BruchdU, who died ' in Holbome, 
in the guhuTh of London,* anno 1446*; Sir Thomas Fogge, 
who, by his Win, dated in 1407, gave lOl. towards tlie new work 
pf ibe Church; and Sir William Lovelace, Sergeant at Law, 

I i i 3 arid 

♦* Hastfed's Kent, Vol, XII. p. 339. Edit. 8vo, 

t Ibid. Vol. XL p,387. . - 

85S KEHTv 

and High Steward of the Liberties of Christ Chtntb, who died hi 
1576. Among the moQuments yet remaiuiog against the aonth 
and north walls, are those of Sir John Boys, * of the fiunily of 
Fredville, Knight, a teamed Lawyer, Steward of theTemporalitiea 
of five Archbishops of Canterbury, and Reoorder of that Ckj ;* he 
died in August, 1 612, at the age of seventy-seven : his effigies b di»* 
pkiyed on the luonument m his Doctoi^s robes, and beneath are 
kneeling figures of his two wives, Daroihy Pawley, and Jtme Walker, 
with an infant in swaddling clothes between them ; of the leanned Or* 
Adrian de Sabavia, a Prebendary of this Cathedral, who died 
in 1612 ; and of Orlando Gibbons, the celebrated Oiganiil 
of the King's Chapel, who died of the siuall-pox in this city, whilst 
attending the nuptials of Charles the First and Henrietta Maria, m 
1625 : his bust is displayed in a circuhur niche, beneath the pedi- 
ment of the monument. 

In the Martyrdom, or north end of the west transept, are the 
elegant monuments of the Archbishops Peckuam and Waruam, 
which are raised against the north wall, and adjoin to each other. 
The former consists of a tomb, below a pointed arch, with treibil 
divisions, terminating pyramidically above, and supported at the 
sides by ornamental biHtresses. The mouldings of the pyramid 
are sculptured with vine tendrils ; and in the centre of the triangle, 
within a circle, is a very rich rose. In front of the tomb is a aa- 
ries of small niches, with trefoil heads, and pinnacles ; in which, 
as appears from the print of this monument, given in Dart's 
Canterbury, were formerly Episcopal figures: the sides of 
the buttresses were also similarly adorned.* The monument, or 
rather Chapel, of Archbi&IiQp Warham, was repaired at the ex* 
pense of the Dean and Chapter, in the years 179^* and 1797f at 
which time the rich tomb of the Archbishop, which had previously 
stood at the west eud of the recess formed by the canopy, was re< 
moved into the centre. The sides of the tomb disphiy plap 
shields, ill elegant quutiefoil compartments; and pn the top lies a 


* On this tomb lies a full-length carving, in oak, of an Archbishop, 
ilxed uD a plank of the same wood : this is generally called the effigies 
^f ft:ckhi^^9 ^^^ ^ cfrtaiulj of giore ancient elate. 



sculptured figure of the deceased, in pcMificalihus, Belmid 

^.Mkt tomb are two mnges of quaUrefoil blaiik arches ; and over it is 

— ^ most higlily wrougiit caoopy in liiree diviaioasi omaiBented witli 

.^cr-:idi peIIdat)t^», pi^rdiiud^, Uc. Tlie sides are formed hy ekgaiit 

^^=oinpartmea1s oi' caiu>pied niches bet\\een bul trusses : Archbiiihop 

J^E'eckliam dkd in Deceaiber^ 1292; and Warham iu August, 1532. 

Amoug the other meoionals iti tlib pTurt, is a murat mdoument 

^^■igainst the east wall, in memory of Dr. Alexandeh Chapman, 

bjilf length figure ol^* whom, hi his Doctors habit, ucU sculptured 

while marble, is displayed iu the centre. He was Archdeacoa 

f Stow, in Liocolu shire, aud a Prebendary of this Church : he 

lied in 162^, at tlie age of fifty-two. The pavement is partly 

-^^zromposed of very large slabs, wliich have been richly iulaid with 

^^Bnisses of Archbishops and Priests in their ponlihcal vesttuents, 

^^B_iuder splendid canopies : three of these cover the remains of the 

^^Amhbisbops Vford, Sta^ord^ and Dent, 

Id the Chapel of the Virgin^ or Dean's Chapel , six Deans of 
ChiNTch lie buried, uaujely, Ro'^crs, Foihabyt Bq^fs, Burgruie, 
'^J'timer, and Putter, The tomb of Dean Fotuerby, who died 
^^iB 16' 1^, at the age of seventy, is curiously adorned with sculps 
ti nies in full relief, of human sculJs, and boues, heaped confusedly 
each other, as if just thrown out of a charnel-house. Deah 
Ys is comnietuordted by an altar monument, on which the de- 
d is sculptured as sitting at a [able ^ in his study,' wherein, 
ays Dart, * he died suddenly, as 1 have been told,' in the year 
6^5. Prior Goldstone, the builder of this Chapel, and 
ho was also buried here, is not recorded by any menjoriaj, un- 
indeed, the whole Chapel be considered as his nLonument : 
died m li68. 

bi the south part of the west transept, among many others foi' 

iereiU persons, is a memorial for the kanied Dr. Meeic Ca* 

AUfrON, who died in Ib/l, in his seven ly-fitth \ear, having been 

Canon of lliis Cathedral during forfy-six }ears; a situation 

^C^hat had aLo been enjoyed by his tather, Dr« Isaac Cuactubou, 

.^Afibal the wrst wall is also an oval tablet of white marble, in 

I i i 4 memory 






memary of Richard Edwabds, Tjhq* Vice Admiral of the Bltie, 
who died in 1795, at the age of seventy-six. 

Tfie Chaj>el of St, Michael, which opens from this cud of the 
transept, b full of monuments, the most important of which km 
Tery large tomb, occupying the middle of the Chapel, and hsTiiig 
on it the whole length figores of Margaret HoLLAyti, thkd 
daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, and her tr^o h«»- 
faaods, John Beali fort, Earl of Somerset, and Thomas, Duke 
of Clarence, second son of Henry the Fourth. These figtires are 
of marble, finely sculptured : both the Earl and 0nke are in ar- 
mour, and have collara of SS. The Durhess \s in her robes, and 
has a ducal coronet: the sides of the tomb are oi-nameiited wWi 
coropartments of quatrefoiis, &c, in squares. Tlie Earl of So- 
merset, who had been admitted into the fratemif y of tins Conwut, 
died in April, 1410: the Duke of Clarence was slain in a fierce 
skirmish at Baugo, in France, on Easter Eve, 14i^l ; htrt his tp* 
mains being afterwards recovered by his son, John the Bastard, 
were brought to Canterbury* and iiiterred in this Cathcdm), the 
Duke having, by his Will, dated m July, 14-17, directed that his 
body should be buried at the feet of his father, Henry the Fourth: 
the Lady Margaret died in December, U40, having had this tomb 
erected in her life-lime. 

Against the north wall of this Chapel is an elaborate monuinenf, 

in commemoraliun of Lieulenanl- Colonel William Pri de, who 

was slain at the siege of Maestriclit, in Juty» 1657; aod whose 

fignre b rejire^ented in armour, with one knee on a cushion. 

Eastward from this are sevend tuoiiujuenrs of the Tkornhurst ik- 

' tnily : that to the memory of General Sir Thomas Thorn HTHSTj ^ 

Knt, displays ihe ethgies of the deceased, who was slain in the at- 

I tack on the Isle of Ilhce, in J 027 , (after serving with great bravery 

' In the Dutch, German, and Spanish wais,) and of his wife Barbara^ 

' ^ daughter of Thomas Sliirley, Esq. on the base arc Agniea of 

Vieir three cliildrcu, keeeltjig. Against tlie east wall is the mooi^ 

fluent of Miss Annk Milles, who died at the age of twenty, in 

•'December, 1714, and is repre^euted by a bust of white marble, 

in Ihe middle coin|>arlment. Below this is a large stone chesty 



iiie1cn»d id tfaetfiidmeas of the wiW^ on the top 6f which » 
iciil|iAiis«d a cross pfit^: thit is os^igited to AKCRBtsMOP Lang* 
Ton* who flfefi in the \ear J 2C8, >\*!ir it is u mtiml cenofnph, 
irnucmory of the hrave Admiral Sir Geohge Rooke, who died 
It hts {latemal seat al Monbi Morton, b 1708, ami lies buried in 
ft. Paiii*s Church, iti tlii^ city. The injicriptioii contains a summa- 
ij iK<t>uiit of the j>!inripiil actions of \m life ; antl has over it his 
dressed in n large full curled wig. Agnintt the soiitli wall 
the cenotaph of Sir James Hales, Knt, who was treasurer 
the expedition to Portu^^l in the reign of Elizabeth, and dving 
bis fetum to England, was committed to the waves: the in* 
ioiM Tfxot}\ the raeniory also of his wife and only son. 
In the south aisle of the choir are the tombs and monuments 
f the Archbishops Reykolds, Hubert Walteti, Kemp, 
ir«tford, Sodbunr'j and Meophann Those of the t)|0 forftter 
^^ up the ▼actncies below the second and thh^d wiudo\^g, eastward 
ft ora the west transept, and a?e but htlle onittmente<l : the elfigies 
of both Prelates, which lie upon ihe lomb, in poniificaUbm, wte 
h tnulilated. Tlie monuments ot' Kemp, Stratford, and Sml* 
arc all of rich architecture, and have been open to the choir, 
they are now shut out by the wainscotling. That of 
(SHOP Kemp consists of u tonif>, surrounded by a most 
il canopy, rising up to a considerable hei;;lit» in six divisions 
clustered pinnae h's -and niches, three on each side, and crowned 
aconiice, the summit of which cxiittiits shields and small angeb 
filtemate succession. Hound tlie verge uf the tomb is thi* 

Qfc jBttt I|lrt)€tent»0eimu0 in C^rijdto Bmti n Dommua S)0' 
minug Jognnts tRempt ^itnlOi&anciaci&ufi&iiae0aciQ0anttar 
I^Dmanat (I^cctrdiae (ZEpiflCopuD (SarDinaltjs, 2rc|}irpt0CQpu0 
€an(UBncn/&t0 ^iti obiit l}icc0ityntio ^jctunto tiie menisid f^^arcii 
niio Dnt ^limo ctnetiu* i^u)u«j, &c. 

The monument of Archbisitop Sn^ATpniiD, though kn 
^labontte than tlnit of Kemp, is very b^^uuttfoK 'ITiisalso consists 
►f n tomb and canopy, oruameutcd with rich pit^uacles and linials 



m sii divisions, three on each front* The sides of the tomb dis* 
play ranges of sliarp-pointed omameiital urclies^ rising from den* 
der colunms, within the alternate ones nf which, in each compart- 
ment, has been a statue. The efiigies of the Archtnsliop, wbkli 
lies on the tomb, in poniificalibus, is partly dctaced: \m head re- 
poses on a cushion^ and over it is a trefoil arched canopy, East* 
ward from this is the monument of the nnfortniiate Archbishop 
Sudbury, the design of which displays equal taucyand elegance* 
Tbe sides of the tomb are ornamented with recessed arches, ris- 
ing from ligiit shafts ; and the overhanging canopy is priucipally 
formed by a rich cluster of pinnacles, ^c. some n:kiug pyramid!- 
cally, and others crowning the upper extremities of the ribs and 

The monument or toinb of Arcubishop MfiOFHAM forms 
part of an elegant Screen, which separates this aisle from the Chik- 
pel of St, AnseUn, and consists of five pointed arcbes on each 
tide^ rising from clustered pillars, and finished by a cornice and 
battlement. Tbe tomb, which is of a shrine-hke form, occup^ 
the wJiole space between the three innermost arclies, and is itself 
pierced with three cijiquefod-headcd arclies, icceditig from tli« 
ff ont. The area at each eiitreuiily of the screen toriiis a trefoil* 
headed doorways and the spandrils over these display various 
figures ill devotional attitudes. All (he front of the screen^ to the 
ipringing of the arches, is closed by a light iron grating, Wjthiu 
the Ch»pel of St Aiiselm, under tiie great soutli window, lies bu* 
rted Archbishop Bbadwardin, whose tomb is raised but a 
small height trom tlie grouad, and Um neither inscription nor or* 

Id tlic north aisle of the Choir is the splendid monument of 
Archbishop Chicheley, and llie no less beautiful one of 
Archbishop Bourchier. The forJiter is of very elaborate design^ 
and of uncommon excellence in its sculpture. Il stands between 
the columns which diviile the choir from the north part of the 
east tranaeptf and still exhibits numerous traces of the painting 
and gilding by which it was originally adorned. On the upper 
^iih of the tomby w hich is of variegated grey marble, hcs a very 
I filia 




fine figure of the Archbishop, in full canonicals, with his hands 
laiied ta the attitude of prayej*, and his pastond staff luring on \m 
leH aliouM^r. His head rests on a cushion^ sustained b^ small 
angels, seated ; and on each ^ide bk feet is a small kueeliug figure, 
Kouud the verge of the &lab is this ijiscripLion : 

urn Qui Sitno 7. Q?cn* //\ Eesijs aH (Srroodum IPapam sa In 
9mba0iiiata tiansmiBSUis, in tiMitZit ^mtmi ptt manuji 
f juftirm Bape in ^pi£copum ^enetjenjerm condetiatud tet* 
O^tc rriam Kj^miicuis anno n. Q^cn^ ^^ ErQie in f^ac ^anaa 
^cdf£ia tn aKt^irpidcapuro poj3ttilatu0 cc a I^i^aiinc IPapa >3« 
an canBcct tranDlat: u^ qui SD&iu ^iina. Dim* Mia ^ca^«. 
apu Die 12. 
H^ Crtui? ^anctarum conmTiitrr precrturi 

^^ Qt Dtufi ip0Otum mmtiji jsihi i0iopit;ctur** 




The middle part of the tomb is open by tJiree cmqncfoil-headcd 
anrhcs on each mk ; ami wilhiu it, on the bottom sbb, tieij ano- 
tlier humaxi figure in a winding sheet, represented as completely 
emaciatad, every bone Iw^ing visible tliruugU its tliin eovering* 
This was probably uilended by Clijchelpyy who erected diismouu-' 
lueul ta his lile-tinie, to coin^ey an iiisUuctive lesson to iK>sterity, 
by shewing of how frail aiid pc^risliuble u iialure i^ the conditiou 
of luari. The verge of tlie tomb below jji thus inscribed; 

$iuyimaia ni0 qui tranirlfu^ roQO mtmmttifft 
tlu quoD cm mi|)t coniJimtlijQ qui poiOt mntitiis, 
^mm&u^^oniinUj3, pulton t9nmij0> caioDituiti' 

• t^«k4ri# 


* lltU in»cnptlDT), at welt at the following one^ arc copied fmni 
^art ^ ih<? jron railing which now surroundi the tomb, rendering ii very 
^iiHcuk to read them. 

t IT.c following transhiion of these litiei is pvea la the Biitoric^ 
4^eicriptioa of Chntt Churebi Svo. 1793. 

T«kf» passenger^ diii moral in ihy wiy ; 

Whoe'er thou art, on some not distant day, 

l^ike me thou iliiilt be duitj to worma i loathiome prty# 

i$4 ^^^^^r 

The sid<»5 of this tnotittni6)t are of a polygon form^ the anglH IsSe- 
inp conif>0£^ by ^<1uatcd buttresses ; each face is divided into 
three compartments, the two uppermost of which are elegant ca- 
nopied ntchf s, and aljove them is a rich cornice. Over the whole 
is mi onuimetital double canopy, m the middle of which are the 
arms of Chicheley, impalbg the See of Canterbury. The tiicUes 
at the sides contain small statues in white marble, of the twelve 
Aposllesy Time, Death, &c. most of them in good preservatioo. 

The monument of Archbishop BouacuiEE is singular firom 
being partly of breccia, and partly of fine iree-stone. The tomb, 
which is of the former substance, is large and high, and is finely 
sculptured with quatrefoils in squares, small blank arches^ and 
niches with rich canopies. Tl^e pinnacles of tl>e small buttresaes, 
which separate the niches, have been adorned witli beautiful mi- 
nute heads of beasts, &c, some of which still remain, but the 
others are destroyed. Over tliis is a highly enriched and light 
canopy^ the vaulting being of elegant interhcetl work, and the 
sides of graduated buttresses, connected with divisions of canopied 
niches* On the top of the canopy is a gallery, or Chapel, indosed 
by a bcautiftd scrceu-work of pierced arches, and rich niches, se- 
parated by small buttresses, and finished by a cornice, surmounted 
by trefoil ornaments. The front ledge of the tomb is inscribed at 
follows in one line inlaid with brass: 

+ H?ic jaccr, latticn^iMr. in, rpbparrret. DnjB# Dim* 
^^mae ^ouigc^tcr auoXnn ftacto0ce\ Eomanc*. ficlii% if 
%>ii._€imtU in, <3r|>frmij5^|)flbH', eTatHhtalie. Si^ficpis* |WJf 
rtcttf* q'oMjc j:n'* tiir_ mC0\ ^arcii anno tinl ^tUm^ 
€€€€'' Ijrx;ct)t'' €um &if i?pi(ietui mm dnmi^ + 

Beneath the arches surrounding the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, 
the monuments of Henry THE Fourth, and his Queen, 
lOAN of Nuvarre; Edward, the Black Prince; Odo Colignie; i 
ardinal Cbastillion ; and Dean Wootnn; and the cenotaph of Ardi- 
bishop Courlcney. Henry, and his Queen, liabited in their ro)al 
obes, and crowned, are represented by recumbent effigies lying on 
^ large tomb, enriched with blank arches, towered niches, pinnacled 




buttresses, and other ornaments. Tliis lamb has been greatly dama- 
gied; the hancts of the Queea are broken 00^^ and ttie finely sculp-^ 
tared canopies, that sunnounted the heads of bolli fignres, are now 
lyin;^ in pieces. Henry die<l iu March, 1413; and Joan of Navarre, 
who was lib second Queen, in July, 14*37. The north wall, unme- 
diatel^ opposite to tliis monument, o\ien& into an elegant tittle Cha* 
pd, erected «oon af^er Uie death of Henry, agreeable to tlie di«- 
rections of his will, as a Chantry Chapel for two priests to pray for 
the repo^ ot his &ouL The roof is iinely sculptured witli trefoils in 
drcliei, and other ornaments. 

The tomb of EdwajiJ), ilw Black Prince, stands beneath tl*e 
opposite arch to that of Henry and hi^ Queen, and on it lies a 
feiy fitie wbole*lengtli brass figure of tlie Prince, in armoiir» witlt. 
a liood of mail and a scull*<ap, c>ncircled with a coronet, wliidi 
has been once studded with jewels, but only the collets now rc^ 
main* The arms of the Prince are raised in the attitude of piayef > 
I his b^d is supported by a lielnict, having a lion for the crest, and 
^ his feet rest on a lion couchanL The tomb is surroutided by 
' shields of arms in coropartnieuts, displaying^ in alternate succe»t 
-^otiy old France and England, quarterly, with a iile of three pouits j 
\ :^ttid three ostrich fcatfjers: over the former arms is the word 
f ^t^tttnnont* and over tlie latter, the motto, Ich dicn. The verge of 
k -^the upper part of tlie tomb is inlaid with fillets of brass, containing 
^^01 kmg inscription in old French, botli in prose and verse : the foi- 
ls as follows : 

€f ei0t it /^obte Pnnce ^on0t Qltitoart} aiimr^ fift? Hu tirs 
f^oblr IRoE ^Disarti ^ict0: IPrincr t)*^(|uicane 6 lie ^alrj9» 
0UC t»c ^orntoa^lU ^ Count tir Cretir Qi morust, rn [a Uati 
Uf la ^dnitl qu' reroit ie Wii jour tit Juin, Tan Br oratr mil 
fxoU) cmtf 0fptantf 0tj9imr Lalmc Hc <ii« Oieu ett meter Smrn.* 

»»i»*^»u>^u^* Above 


That part of ihe inscription which i« in verse, lias been thus iranslated ; 

^ ^M Thoe'er thou be that pa*«cth by, Little did I think on death, 

"^^fVherc ihii corpse inicir*d doiti lie. Long as I «ijoy*d my breith. 

"* ' h b ' ' ' 

fldcnuind what I shall tay, 
n at thii time, speak I may. 
ticti at thou art, lucb %v3i I ; 
uch u t iiDi »h>U tkoii b<u 

Great richo here I did possess. 
Whereof I made great noblencst. 
I had gold, AiLvcr, wardrobes, hnd, 
Gicki ircisurc?, horses, houtci g;>od. 





took place in \2i\, nnd tiiar of Tiieabald in liSo, .when Hie or^ 
namental st^Ic was le<s ftrevalenU 

On tliG norib siiile of Bet'ii^t*s Crown, wttliin an iron railing* h^ 
pkin tomb, erected in memory of Caeii>inal Pole, who wa^, 
buried iicre in 1558, and on wbich were formerly the words 
Depositum Cardimlts PoU, He was the last of the Arcbbishop^ 
that has been interred in this Cathednil, m 

The few niontmients rf miiining in the Crypt, are those of Arch- 
bishop Morton, Laily Mohun, and Isabel, Countess of Atbol; but 
as various other persons Imve been buried here, it u jnthMe that 
some mciuorials have been destroyed** Tlie monuitieiiHfl^^Cil^ m 
BTSiiop Morton has been greatly mutilated, but is stilf Afoan^ I 
and exhibits many traces of its ibrmer degaace. It occupies tbe 
whole space benealli one of die arches of the vaulting, neiu- the 
Chapel of the Virgiji, so ilia t the upj>er ^lart takes a circular form, 
and i^oes round the whole archivaUlt, On the tonib^ in the centre, 
lies the eili^io<< of tlie Ardibishop, with a pastoral cross resting on 
bis rif^hl shoulder, and ou each side of him, three small figures, 
kneeling, in attitudes of prayer. Over his Jicad has been ait ele- 
gant can(»py; and, in divisions going round the sides of the arch, 
aeveiTil episro|ml and other figures, together witli the Cardioafft 
cap, I he rose and crown, portcullis, &c* and among them the rebut 
of his name, beins; a barrel or ton^ with the letters MOli. The 
body of this Prelate, however, was not buried under his tomb, but 
beneath a Inr^e ^lub (on which Has his figure in brass in pontifical 
tikis J in the middle of the west end of the Chapel of tlie Viiigiai» 
agreeably to hiis \\'ill, which directed that bis remains sboitld be 
interred * Coram imap^ bcuthHmc5 Virgiitit Maria: in CryptUJi 



** Lelatid ^ys, in the tWik vol'j*nc of his [tineniryi • ther lyctb x ■ 
Inihops buried in the cry pees*' 

ji. +♦«' Over hta si<»ne crfEn, or lepulchre," tayi Wood, Athettw Oxoit. 
VfiK L p. 43, '* which was but just deposUcd in the ground, was a nur* 
ble-itone, laid even with the swrfnce of the pavement i which srnne be- 
ing afterwards cracked^ and broken, several parts of bU body, wrapped 



The monument of Joane de Burgherst, Lady Molmn« 
wbich is just without the Cliapel of the Virgin, on the south side» 
near the east end, was erected at her own cont dtirbg her life- 
time, but b now greatly mutilated. Her effigies lies upon a tomb 
beneath a canopy of cinquefoil arche^i, and triangular pyramids, 
lisiag from heavy buttresses: her head rests on a pihow, or 
cushion, supported by small angels. On the edge of the upper slab 
was this sentence, now almost obliterated : 

90ifc Dim pticf pst I'ame J<i^mt TBuxtxm&t^ts que fut Dameisr S^o^n. 

She died in the reign of Richard the Second, having given 350 
m^rks sterling to the Prior aud Convent of Christ Church, for the 
pvipMe of ii)»tituting a perpetual Chantry, and to have her tomb 
kept in decent repair. With the money so given, the Manor of 
Selgiave was purchased^ and amortized to the Monks; but though 
thb manor is still in possession of the Dean and Chapter,* the 
XDonameiit has been long neglected. 

The tomb of ISiiBEL, Countess of Atliol, is ornamented at the 
^des wiOl shields of arms iti (juatrefoils, within s^juare compart* 
soents; and on the top is the effigies of tJie Countess, much de* 
^ficed: slie was the daughter of Richard de Chilhani, natural son 

Vol, Vll. April, iBOf, K k k of 

mip in cear-cloatht, were taken away by cerlab rude atacl barbarous pea* 

pie* Al length the head being only in a manner remaining in the laid 

« too e -coffin, 'twai beg'd out of a pious mind (purposely to save it) of 

/]>r. Sheldon, Archbiihop of Canterbury, in J 670, by that truly noble and 

^ezterouf Ralph Sheldon, of Beoly, in Worcestershire, Etquire, who 

enteeming it as a choice reliquei provided a leaden box to preserve it 

igritti itt c««r-doaihs about it, and with great devotion kept it till hii 

dTing day, an. 1 684. Afterwardi that choice rdique^ with very matij 

^ taritict which he in hii life*tiine had gathered together, camej by vir- 

Itie of hii kit Will, into the hands of hii uncle'i daughter, named 

Frances Sheldon, lomctime one of the Maids of Honour to Katherine, 

liie royal contort of King Charlet the Second.'* 

• lUjted'i Kent, VoL XI. p. 4ie, (note,) 8^ow Edit, 



of King John * and was first married to David Strabalgi, Eari 
Atliol, and afterwards to Alexander Biiliol, She died at Cbilliani^^ . 
in February, lQ9Q,f 

Besides the many persons for whom nicmortals are rentaioing i 
this €athedra)« numerous others, of eminent rank and fiiiiitWi bav€ 
been interred here, though their places of sepulture are for ihc 
most part unknown^ Aniong these were the Archhuf^ops Cutb^j 
bert,* Brcgw)!),* Athelard/ Wultrcd,* Fleologild, Ceolnoth, AtbeU M I 
red, Plegmund/ Atheim,* Wlfelm,* Odo, Dnnstan, ^thelgar,^ 
Siricius, Elfric, Alphage, Livingits, Agelnoth, Eadsin, Latifn 
Anselm, Ralph, Corboil, Richard, Winchelsey, and Arundel.t 

Tlie body of Sl Dtinstan, which U said, by Oervase, to ba? 
been first buned to the under-croft, was translated by Laiifranc 
into the choir, and there entombed wilhin a new slirine, or allar^ — jj 
hb memory being highly venerated, particulurly tK'fore tbe assftsai-^^H 
nation of Becket. The Monks ot Glastonbury, however, who 
wished to share in the beueiits which liis relic* produced, began 
boldly to assert, in the reign of Henry the Seventh, tbat 
body had been translated to their Church about tbe year 101 i 
and their atHnnations received so much credit, that tbe 
iReot of Clirist Church thought it expedient to remove 
doubt of the real ftict, by having the altar re-opened ; and 
was accordingly done on the twentieth of April, 1508. Tbe 
remains of the Saitit were then found, with a plate of lead on hk 

f •* Sir Richard the Fiti-Roy of wiiom we tpak by foe 
Gentilman he wai iviough though he wer la»t ibor: 
For ihe Erlts doiighter of Warren his good modir was 
And hif fadir Kyng John, iliat bygac him a pcrchai:**— 
Hist, of Rob. of Gloceitert 

f Tlic most intereiiing monuments in thi» Csibedral, are engnred 
in Cough's Sepulchral Monuments, and also in Dart's Canterbury* 

J Those marked with a star were first buried in a Chapel dedicated 
to St, John Baptiit, near the cast end of the Cathedral, but were aficr — 
wards removed into the latter. 



breast, inscribed with the words, Hic BEguiESCiT Sanctus 


The Library, Chapter House, and Cloisters, arc all counected 
with the Callicdral on the north side* The Library h a handiionie 
foomt or gallery, erected on tbe ancient walls of the Prior s Chapel, 
the space beneath being left opea, as a passage to the Church and 
Clotsteni. Ttiis contains a good coUection of books, and some valua- 
ble manuscripts; together with a welWhcsen selection of Greek and 
coins. Here is also a curious octagon Table of black 
inlaid with the story of Orpheus playing to tlie Beasts in 
the centre, and having round it a repre^ntation of different modes 
♦f bunting. Tlie passage w hich leads from the north transept to- 
K k k 2 wards 

* An accrrunt uf this fcrutiny li preserved among the archlvei of 

tfaii Church, and hat been copied by Somner, in hit Appendix^ No. 

XXV 111. From thi» it appears, that ' the enquiry was begun in the 

fTetitng, after the Church doon were ihut^ and before day-light, a 

wooden chettj levcn feet long, and alKiut eighteen inches broad^ covered 

with lead ioiide and out, and itrongly guarded with iron bandi, aD4 

many nails immer^d in the itone- work, wai dlicovercdj and of such 

bulk and weight, though adidiiional asiiitance was procured, that it was 

mot ttU the nett night removed above the sione-work. When they had 

with much difficulty forced open ihii^ they found a leaden coffin^ of ele- 

fiDt workmanthipi containing another, of lead tikewise, appearing as if 

decayed, in which the Archblwhop had heen^ ai wai supposed^ at firtt 

buried : within these two coffins, they found a small teaden plato 

Jyisi^ upon the breast, inscribed with these words in Roman characten^ 

^ic rtquiticU Sanctui Dumtanut Archiepiscopus ; and under that a 

linen cloih, clean and entire, spread over the body, which was clothed 

in th^ pomi&cal habit, much of which had perished through age; and 

tkm the wbote having been inspectedj the crown of the head was de- 

irered to tbe Prior to be placed among the relict of th« Churchy and 

le remainder was immediately closed up again with great strength^ 

t iliii tight, there were present the greater part of the Convt-nt j the 

rcbbishop's Domestic Chaplainij Dr, 1 hornton, Prior of Dover j the 

■bbishop's Suffragan; Dr, Cuthben Tunstall, his Chancellor j and 

era! other* ; besides Public Notariei, who were called in to awist at 

whole of lU* 

trt KENT. 

wards the entrance of tlie Library, termmatcs in a circular butldingp 

known, says Mr. (jostling, * by the name of Bcil Jesus to tliis dsiy.* 
TFiis appellation h trdditionaHy slated to have been given to it 
from the dome being built in the exact model of a large bell, that 
IS said to have been cast at Rome, and lost at sea when on its way 
lo England- The floor below tliw dome is now occupied by the 
Font, which was removed hither from the nave m the year 1787; 
and wliich was originally the gift of Dr, Warner, Bishop of E«^ 
Chester, and Prebendary of this Church in the time of Charles the 
First. The lower part of this building, which is far more ancient 
than the superstnicture, h of Norman archittfcture, and was pn>* 
bably built as a Baptistery, It seems origmally to have formed a 
kind of open vault, about seventeen feel m diameter, tlic roof 
being snpi^orted by a cluster of pillars, wilh strong diverging ribs, 
communicating wilh eight tolumus, that apfiear to have composed 
the outward circle ; the intercolunmialions of which are now walled 
up, and the sides supported by buttresses. Tlie arches arc scmi- 
circtilar, and have been decorated wilh zigzag mouldings j and the 
capitals and plinths of some of the columns are also omameoted 
by sculptures. 

Tlie Chapier House h a spacious and elegant apartment, open* 
ing from the east side of the Cloisters^ and measuring ninety-two 
feet long, thirty-seven broad, and fifty-four high. It was built by 
Prior Chilleuden, about the year 1400, and his name may still be -^ 
seen in tlie stone work of the great west window: the Archbishops ^^ 
Courleney and Arundel, are both stated to have assisted in defray* ^^f 
ing the expense by their benefiictions; and their arms, io stained -^^ 
glass, appear in the windows. At the sides are the stone seats of ~^M^'^ 
the Monks; and above them a surrounding range of trefoil-headed ^Kd 
arches, with Gothic roses in the spandrils: these arches are sepa- -^d 
rated by small sliatls of Petworth marble ; and over tfiem runs a J**! 
cornice and battlement. Above this battlement, on the north and 
sonth sides, are large and ornamental arches, divided by imiUions 
into diflerent compartments : the windows at the east and west 
ends, are large and hand^me« The roof is of timber, curiously ^*r 
framed in large squares; and these again are filled by small pan* ^"^ 





Bcls, which have been omaraented by gilding, shields of arms, 
fowersy &c. The Dean's Ctiair, which forms the midiOe stall at 
i weat end, is canopied. The pavement is partly fonncd by 
^stones and slabs of imineiise sixe; most of whicli were re- 
moved from the nave, and have beeti richly in bid with brasses: 
; of titc slabs is upwards of twelve feet in length, and four in 
adtli. This bmhJing is generally called the Sermon-House, 
1 its having been fitted up for preacliing in, shortly after tlie 
Dbsolution, and to this use it continued to be appropriated during 
I long period* The pulpit, pews, and galleries, were taken away 
[ few years ago^ when the whole interior of the building was re^ 
paired at the expense of the Dean and Chapter, 

The Cloisters form a noble quadrangle, inclosing a large area^ 
to which they open by eight elegant arches, or windows, on each 
nde ; these were onginally glazed, but all the glazing has been long 
destroyed: each of them is divided by mul lions into four h^^hta, 
with quatrefoils and crockets above. The vaulting of the roof is 
mCMl beautifully omamenled by ramifications, and the points of 
tntersection are covered with small shields, displacing the arms of 
the prbcipal nobility and gentry of Kent, as well as of many otlier 
persons; all of whom are supposed to have been benefactors to 
thb Church: the number of the^ shields is upwards of 680, The 
ianer walls of the Cloisters are mostly of more ancient date thau 
the roof, and other parts, which were erected by Prior ChilJendeiip 
about the same period as the nave and Chapter House were rc- 
buOt: the south side b recorded to have been erected under the 
Will of Archbishop Courteney, at the charge of 300l, Ag:iinst 
the nortli wall has been a range of stalls, separated from each 
other by small pillars, supporting arches; most of which still re- 
maio. One of the door-wajs m the east wall, now walled up, 
which opened beneath the Greater Dormitory, is of Normaii archi- 
tecttire: the entrance door-way from this side into the Cathedral, 
bis been very tinely ornamented. At the west end of the south side 
k another arched entrance, which led towards the Archbishop'i 
Psklace^ and was formerly the principal avenue to the respective 

K k k 3 offices 

17* MKT. 

ptBcu of the Honaitefy: a door-way on the west side opened hUft 
the Cellarer^s Lodgings.* 

The Prccincfs of this Cathedral and Monastery occupied a Teiy 
consideiable area, the entire drcomftrenoe of which is neariy three 
quarters of a mfle.f This spact was enhuged from time to time; 
tMit the greater portion was inclosed hy Archhishop Lanfiranc wkll 
a stone wall, part irf* which stiU remains. It was then divided into 
three courts, called the Court of the Church; the Court of thft 
Convent; and die Court of the Archbishop: and this dhrisioa ex- 
isted till the period of the Dissolution. * On the north side of thft 
Cathedral was the Court of the Priovyf or Convent, e n compassed 
with the buildings, lodgings, and offices of the Prior and the 
Monks, now called the Green Court, and Brick Passage. A4)<Nn- 
mg to this Court, north-westward, was the Almoniy, now called the 
Mint-Yard. Onthevmtpart was the Court of the Palace, or of the 
Archbishop, where hisPahcewas; and on the south sideof theCathe* 
dral was the Court of the Church, now called the Churcb-yardt wl 


* ' The Cellarer was one of the four great officen of the Monassecy« 
^ch of whom had separate lodgings, or apartments, to themselves with* 
ia the precincts : these were the Cellarer, the Sacrist, the Chamberlain^ 
and the Treasurer. When Henry the Eighth new founded this Church, 
he restored ail the site of the late dissolved Monastery to the Dean and 
Chapter, excepting the Cellarer*s Lodgings, and the Almonry, sbce 
called the Mint- Yard, which he reserved to himself. The former lodg- 
ings were afterwards, through Cardinal Pole's influence, annexed to the 
Archiepiscopal Palace, to which the site of them still belongs; but tho 
building itself was pulled down some years ago. The name, arms, and 
rebus, of Richard Dering, Monk and Cellarer of this Church, who suf* 
ferred death in Henry the Eighth's reign, for being an accomplice with 
Elizabeth Barton, the Holy Maid of Kent, were formerly in the win* 
dows of these lodgings.' Hasted's Kent, Vol. XL p. 513, (note.) 

t The present boundaries of the precincts are on the east and north 
•ides formed by the city wall ; on the south side by Burgate Street ; 
^pd on the west side by Palace Street^ and the way leading from it by 
the Borough of Staple*gate, along by the Mint- Yard to Northgate« 



itth wm Ibe Mtwvd and inward cemet^iy ; to l)ie eastmurd of 

^iiidi was the Convent garden, now called ibe Oalu/ 

After tht Dissobtbii, Jind the re establish inent of tlie Catliedrai 

a i>eau and Chapter, the buildings of die Priory were allot- 

the Dean and Prebeodariea, and convertett iiito dwelU 

tor tbetr use, with the exeeption of the priiicrpal 0Qrfnitor^» 

Bcleelory, the Convent, the Kitchen, the Long Hall in the 

of the Sub Pnor, and some other edihccs, tliat were 

polled down. The Priors Lodgings, which occupied the wbok 

aide of what is now called the Green Courts with their conli- 

ofikes, were mostly given to the Dean, aiid still form ttia 

■ile of the present Deanery* The immediate apartments of iht 

Flwr w«n; destiojed by tire about the year 1570, when the pre- 

«nt difdliii^ was erected by Dean Godwyn ; but the adjacent 

bntldiiigs dupUry various marks of their antiquity. la the Deanery 

il m aemi of portraits of all tlie Deans of Canterbury, except 

dglkmby, who was nominated by Charles the First during the Civil 

Wani, but was never installed, through the calaniitous circunutaiH 

m of the times. 

Tbe buildtogs surrounding the Green Court, which aie princi. 
pally occupied by the Prebeudaries, and otlier persons belonging 
to the Cathedral, e^ihihit many curious specimens of ancient archi* 
lecture ; but the enact times at which they were erected, seem 
extremely di&ult to ascertain. On the north side were the 
Omnarys Brew-house, and Bake-house: the latter is now the 
luse of the Deanery, and a part of it contains the Water^ 
* wherein is a cistern furnishing ahnost the whole precinct 
with exccHent water, by pipes laid to the houses, and furnished 
itself by prpes from springs about a mile off :^ tliisi cistern was 
placed in its present situation towards the beginning of tbe last 
centuryp it having before been connected with a square conduit 
■Cmding in the court-yard^ Westward from this was a structure 
called tbe Dean's Great Hall, which Gostling inentious on tradi- 
tlofial authority, to have been * dciuolishcd by ihe zealous Puri- 
for being profaned by the King s Scholars haviug acted plays 



876 icmmf. 

The JDoffitci Hoipdiem, or Sfrafi;ger^ 
ei Camera Haspkum, or the HM and Chamber <if the Gmui$^ it 
generally supposed to be the ancient pile near the northern extre- 
mity of the Ghieen Court, a part of which is novr used as the 
Registrar's Office. Tbb buildbg, in the |dan of the Monastery of 
Christ Churchy drawn by the MonkEadwyn, appears nnder the q>- 
pellation of Aula Nova; and that called the Domus HospUtem, u 
there maiked as* situated on the west side of the court, and neaily 
aii(|oining to the Cellarium. It may, therefore, be questioiwd, whe- 
ther the name Domus HospUum has not been given to-the wroo^ 
building; particularly as the Aula Nova, or New Hall of Eadwyn^ 
is, in other records of this Church quoted by Somner, called 
* North Hall,' from its situation on the north side of the Priory 
Court; and the ' Great Hall, near the gate of the court, towards 
Ae 80uth.'t 

It must be remembered, however, that Somner, whose antho- 
rity has been implicitly followed by succeedbg vrriters, with the 
exception, perhaps, of Gostling^ is decidedly in iavor of the North 
Hall bemg the building appropriated for the use of Pilgrims and 
Strangers;} though more than one drcumstance, which he i 

• fiattelyS Somner^ P. I. p. 111. Notes. 

t ' Magna Aulajuxtaporiam curia versus AquiUmemf 

X Gottling, in a Note attached to the twenty-tecond Chapter of his 
Walk, says, that ** the Stranger*! Hall is placed here by Somne|r, but 
improperly : had he attended to the chaner of Henry the Sixth, Ibr 
holding a Court, which he quotes, he would have seen the use and 
name.**— Yet this gentleman, in his text, has himself fully adopted 
Somner's opinion, and describes the ' Aula Nova, or North Hall,* as 
the real ' Domus Hospitum, or Stranger*! Hall.* 

§ " Before the Dissolution,** says Somner, *' there was,. St by St. 

Benedict's rule there ought to be, * hospitality kept, and entertainment 
afibrded and allowed, both at bed and board, unto toch Strangen» 
Travellen^ and Pilgrims especially, as, resorting to the Monastery, 
ihouJd crate i< ^^ ^hc Monks; and consequently there was a pbce in 




itrottgW to luilitate against his opunoii, when cotisidercfl w 

i^rcoce to Ead^vyn s drawing. What he has ititimateti, of si poit 

of tJie edtfice, is, indeed, strictly appiioiMe to iJic whole ; that is, 

(bat It was used by * the Steward of the Liberties for tlie keeping of 

Ut Courts,' as appears from the following words, extracted from a 

darter granted by Henry tlje Sixth : ** Know ye, that wc, con4- 

doiog that the Prior and Couvent of the Cliurch, and their prede- 

conrs, have been wont, time out of raind^ to hold a Court at the 

North Halit within the precincts of the said Church, or Priory, 

bdofe the Baili£& for the time being, from three weeks to Uiree 

mdoy which Court was called High Court, and in the same 

Cmirl to holdr hear, and determine pleas/* &c. This Court, 

cootkues Soniner, ** was first set up willi the Archbishop s license 

manjr ages since." 

From the alterations that haTe taken plnce^ it is almost iinpo»* 
sible to ascertain the original slate of this structure : that it was • 
Norman fabric, its remains stiiBciently demonstrate* The Hall was 
very large and lo% apartment, raised on a strong vaulting, 
'iopported by scnucirctdar arches: its length was about 150 feer, 
ind its breadth forty. It was <hvided into two uneijual parts, by 
m range of Norman columns and arches, coutinueil along its whole 
ki^gth, and still ^Landing in lluit part of tlie Hull which has been 
^jyfeicd to remain ; one end, to an extent of between fifty and 
^■bUy feet, having been pulled down about the year 1730. The 
entrance, communicating with the Hall siair-case, tliough much 
Altered irom ils origbui state, is extiemely curious ; it is formed 
by four Large circular colunms, with iluted capitals, standing in % 
iquaxe, and supporting sen^icircular arches, highly enriched with 
Nommn mouldings ; the lower parts of tJie oolunms have been cut 
away. The front, or south side, of the staircase, exhibits an 
open baliustrade of slender pillars, sustaining small arches, of irre- 
gular widtiis J but all comi>osed of segtueuts of circles. The capi- 

tbe Monastery let apart for that purpose: thii place of receipt they 
called ihe Hall and Chamber fur the recepuon and CDtcnainment of 
Straogen/ Now I am persuaded, the prr^ieoc butldiog was that ' Hail 
and Chamber* for Straogcn/* Battdti's Edit. P. I. p. 1 U, 



tals are larj^, and variously sculptured ; uod above the arches b a 
larige of zig-zag mouklirig ; tlie iliafb, according to Grose, were 
** formerly nchly adorned, but, by order of one of the DeanAp 
were cliifJiK-d pliim:''* oo the opposite side lias been a simiJar kind 
of bii!lustnidey which is now walled iip» Tliis stair-case is proba- 
bly the only specimen of its kind that remains standing in any part 
of the kingdom. 

Under one of the arches on which part of this Hall stood, has 
1>cen made a low dark passage, communicating with the smaU court, 
called the Mini*Yard^ where formerly wm the Alntonry, or Amhryt 
of the Convent, " where tlic poor were daily fed with the remains 
of such fare as came from the Refectory, and other tables kept 
within the Monastery, agreeably to the private statutes made for 
the government of this Church by Archbishop Wiuchelsey, wliieb 
say, * Ijtt all the fragments and rehcks of meat and drink, left at 
the tables of the Refectory', of the Prior's Lodgings, of tlie Master 
of the Inlimiary, and of the Stmngefs Hall, be gathered together 
into dii^lies or vessels tit for thiit pur}K>se, and be carried all of 
them to ttie Almonry, and there be disposed of to no other use 
but of pnre alms only/ *'-^ These provisions were distributed to 
the poor at a gate opening on the soiilh side of the court, whicli 
has been lately closed up. 

Within I he precincts of the Altnonry, towards the south, tltt 
Prior Henry de Ea stria, ttiumled a Chiintry, or Chapel, for sii 
Priests, in the eleventh of E^lward the Second : this, with the con- 
tiguous bnildings, bus been convi*rted into apartments for the u^ 
of the * Grammar School/ founded by Henry llie Eightli for aa 
upper and under Master, and iifty Scholars. TliiJi School, culled 
the King's School^ from its founder, is under the patronage of llie 
Dean and Chapter, to whom tiit Mint-yard; was given for its sup- 

^ Aniiquiiiei; Preface, p. 113. 

t Baitely'i Sontner, P. L p. il2. 

} This appellation wti given to the Almonry, through Henry I he 
Eighth having (st;)l»Hshcd a Mint here snon iifter the Djuolutlon, which 
0uni contiautftl iief^iill kte m the reign u( ElLzabeth. 




P^ N Afdibiahap Pole, who procured a graot of tbe premiaei 

^ that ptifpose from Queen Mary. Various gifls liave mict baes 

basloiv«fi for the benefit of this School ; and several exhibitioiia t# thft 

l^nifiersrties are amtiiaUjf made through its respective endovmicDta* 

^W adiolars eootinue ou tkus foundation live years, and each baa 

ft amall anuudl stipend : mauy eminent persons have received the 

^tlnnetas of their education here; among Uicin niay be euunie^ 

^^ftted the celebrated Dr. William Harvey, aud tlie late Edwardf 

I^Ord Thurlow. 

The Porta Curie of EadwyuV drawing is still staotliiig^ and 
L tbe north -weiftt entrance into the Grt*eu Couvt : this was the 
i gate to the Priory, and h a lol^ fabric of Nonnau aicbi- 
^sdore, most probmbly of the tiiuc of Laniranc. 

The Archhukop*M Palace and Gardens adjoined to the weal 
^de of the Priory Court, aiid anciently composed the site of tbe 
I^bIbi I of Kin£; Bibelbart, which tfiat Munardi bestowed on Augus- 
l^ie in |>erpetuity, at a teat for himself and his successors. Here 
Itie Arcbbisliops and tbe Monks continued to live together in one 
1M the time of Archbishop Lanfranc, who rebuilt the 
> Mm a aepamte habitation for hiin^ielt*; hut whether from a 
|Hiiid|i)e of caprice, or from real necessity, the greater part was 
lagpiln lebutit by the Arclibishop Hubert Walter^ about 120yeiffi 
^ifcerwards. Tlus Prelate laid the toundarion of the great and 
gtalely Hall, which liis successors completed at a vast expense, and 
ivluch became taiuous from the many splendid and Ro^al enteiw 
taioroents tiiat were given here on diHerent occasiious. In Septem- 
ber, 1299* the nuptial feast of Edward the First, and Marg^iret, 
isler to the King of France, who were married in the Martyrdom, 
ar north part of the west transept, was kept in this Hall with great 
magtiificetice, most of the nobihty of botli nations being present. 
Tbe sumptuous eutertaimneiits given by diliercnt Archbishops, on 
their lespective tnthroaizadons, and of which even Kings themselvea 
I Occasionally partook, were also given in this Halt. The noble 
Icist given by Archbishop Warhatn has been iVequt^ntly mentioned 
in history, and was of such mHgnitude, that Parker, io his Anti(|ui- 
ties of the British Church, declares^ he was ' un^villiug to relate 


Ae nimiber of guests and dishes, lest he dioiild report what cooMii 
not be believed.** In the time of thb Prelate also, in the year ^ 
1520, the sumptuous ball and supper given by Henry the Eigbtfat 
to the newly-elected Emperor, Charles the Fifth, and his mother, 
the Queen of Arragoo, was celebrated here on one of the nights 
of the Whitsun week. 

About the year 1543, the Palace suffered greatly by fire; and it 
qipears to have continued in a* dilapidated stale till the beginning 
of the reign of Elizabeth, when it was repaired by Archbishop 
Parker, who, in the year 1573, entertained that Princess here on 
one of her Progresses through thb county. After the death rf 
Charles the First, and the abolition of the Church government bj 
the Parliament, the whole of these premises were sold; and most 
part of the Great Hall, and other principal buildings, were pulled 
down for the sake of tlie materiab : the remainder of the Palace was 
converted into dwelling houses. At the Restoration, the entire de- 
mesne reverted to the Archbbhopric; but the buildings being found 
incapable of repair, the whole site and precincts of the Palace were 
afterwards demised on a lease for thirty years; and in thb manner 
the premises are still held, the lease bemg usuaUy renewed every 
ten years. Part of the site is now occupied by a handsome mo* 
dem dwelliug: m two other houses, that have been fitted up from 
the remains of the Palace, are some walls of great age. " The 
ancient wall which surrounded these precincts, b still in great part 
remaining on the west and north sides, and was more so till withiQ 
these few years: it b built of rubble-stone and flint, of great height 
and thickness, and seems, by its appearance, to be part of that 
originally erected by Archbishop Lanfranc. Nearly in the middle 
of the west side is a large handsome Gateway^ built of brick, with 
stone ornaments, by Archbbhop Parker; thb was the principal en* 
trance of the Palace from Palace Street." The mhabitants of th« 
precincts are governed by ofiicers chosen among tliemselves, and 
maintain their own poor by a rate occasionally levied. 


^ The particulars of this feast have been printed in Battely*s Som- 
ner, P. II. Appendix, No. X. c, d : and still more particularly in Le- 
knd*s Collectanea, VoL lY. p. Id. 



^1 a sItoH citstaoee from the Pkdace oorthward, b a small ili»- 

^^"icl called the Borou*;h of Siable-Gaie, or Siaplc-Gate, Tbiv 

^'^du^ vtiUiiu the boundaries of the city, has distinct privilege^^ 

*«icl » genemlly considered as the place where Augustine and his 

*^*^«direu wefc first sealed when they were admitted inlo Canter* 

«taiy by King Eiheibtit* At that time* »y» Thorn, ** il was an 

^lutory for the King's family, ivbo tliere adored and sacriticed to 

Utcir gods; but the King, desirous of enfranchiwig this spot, and 

V^ exempt it from every exactiooy granted that the inhabitants 

^l^ould not answer to the citizens in any tallages or assessnienis, or 

^^>n tribute any sobsidy to them, but be subject to the Arclibt^hop 

all things; and to enjoy, in like manner as his Palace, * uncon- 

liberty, and tlie privilege of being a sanctuary » and place 

' refuge, far criminals, even at\er they were indicted, should Ihey 

> this place of Stable>gate, where they should enjoy tlie 

privilege equally as in a Church/ Tlic hou^s in this bo- 

tougb are cliieily inhabited by the lower classes, who resort hither 

for tbe sake of the greater hberty which they enjoy, than whea 

Living under the immediate controul of the city otHcers. 

The principal entmnce to the Cathedrdl precincts is on the south 
tide, under CBHtSTCMrRCuOATE, which stands nearly oppo^ 
«tc to Mercery Lane. This fabric was built by Prior Goldstoue, 
m the year 1517^ as appears from an inscription now scarcely legi* 
ble, which is continued along a band, or cornice, crossing tlie 
nhole gate above the hirger arch; the inscnpliou was as follows: 


gate has been extremely elegant, au^ is still very interestingy 
though greatly discolored by time, and partly defaced 1h rough 
wantofiness* The sides are oct;igona], and were formerly lijiished 
^bovt the roof by elegant turrets of the same form ; but these be* 
coming ruinous, have been taken down as low as the battlements* 
The lower part is formed by two arches; a larger one for car- 
nage, and a smaller for foot passengers. The gates, which are of 
wood, are curiously carved ; and, among other onianieuts, display 
ihc arms of the See of Canterbury, and of Archbishop Juxon, iq 


whose Hnie they were set up; the former ones having been d^ 
Btroyed during the rule of ihe Independents, In tiie spandrils of 
the larger arch are the artm of thbSee^ impaling Warham ; and the 
same arms, impaling Beckef . In the space over the smaller arch 
are the arms of Prior Goldstone; and above, at the sides, the anna 
of the Priory of Christ Church, and of the See of Canterbury, im- 
paling Morton « In the compartment above the arches, are varioai 
diields, displaying the cognizances of ilenry the Seventh, aikd the 
amis of some of ihe nobility and gentry of liia titne: tmoog them 
«re those ofGuldeford, Scott, Fineux, Howard, Ncvil^ and Poy- 
niogs. Over these, in the centre, is a large canopied iiichc, IJI 
which stood a statite of Our Saviour: this statue is s^iid to have 
been shot at, and destroyed, by the soldiers of the Partiameiitary 
army. On each side of tliis, between smaller niches, are the win* 
dows which open to the first 6oor; ami above them is another 
eomparlment, sculptured with the figures of half angels stistaiiimg 
iliields* The windows of tlie second fioor correspond with thoac 
of the first, and have also small niche<; at the sides : a range of 
lesser niches is likewise continued along the whole length immedi- ■ 
alely below the battlements. The sides are ornamented with aj- 
cadcs, having trefoil heads, and being otherwise decorated : the 
miulting of tl>e arches is strongly groined* The inner front, ■ 
though less ornamental thaii that described, b not undeserriDg 

At a sliort distance from the Catliedral precincts, in th« eastern 
suburbs of tlje city, stand the venerable remains of ST. AUGUS- M 
TINFS ABBEY, which at one period almost equalled the Cithe* ^ 
dral itself in magnificence, and continued to eiist in great splendor 
during many centuries. It w^s founded in the year 59S, by At>- 
pistine, in conjunction with Ethelbcrt, King of Kent, the ktter of 
firhom endowed it with many estates, and other rich gifts. Angus- 
Ime placed here a community of Benedictines, as he had done it 
Christ Church, and mvested them with various privileges: Iheae 
were afterwards increased by numerous grants and Royal charters; 
fmd many immunities were, in succeeding ages, conferred upon t!it 
plooks by the Roman Pontics. 



iiA ^ :;'-|5.#' 



I, the son and successor of Elhelbert, ^>niH]ctl a Cbu! 
ia this Abbey, througb tlie iufluence of Archbishop L^wrcti€«, w 
de<JicBted it to the Blessed Virgin in tt*e year 6l3 ; ti n * 

fore iwhidi, the Mouks had been exempted by the P* 
^tseopsi] junMlicdon. Majiy of i\te Abbots were per c- 
neot talents, and procured divers imminiKles and privii ! t 
the Papal See, Egchijii who had been seiit mi an ^ 

Pope Alenander the Second, obtained from him a li<xiise to 
tl»e Euitre^ and other pontifkrals; but the Archbifihop refiised 
permit hina to exercise this privilege; ^nd mon at'ter^vards, 
1 070, EgeUin was obliged to seek refuge on the Continent, 
hsfing taken part with Archbishop StigEiid h\ hi^ opposllioti to tn 
CooqiierOT. Irj the same year the King promoted a Norma 
*totit^ ntimed Scoland^ or Scot land ^ to the vacant Abbacy; i 
'^y Ui bfiiieiicef conjoined to tliat of Archbisliop Lriinfranc, nil 
^f the possessions of thb Abbeys wiiich the^King had ^htd, 
^'^^nred ; and several new grmivU of landif and Churches obtai 
^iiis Abbot, following the general exaiupte of the Norman i 
*^lfis, took down the wliole of die ancient Chnrch, and begun 
*^build it in a more magnificejit mamter; but he dying iu the y 
^D87f before he bad cooipleted his intended structure, it ' 
•itjiabed by liis suceessor, Wido^ between that period, and Augmt^ 
^^99- Hugh de FlmiaCi nho succeeded \VI<lo, ereried the 
T^bapter-House and Dormitory, and furnished the Church with 
>arious ornaments: he died in 1124. His successor, Hugh de 
Troie$scU-v€, who was Chaplain to Henry the First, and well hh. 
formed in monastical and secular discipline, increased the Monki 
to sixty, tbeh* original number. In the time of Clarembald, wbom 
Heniy the Second had intruded into the Abbacy against the con<i^ 
tent of the Monks, great part of the Abbey Church was destroyer) 
by fire, together with many of the ancient grants, and other wth 
tings. The Churches of Faversham, Minster, and Middle ton, wera 
afterwards assigned to the use of the Sacrist, to repair the dik 
ni^gCy ^y grants from the Pope, Alexander the Third. On 4hm 
deposition of Clarembald, in II76, Roger, a Monk of Christ 
Church, was constituted Abbot; but, on bis refusal to make pro- 



fcssicnml obedience to tlie Arclibbho^), tlie latter refused to ^t€ 
liira benediction : to procure this, he then went to Konie, viliere it 
ivas given him by the Pope ; from whom also he obtained 9n&m 
the privilege of using the mitre, sandals, and paiitoml slai!^ 
These favors, together with the intercourse which he continued to 
mamtain with the Papal See, incensed both the Archbishop and 
the King; and the latter seized on the possesions of the Abbey j 
but was afterwards induced to restore tliem by the Pope: Ibe 
Abt)ot, at a subscfjucnt [leriod, made tine to Ibe King for a peram* 
bulatiou of bis Ilarouy.* lie died in the year l'2\2i and was suc^ 
ceedcd by Alexander, a Monk of great learning and eloquence, 
who firmly s»p|H>rted Kbig John against the Barons; and when 
Lewis, the Dauphin of France, landed in the Isle of Thanet, be 
boldly excoujmuiiicated tliat Prince, and all his adherents. Hugk^ 
bis successor, tlie third Abbot of tlial name, was chosen on the 
iKventh of the kalends of September, 1230, and soon aOerwardg 
departed ibr Rome, to receive bis benediclion from the Pope, ai 
had theu become customary. During bis absence, John de Ma- 
risco, the Prior, being desirous of ascertaining where the remains of 
St. Augustine had been de|)osi(e(I, caused hts tomb and altar, which 
stood under the n»iddle window at the cast end, to be bioken open* 
ymd wilhfn these, in three distinct inclosurcs, he found the relics of 
the saint; the Abbots of Bailie and Dingley, and the Priors of St« 
Edmund's Buiy, Faversliam, and St, Radigimds, with many other 
persons of religious distinction, being tlien present. In one of tbe 
inclosures, called a * small stone vessel,' were bis bones, and a plate 
of lead I iu scribed to this e fleet: ** In the year from the incaniatjoii 
ofOurLord, IO91, William, King^ of the English, reigning, tlie 
ion of King William who ac<]nired Eikglund, Abbot Guido tniJi« 
slated the body of St. Augustine from the place where it had laia 
for 300 years, and placed «ill the bones of that saint tn the present 
casket: the other parts of the sacred body he deposited in a silver 
5hrit>e, to the piaise of him who reigns for ever J' All the remains 
fvcrc aAerwaids re-interred as before, witli the exception of the 

* Madox^t liiit. of Exchcqucri p. 551, 

EBNT. 865 

head; which, at the instance of the great men present, and to ex« 
^t the devotion of the people, was retained without the shrine, 
nd was wonderfully decorated, at tlie Abbot's expense, with gold, 
dver, and precious stones, as it was then to be seen.** 

Donng the respective governments of Roger de Chichester, NU 
^as TTiom, and Thomas de Fyndon, wjio were Abbots in suc- 
c^ttioD, from the year 1253 to 1309, many alterations were made 
in the monastic buildings, and new ones were erected : among the 
letter, were the Refectoiy, Lavatory, Cloister, Kitchen, the Abbot's 
Cbqie], and the Great Grate. Thomas de Fyndon, the last-men- 
tiooed Abbot, supported the pretensions and privileges of h» Mo- 
iiastery with much vigor against Archbishop Wmchelsea, and hav* 
iog obtained a declaratory Bull from Pope Boniface the Eighth, 
k made a boki attempt to bvade the prerogatives of the See of 
Canterbury, by instituting three new Deaneries, comprehending all 
the Churches, the patronage of which belonged to the Abbey. 
After a long contention, however, he was obliged to submit to the 
Archbishop, who, by tlie mediation of the Earl of Pembroke, and 
others, was prevailed on to receive the Abbot into favor, on his 
agreeing to abolish the new Deaneries, and to make other conces- 
sions. This Abbot, m the year 1 309, obtained license from Ed- 
ward the Second, to embattle the gates of his Monastery. He 
died soon after, and was succeeded by Ralph Bourn, who, on hfs 
return from Avigiion, whither he had gone to obtain the benedic- 
tion, gave a sumptuous banquet here, at which 6000 persons are 
recorded to have been present. He planted a choice Vineyard 
in a place called the North Holms, which seems previously to have 
been the site of ruined buildings, that served as places of resort, 
and hiding-holes, for thieves and profligates. 

William Wtlde, who was made Abbot in 1389, had the honor 
to entertain Richard the Second, witli his Qiitfen, and his whole 
court, in this Monastery, from the octaves of the Ascension to the 
morrow of the Holy Trinity. In this reign the possessions of the 
Abbey were rated at as high a sum as 15321. 14s. 4-id. about the 
Vol, VII. April, 1807. L 1 1 same 

• Thorn, Col. 1873— U"(5. 

«S5 KENT. 

tame time it appears tliat die Abbey lands weie con^puted to i 
upwards of 11,860 acres. Thotnas Hund&n^ the ne&l Abb^, \mA 
a license from Heiiry the Fourth, to make a jouniey to tbe Hoty 
Land, as a|>pears from tbe Patent Rolls of that year. The test 
Abbot was John Essex^ who, with thirty of his Monks, snrveadered 
tbe Abbey to Henry tbe Eighth; but not, as tradition MportSy liU 
.they had been terri6ed into that measure by the sight ^ two \ 
of ordnance, planted on a nciglkbouring hill. At that peiiod» t 
1539, the annual revenues of the Abbey amounted, aecofdii^ to 
Bugdale, to U131. 14«. Mid. theaett amouDt was 1274L 10a. 

Among the privile<^s possessed by this foundatiao, was Ihat of 
Coinage, which had been originaUy granted by King Atheistaa, blit 
whidi seems not to have been exercised subsequent to the veign of 
Stephen. On tlie day of the transUtiou of St. Augustine^ io the 
year 127I9 during a violeut ten^st of Uiunder, ligbtniog, and 
rain, which lasted a wltole day and night, the buildiiigs of the 
Abbey were greatly damaged, and would have been quite over* 
whelmed by the floods, according to the opiaion of 4he ChroBider,. 
had uot ' the virtue of tlie Saiuts wiio rested there withstood the 
force of the waters.' 

Soon after the Dissolution, the principal buildings weve stripped 
of tlieir lead, and some of them left to perisli by degrees; but the 
destruction uas accelerated by entire edifices beiug occasioBally 
pulled down, and the materials converted to different uses. The 
Cireat Gate, \^itli tlie adjoinhig buildings to the south, and some 
others, were, however, kq)t standing; and Henry the Eighth is said 
to have converted them into a Palace for himself and hb succes- 
sors; and to have had the Abbey lands, wliicli inunediately adfota- 
ei\ to the precincts, inclosed as a park for ' deer, and beasts of 
chase/ Queen Mary granted the Abbey demesnes to Cardinal 
Pole, after whose death they reverted to the Crown, and, in the 
year 1 564, were given to Henry Lord Cobham, by Queen Eliai- 
bet by who kept her court here for several days during lier ' Royal 
progress* in tlic year 1j70. On the attuinder of Lord Cobhara. 
in 1()03, James the First granted lliis demesne tg Robert Cecil, 


•fteiwards £ad ef Salisbury, at the anmial rent of 20]. 138. 4d« 
1%e imt |XiiMnor wm Edwurd Lord Wotton, yvho was owner «t 
the time of the nuptiak of Cliarles the First with the Prtneess Hen- 
cietta, whieh weie •consiunmated in this Abbey, on the 13th of 
iiiiie» 1625. ThoDMS Lord Wotton, who died in l6S0, bequeath- 
#td this estate to Maiy, Jiis widow, for life, with remainder to his 
Ibnr dau^ten and co-henreases: 4he appears to have constantlgr 
Ksided heie; and from her the reroainii^ building obtained tlie 
4Mnne of Latfy Woucm's Palace. After her death, this estate was 
00 a partition allotted to Anne, youngest daughter of the late Lord 
Wotton, who married Sir Edward Hales, Bart, of Wood-Church, 
40 this comity; and .their descendant, the present Sir Edward 
Hales, Bait of St. Stephen's, is now owner. 

The immediate pvedncts of the Abbey included a drcnmferenee 
<if about sixteen acres, the walls surrounding which are mostly en- 
iire. The west front extended to the length of 250 feet, and had 
a gate -at each extremity: these gates are yet standing, together 
With the buildings a^joinmg to the principal one, which were inha- 
bited by the Lady Wottoa; but which, for a number of years, 
iiave been occupied as a. public-house. St. Auoustinb's Gate, 
which was the grand entrance, b a very elegant structure, though the 
interior is most woefully dilapidated, it having been converted into 
a brcwer>'. Tlic front consists of a centre, united by octagonal 
towers, wliich Hie above the roof in lofty turrets, finished by a 
rich cornice and battleimMit, and pierced by small and highly-onia- 
mented windows: under the cornices are various heads, of much 
expression and diaracter; and others, of similar execution, adorn 
the angles within the turrets. In the spandrils above the entrance 
arch, within quatrefoil recesses surrounded by circles, have been 
statues, now greatly broken and defaced : in the middle compart- 
ment are two handsome windows, each divided into two trcfoil- 
4ieaded lights, with a cinquefbil in the centre of the arch above. 
Between these windows, and on each side, as well as on the corre-^ 
sponding faces of the towers, are ornamental arches and niches, 
having tretbii heads, and pvramidical canopies. These connect 
with a cornice, charged with numerous human heads of excellent 

L 1 1 2 sculpture^ 

§88 KENT. 

sculpture. Above, on the flat of the gate, b a doable range of 
trefoils, in reversed positions, separated from eadi other Iq^ a s%- 
zag line ; and over tliese is a handsome embattlement. The wood- 
en doors have been finely carved, io a style corre^pondipg wiUi 
the ornaments of the slone-work. The vaulting withm the eft- 
trance has been curionsly groined, but b strangely dbfigmred by 
the smoke and steam of* the brewery. The laige room over it has 
been converted into the city Cock-pit; and so singidar are the 
changes wliich the different parts of thb foundation ba^aaide^ 
gone, that we find a fives-court, a bowling-green, a skittta-groufidy 
an Hospital, and a Gaol, within the circuit of the walli^ The 
other entrance, called the Canetery GaiCy from its communicatibg 
with the ancient burial-ground, has recently been much altered^ to 
adapt it to the purposes of a modem dwellmg, and now presents a 
most incongruous a^)ect. It never, however, was so beaotifiil as 
the former gate, though of subsequent erection; it having been 
built in the reign of Richard the Second, and previouato the year 
)39l, by Thomas Ickham, Sacrist of the Abbey, at the charge of 
4661. Ids. 4d. St. Augustine's Gate was erected m the tone of 
Abbot Fyndon, between the years 1297 and ISOp, most pfobabiy 
at the expense of the Convent. 

The remains of the Abbey Church, though so greatly re- 
duced as to render it very difficult to trace the extent and form of 
the entire edifice, are extremely mteresting, as they fumbh us vrith 
an unquestionable specimen of early Norman architecture, and this 
of a rich and elegant kind. These ruins, independent of the Nor* 
man work, are chiefly confined to the mere walls of the east end 
and south aisle, which appear to have been rebuilt m the latter 
part of the fourteenth century. The west end has the name of 
Ethelbeit*8 Tower; tliough from what cause, unless m veneration 
of his memory, is unknown. This, which Is the ancient part, b a 
lofty and elegant ruin, exhibiting various ranges of semicircular 
. arches, some of them intersecting each other, and being curiously 
adorned by mouldings and ornamental sculptures. Tlie differeat 
parts display much fancy; and tliough the walls are very massive, 
yet the exuberance, and general cast, of the ornaments, give thb 


-^" - - - 

S lAV O V 3 TO £s t; ATE . 


mimm e l4r greater air of lighlness and proportion, than is obser* 

re ill ino*l other Norman buildings. The remains of the anci- 
Ciimpamle^ or Bell Tower, which stooU about sixty feet from 
lie Church, towards the soulti, and the walls of which were of 
Mt thickness* were wholly removed in the year 1793, though not 
Hiout employing the combintd elforts of *Z00 mau 

When Angnstioc and King Eihelberi founded this Abbey, it wai 
lilh the intention that it should be made the place of their own 
«pttlture, and al»o of tlieir successors for ever; yet this design was 
;<Mii[iletely frustrated before the expiration of 1 60 years. Previous, 

Kever, lo Archbishop Cuthbert obtaining the privilege of consecra* 
a burial-place within the walk of the city^ all his predecessors 
perc interred in this Abbey; namely, Augustine, Lawrence^ Justus, 
bfelUtiifl, Honortus, DeusDcdlt, Theodore, Brithwald, Tatw^n, and 
^olbdm. Lanibertf the ncTit but one hi succession to Cuthbert, 

feaho buried here : imd to the memory of each of these Prelates 
rine w^s afterwards erected witliiu the Abbey Church, The 
tings of Kent who were mterrcd in this fabric, were Ethelbert, 
Sadbald, Ercombert, Lotljairc, and Wilhrvd ; ajid among the fe- 
iiales of the blood royal, were the Queens Bertha and Emma; 
md tlie Princess Miidreda, daugliter of Lothahe, Many other 

tMutf of eminent rank have l>een buried here« though not a sin* 
ineoional is now lefl to distinguish the places of their mtermeot: 
unoiig them was Juliana, Countess of Hunlingdon, the rich infanta 
>f Keut, who died ui 1350, and was deposited in a Chantry Chapel 

K crown foundation, dedicated to St. Anne. 
•efore the Dissolution, the numerous buildings of this Abbey 
rorcred a great extent of ground, as may be easily ti-aced from tlic 
neveuness of the surface, particularly towards the noiih-east of ihe 
■Ids of tlie Church.* On the south side was the cummon Ceme^ 
ft; the greater part of which has been demised to Tlie Kent 
Itid Canterbury Hospital, erected here by public subscription, be- 
be \cars 17^1 aud l/P^. Iti digging the foundations of 
L 11 3 tlie 

he ciijr records under the date of 1543, mendoo that, after the 
ijution of ehh Abbey, the Ciey was supplied with paving and build* 
I from tCf mmi| on paying a trifle to the gatc*keeper. 



the Hospital, the workmen were much impeded by considerabfe 
qiiantiHcs of Imman bones : and some vears previously to this, ae* 
veral stone cofliiis were discovered in a search purposely made : 
they were found mostly at the deptli of seven feet, and contained 
perfect skeletons, which, from the remains of the envelopes, were 
conjectured to be those of ecclesiastics. It seems probable that 
this was a burial-ground in tlie Roman times; and Leland meotimis 
ffii urn, witli a heart in it, that had been ducj up near St, PnncraM 
Chapci. This Chapel, which is a small cdiike, measuring about 
thirty feet by twenty one, and stiindiiig near the eastern extremity 
of the cemetery, has been long considered as an object of some in- 
terest, through the Roman bricks which appear in its walls. The 
Kent and Canterbury Hospital is a respectable brick edifice, con- 
taining eight wards for the reception of patients, with convenient 
apartments and otiicts for tlie attendants. The original promoter 
of this establishment was Wjlham Carter, Esq, M. D, whose plans 
being liberally seconded by the gentlemen of the comity, the first 
stone was laid in June, 1791, since which period between four and 
five thousand persons ha\e been relieved by this charily* In the east- 
ern part of the Abl)ey precincts a new County Gaol is now building^ 
on an ingenious plan, by which the different classes of prisoners will 
be kept separate ; and that extension of crune, which constantly 
takes place wherever promiscuous communication is allowed, will 
by this means be efiectualty prevented. 

The mins of the Castle are situated on the south-west side of 
llie city, near the entmuce from Ashford. Kilbume, whose autho- 
rity in thitt instance may be regarded as very questionable, asserts, 
t}iat Julius Caesar erected a Castle on this spot, and that it after- 
wards obtained the name of * Lodia's Castle,' from a Saxoif Go- 
vernor; by which appellation, he continues, * it was excepted by 
Etlielbert out of the gnmt i)f lands maile to St. Augustine for the 
foundation of his Monastery.' Whatever of truth or of error may be 
in this stale nient, there can be no doubt that the pre^nt fortress 
was erected by the Normans, and most probably by William the 
Conqueror, as the Domesday Book proves it to have been standing 
at the time of the survey. The outer walls included an extent of 

some what 



•onirwlmt nmrc llmo four acres, and wcir surroundt d by a ditch; 
but the former have been mostly pulled down, and I he dftch filled 
np. The present rnnains, which are tho<^e of the Keep, evince a 
aannlar degree of iugcjuiilv, and cautious poUrv, as the Keep at 
icstcr; though the grouml-pbn of this fortress is essentially 
t. Its form is nearly s*]imrc; its length being eTght\M^ight' 
and itii breadth eighty: the present height of the walU is 
about fifty feet ; but of what ht^ghf tt originally was, b uncertain^ 
as the n|>pcr part is destroyed. Tlie niterior was divided into 
three parts, by two strong walls, wliich weie contrnuecf fiorii the 
foniidalion!; to the roof: the niiddle divifrion apjicars to Iiave- been 
opetr; thoM! at the sides contained the apart meiils. The cnmmu- 
mications bet\teen the different parts were mtiintained by galleries, 
^rmed in the thickness of the walb, and poiiii; round I he entire 
^oftresSp The state apartments aj^i^ar to have beeti on the tiiird 
:tfoor, H'herc the architecture i> moi-e ornamentxil; und the openings, 
'^>r windows, larger than in any other part: the floors below this, 
^CTC lighted on*y by sinall k>o|»-hotes, Tlie enlratice 
seems to bane been at tEie west end of the north east skle^ where 
"there b a l;fr;:e arch at a considerable heiglit, now stopped up, 
-which comnnn»icated with an interior door-way, enriched by 2ig- 
lag and otlier mouldings; the present entrances have probably 
been formed by enlarging the loop- holes. Here, also, as Jil Ro- 
chester, was a Well of very neat niasonr}', ascending to the top of 
the Keep, and conmiunicatin*; with every floor by open arcliel 
An extciL*ijvc M\ilt-honse, and other buildings, hvive been erected 
on tJie ftile of the ivall anti (!itt h, and other parts of the Castle- 
yard: the north-western divisi(»ji of ihe Ci^slle has been for some 
years occupied as a depot for nulit;ny stores, 'The principid walls 
arc cleien feet m tliickness. 

The out-works of this fortress were extended by Hcnr>' the Se- 
cond, who caused certain land, ^ held by one Azeiitha ot' the Prior 
of Christ Church, to be laken in to ftirtify the Castle, and for 
H Ijfch certain other lands were assi^etl to fier in exchange/ In 
the twelilh of Henry Uie Third, Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kejit, 
! 4i^ 4 grant of tbf Cafitki of Canterbuiy, Dover, and Rochester, 

I (.11% for 




for life; and in the same ytu he was made Governor of all tht 
three; hut in the sixleeiitJi of Ihc same reign he was removed, to 
make way for Stephen de Segrave. In the time of Edward the 
First, this Castle was used a^ a common gaol, and it continued ta 
be so appropriated tiU the latter end of tlic reigo of Ehzabeth; 
and the assizer for tlie county were frequently held here. Jamei 
the First, in tlte latter part of his reign, granted this Castle, and 
its appurtenances, to a iamily named Watson ; and they have since 
had several |>os&e5sors, both by purchase and otherwise. The pre- 
sent owner of the Castle is Mr. Thomas Coojier, who resides near 
it. The new road to Ashford, that was made by public subscrip- 
tion about die year 17S0, crosses wliat was formerly the Castle- 
yard, and {lasscs over tlie »ile of the ancient Roman arch, called 
WortJi-gate, which was removed on that occasion. 

About 300 yards from the Castle to the soutli-east, is a high 
artificial mount, of a circular form, bounded on the south by the 
City Wall, which seems to have been here formed into an angle, 
purposely to include this eminence, its origin has been generalJy 
assigned to tlic Danes; yetj however, the name of Dane John, or 
Dungeon liili, may be supposed to corroborate this opuiion, it 
may be presumed to be the work of a more distant period. About 
two-thirds of the base was encompassed by a broad and deep ditdi, 
that was filled np during the years 1790 and ]791, when the an* 
cient and venerable character of thb eminence was wholly destroy* 
ed by incongruous alterations; which, however they may be coik 
sidcred as iuiproveu\ents by the many, cannot be contemplated 
by the antiquary without regret, In the above years, the sides 
of the hill were cut into serpentine walks, so as to admit of an 
easy ascent to the summit ; ynd were also connected w ith a termce 
formed upon the top of the high rampart within the wall, and e^- 
tiending to the length of upwards of 6D0 yards. Additional walks 
were made hi tlie adjsicent field, and a donhle row of limes planted 
at thp sides of tlie principal one, whidi is about 370 yards long, 
and unites with the terrace-walk at each end,* Several Romati 


'^ llieic alteratToni were executed at the sole cost ofthc late Jamem 
Mffuttoni^ Esq* bookseller and banker of tbi» Ciiy, who^e well-judged 







iod other ancient coins were found in filling up the ditch; toge- 
ther with a spear-head, and some brass or bell metal spurs.' TIic 
views of the City, and surrounding count r}% from the summit of 
Ibe mount, are extremely fxae, as well as from the terrace, which 
ocxasions ihw spot to be much frequented in fine weather; and it 
iias now become the most fushionahlc Promenade in Canterbury, 
Immediately opposite to tlie Dungeon Hill, on the soutli, and 
.^Bbutting on the liigh road which runs close to the City Ditch, » 
AJje Manor of Dane John, or Dungeon, so called from time 
^.mmemonai. Here, al:^, are some remains of ancient Fortifica* 
^^ion^ which seem to have formed a kind of outwork for the better 
lefence of the Dungeou Hill, and consist of a lesser mount, now 
I^^H^ivided into two parts, with a ditch and embaiikmenr. This Ma* 
| | "^t or was possessed by a family named Cbiciie, from the tune of 
Henry the Second to that of Edward the Fourth; but the tilhet 
belonged to the Hospital of St, Laurence in Cauterbui-y, together 
with those of 300 acres of land adjacent, as appeared in evidence 
in the tljirteentli of Edward I he Second: in cojisideration of theie 
tithes, John Chiche, tlie then Lord of the Manor, was to receive 

rxpendliure on this and other occasions, connected with his gcner^ 
conduct, had so secured to him tlie approbation of his fellow cuizens, 
that be was returned without opposition to the present Parliament, ai 
one of the Burgessct of Canterbury, for several years previously to 
hk decease, ho^vever, he had relinquished every concern with thit 
eitaie, through a disagreen^ent with ihe gimrdiang of the poor; and for 
•ome lime, the plantations and walks were utterly neglected* At 
iengih, about ISO'2, they were repaired at the expense of the Corpora- 
.lioti, to whom the ground belonged, and by whom it was then " ap- 
opriated in perpetuity to the public,' and endowed with the mm of 
[, annually, payable out of the City Chamber, for the conitane 
• matnteoance and support of the terrace, walks, and plantation!.** 
Tn the following year, a itune pillar was erected od the top of the 
ount by subtcriptiuo, as a memorial of the public services of Mr Sim- 
iao»t and particularfy of hii ' generosity* in adapting this " Field and 
liil* to the public use. 

"^ Kentish Register, Vol* II. p. 273* 

19^ KBMT. 

" in auhimn for his servants, fiw loare^ of breiid, two piOclieft 
suida half of beer, and lialf a cheese ef fot^rpence: andhe famiw 
leif W9» entitled to unum par Chkvfheearum fartnamm, mie pair 
•f leather gloves, aiid one pound of wax in candlet; and for hb 
ft rrants, three pair of gloves.'' lu the re^ #f Henry the Eigfifb, 
this estate having passed through several hands, was pwdmsed by 
Sip John Hoies, a Baron of the Exchequer, whose aiw, Sir Itaief 
HiUes, a Judge ot* the Common Pleas, resided here in the time of 
Queen Mary, and, through some uneasiness in those lickfish tiines^ 
went and drowned himself in the river near St« MildfedTs^ in* 1555* 
The ancient Manor- House was pulled down about the year 1752, 
bv Tiiomas Lee Warner, Esq. by whose family the Manor had 
been purchased in the year 1 6*80 : his son Henry, of Walsingham 
Abbey, in Norfolk, the late owner, died unmarried about two 
years ago, when tile Manor passed to his devisees. 

The origuial Walls of Canterbury a|>pear to have been constnicl* 
ed by the Romans; though, from the numerons aHemtions which 
have ^aken place, but few remains of the workmanship of that 
people can now be traced. Wliether they uuderwent any changes 
in the Saxon times, is not recorded ; yet, as Archbishop Lanfran^ 
is stated, botli by Lambard and Stow, to have been a great bene- 
lactor towards the repairs, it is probable they were partly destroy- 
ed during the Danish irru]>tions. Queen Eleanor, mother of 
Richard the First, gave orders that this city should be fortified 
* with ditches, walls, aii<I fortresses,' in the tune of the captivity 
of that Prince when on his return from the Holy Land, and com* 
manded that ' all the inhabitants should be compelled to labour 
in the work ;' but as tliis command was thought to uifringe on the 
privileges of the Monks of Christ Church, she issued her Letters, 
stating, that * the vassals or servants of the Prior, did not hibour 
Irom riijht or custom, but at the eiimcst intrealies of the Queen," 
find that their so doing, * should never be construed to the injury 
pr disadvantage of the Church.'* 

In the nMgu of Richard the Second, tbe walls were again repair- 
f d, the King himself giving 250 marks towards the expenses* The 


f Sec Somner't Appendix, No. II. for a copy of the original records 
which is still preserved In ArchivU Eccles'ca Cant, 



Wwl G^e, uiili that part of t|jc wall extending ttience to the 

Noftb Gate, was rebuilt soon afterwards, al the cliari^ue of Arc!** 

bishop Sudbury, ^lio is said to have intended to rebuild the whole 

wM ; but was preTenled fmiti executing thi» dcnign. h\ his oii^ 

fiawhr death, A more €\ tensive reparation was itiiwle in the reigll 

©f Henry the Fourth, the expcnces of wliicli were defrayed by n 

general tux levied on (he whole city; on which occasion the King; 

by his writ of privy seal, authorized Ihc ritrseens to purchase * lands 

and teDcments to the anntuil amount of 201. and gave them also 

the right of building on all the waste ground within the city/ for 

f!ic purpose of enabting them to * mainttin for ever, the wall and 

dilcb which they had then begun/ Some partial repairs winrf 

•abseqnently made ; but the whole b now, and has long been, to 

m dilapidated ajul ruinous state, excepting that part which con^ 

necta with the Cathedral precinets, and hiis l>eca repaired at the 

cost of the Dean and Chapter. The ditch, which was 150 yardt 

livide, hfta been partly filled up, and the site built on : other p^rti 

been eon verted into garden-grounds, which are held under 

granted by the Corporation^ to whom the whole belongs* 

^On the "West aide, the ditch was discoutiimed, the vicinily of the 

river Stour rendering It unnecessary. The walls included a cir- 

.cutnit'rence of nearly one mile and three ((uarters: ihey were de- 

r fciided by twenty-one 5*|uare and semieircular towers of coiisidera- 

jble strength, though now mostly in a state of ruin. In some parti 

Ptljc walls are almost wholly of chalk, facftl wiilj flint; in others 

they are conBtnicted with a grout -work of chulk iind stone intermixed. 

The fecings of that part built by Archbishop Sudbury, are of 

^squared stones: the general tliickness is t'rom six. to nine feet. 

The principal entrances were by sin Gate^, named \Ve*>t Gate, 
iKorth Giite, Bur-fi^le, St. George*!* Gate, Riding-Gate, and Win- 
rcbeap Gale; the latter having been built in the room of the an- 
cient V\^orth*Gate, which had been long stopped up prior to its 
late reuio%al. Of these only the West Gate is now stauding: 
I tiirough this fobric, which has been aht-ady meulioned as erected 
'mt the eipet^ of Archbishop Sudbury, in the reigh of Richard 
S«C0ild^ pastes the high Loudon road ; it is a lofty, spacious,, 



nomas Mtf Martyr, from a constant f redhion whioh ascf fce ft fti 
tNrigin to Thomas Beckct. Ardifoishop Stretfoid, in -the jmr 1 S4S, 
framed a new set of statutes for its government, in whidi, after 
ftating, that this Hospital was boik * for the reception and aiulen- 
fation of poor Pilgrims tliat should come to Canlerbory/ he or- 
dains, that there shall * i)e twelipe beds, convenient to lodge the 
Filgrims in, constantly kept under the care c€ a w o t na n of li ooest 
leport ;' that * 4d. a day shall be legnlarly expended for 4be 
anstenance of the Pilgrims, irbo, if in good -health, 4hail be •en- 
tertained only for one night;' and that, * if there shoold not 4m a 
aufiicient resort of Pilgrims in one dmy to reqon« the expending fhe 
whole 4d. the remaiiikig part shall 1>e hnd Out fredy on anolher 
day, when the resort of Pilgrims shall be greater; so that lor 
every day of the whole year, the mtire sum of «d. shril be care- 
fully and faithfully expended/ This Hospital bad several tibeial 
bencfiK^tors, among whom was Hamo de Ci^ve-^SBor, and Thomas 
Lord Rons, of Hamlake ; by flie fofmer of ii^honi, ^ Chweii, 
and by the latter the Manor, of Blean, were added to Haeadowi- 
ineuts. Prior to these gif^s, however, even as early atlQaglohi^s 
time, the revenues of another f/o9ptfa/« that had lien ^bunded by 
«ne William Cckyn, on the opposite side ofSt. Pete^v^Btieet, near 
tiie gate ii( the Black Friars, were consolidated with -its own, bj a 
grant of t he founder. From the return made ^o 'die Conmissioners 
of lienry the Eighth, it appears, tliere was a neM Obapd m this 
Hospital, dedir»ted to the Virgin Mary, which vras -Stated to be« 
' Parish Church ;' and it was probably from tfiis circanutanoe that 
It then escaped suppression. In the time of Elieabeth, Archbish^ 
Parker, having recovered back most of the lands and tenements nf 
this Hospital, which had got into private bands, framed aiiew aet 
of ordinances for its government, ui which, mstead of fvoviding 
for poor Pilgrims as fomieriy, he directed that the Hospital AovM 
be opened for the reception of ^^ poor and maimed Soldien, who 
ahould pass backwards and forwards through Canterbury/ He 
also ordained that a Free-School should be kept within the Hospi- 
tal ; and that two Scholarships should be ibnndcd out of its reve- 
nues, in the University of Cambridge. These exertions of Arcfa- 



I paiiier proved iusufficietit to [^mteci thti Aiuudation (mm 
eoortlj n^isidtv ; for, ^ooii ni1er kiis ik»th, a. grutit of it wiLs ab* 
laified horn ttȣ Quiseii utiiltT tkUe pn^{^jiei^, hy mw of lier fH-ii- 
tkiuen Pcnsiiitwiri, unnR'd /olui Fynnbmti, i^lio 4juictv!jr uliVimieil 
iLi! wJjol^ entail* lur the fium of oiol. aiKi tt^c ixk%ri»c of a d^l. 
Sbortlv «ft<^nvnniis Ikswit^it, it wjis rccovcjt^I |>y llic rcprr<ciil;i'- 
^itomB amd k\ilui*iic^ at AxihUyiop Wliilpt!^ i^Ijq priirurtrd ;ui tVcf 
of ^fHanieiit i'm kLji|>ropiintuig iti revuitko^ acLordkg iq iww 
otdki^uices dniuQ itp b^ liiiuM'h^^ unci nmht whkU tlic-y «tiU ooi^ 
liotie to be e%}K'nik'd* Bv Ihe^'te ^itattUe^ I lie itiuri^eiiicrkt td' the 
Hoipit^d k vested Iti u ^l^df^rf \vUa jj)u»l l>e iu fli>ljf ortkr?^, nut) 
Jms tiie ptinl^e €if appoiDting a Sckoolfniifler to iiiitrtiil t^veiitf 
poof chtldrea to ' reud, wrtic, atid cu^t accompli ;* aitd it h or* 
dercfl IJml, iiisltad of providlug beils for ' poar St>ldicn,' m tb|v 
U^Miy^ Uie Hosjiit^L shotdd be Jitted up for tli«! permnaeQt rerf]»* 
ticKi of Etc In-Brotliers^ and tii'c lu^Si^tcrf ; and tiiat, after l^ 
e^inrati^n tjf llie t^i^ffiU)' yenrit iie?ct I'ji sluing, \mn of tlic reventus 
riiould aUo li€ applkd to tli^ luamteiiuoA't; iff nn equal uumber of 
4kQl&etlircu arui out Si^tni: tlie builitltii^s ol* tiie Hospitiii wene 
Gl€inM4o be ticj4 Lii proper repair, tc»gellier wilb the Bridge calkd 
Kill's Bridge, or Eiist ftr»lge, on whkh tliey £ire siluatc-d ; but 
the latter provi*iioii ims breo since iltp^irt^'d U^mt nntlrr :iti acnee* 
ment iind« between tiie Master of Ibe Hospital, and the Mayor 
and Commonaltj of tliis City, in the year 176'9, uhen the Bridge 
w«8 widened to twice its former extent ; and it was agreed that 
the southern half only should in future be considered as l>eIonging 
to the Hospital. Various benefactions iiave l>ern made to tlie 
Aiethroo and Sisters of this House since tlie time of Archbisliop 
WhitgifL The buildings, which are ancient, are of stone, and of 
^^libatanthl workmansiiip. 

is Spkal-Lane, leadhig eastward from Stour-Street, is Mat* 
>SA11d'9 Hosfital, called so by corruption from its founder, 
^aycer !e Riche^ who dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin, and en- 
dowed it for the suppoit of three Brethien and four Sisters, in the 
^ear 1317* The present edifice was rebuilt with brick, by cban- 
XaUe coutiibutions, in the year 1708; the ancient Hospital havii|g 



been hUmn clown in the cjreat stonn la November^ 1703. Leonard 
Cotton, Gent, by his wilt, dated in Marcb, 1604-, bequeathed le- 
lernl tenements for the support of a poor Widower and two poor 
Widows, for whom he had previously fitted op apartments in the 
above IInspi^al in addition to the former number: and various 
other donaiions h;ive been made to this Hospital by different per- 
ions. In Lamb-Lane, which forms tlie continuation of Stour-Street 
towards the north, is the CUjf Workhouse, formerly an Hospital 
for Poor Frktts, founded by Simon Langtoo, Archdeacon of 
Canterbury', and brother to the Ardibbhop of that name, about 
tlje year 124-0. The present fabric is of stone, and was built in 
1373, by Thomas Wykc, the then Syndic, or Master. Queen 
Elizabeth granted it to the Mayor and Commonalty of Canterbury 
in 1574-; end it was aflenvards converted into the City Bridewell^ 
to which use one part of the building is still appropriated. In the 
year 1729, however, the whole Hospital, with ali its appertainiog 
estates, was, with the consent of the Mayor, he. vested, by Act 
of Parliament, m the Guardians of the Poor, for the purpose of 
forming it into a General Workhouse ;* the said Guardians being 
at the same time obliged to engage to inatntain and educate sixteeti 
poor Blue-Coal Boys ibat had been previously kept here at lite 
expense of the City* 

In the suburb without Korthgate stood the Priory of 5^. Grt-^ 
gory, and llie Hospital of St. Joiin, bolli of which were erected 
by Archbishop Lanlrauc, in the year 1084. Sonuier says, that 


* The poor of ihit Ciry, S:c* are maintained by a rate asiessed rm 

the iRhabirants, according to a lurrey and valuation made in the ye^r 
t8CJ, and collected at 2£« in the pound on two-tbirds of that value. 
The House is under the management of two Guard iaot, chosen annually 
from each Pariih, under an Act of Parliament passed in 1729, for the 
better Relief and Employment of the Poor within the several Parishes 
in 'i City. Tlie Mayor, and the Aldermen who iiave pasied ibe 
chair, are abo perpeiuat Guardians. The Guardians appoint a Presi* 
dent, (who names hit Deputy,) a Treasurer, Ch»plain> Clerk, Sur* 
geon, Mailer, Mistress, and Schoohnasier. 







tlie Priory was founded for Regular Canons of Uie Order of Sf. 
Augustine ; but Tanner states it lo Jiave been founded for Secular 
Priests^ and that it was changed into a Priory ot' Black Canous by 
Archbbliop Corboil. At the period of the Dissolution, its reve- 
nues, according to Dugdale, amoniited to I25L 15s. Id, per 
annum; but Speed records tbeni sit lG6\. 4-5. 5|d. Soon after- 
wards the possessions of this Priory were given to the See of Can- 
terbury, in cxchauge for St. RadigundX near Dover; and ihey 
continued to belong to the Archbishops till the end of the last cen- 
tury, wlien they were alienated under the Act for liie Hedeaiptton 
Vol. Vll. April, imj. U m m of 

TIk Expeosea for the Year« ending 30th Junej 1 B03, were as follow ; 

fay to Weekly Peniionen .... 714 13 

Occasional Retief ....... 15 IS J 

Tradcimen'i Bill*** ....•., 5752 7 3 

Law 159 10 8 

Salaries 2Id 13 

Ma«ier*f House Expencei . . , . 397 1 4^ 

Clothing to ihc House People, &c. . *J9 V2 <$ 

15 Apprentice ¥et% ...... (02 30 

4 Gratuities for a Year's Service * • 4 4 

Carriage! and Passages 23 18 3 

Taxes and Ses»es 10 10 

Removals 2(> 12 

Given to those discharged the House . 7 19 

5063 OJ 

llie average Dumber of Poor In the House during the above lime 
was W6 weekly. 

* Of ^hlch Butcher's Meat came to 644 3 6 

Grocery • 349 ^9 

CF)c«se 115 9 s 

Med 695 17 9 

Malt ,..•.,.. 154 7 ^ 


©f the Lan^f Tan, and §old to the btc George Gt)ip9« Etq. Tlie 
gurdeti ground and cemetery lielcmging to thii fouudalioa, are 
now covering witit bulldiugs for the use of the soUlkry bdoogiiif; 
to tlie Cavalry Barracks, tlie stables of which hove l)een erectetl 
just without the liberty of llic Priory, to the nortliH^afr. St, 
John's Hospital, which is stitutited ou the o|it>ositc side of the 
foad, 131 styled by Soraner* the * (wui brother' to that of HarUt^ 
dowu, aiid with evident profirtely, as it has the sjune Master, luid 
i» governed by tlie sane oniiuances. The present estjUbluiieiit 
coiisisti of a Prior, a Reader, eigfiteen In- Brothers sind Sisters^ 
ajid twenty-two Out-Brothers and Sisters: the present annual re- 
venues are npwardii of dOOL Only a small part of the original 
btiilitiiig is still remaining; the rest having been destroyed by a 
*huneutable tire/ in the reigu of Edward the Tlmi, 

Jesus IIospjtal, which is also siiualed in this suburb, was 
founded under the the will 6f Sir Jo!in Boys, (who resided at St, 
Gregory V,) ui l6l2, for eight poor Men and four Women, which 
Diimhers were to be increased as the revenue should become more 
productive* Tlie Warden, or principal Brother, is, by the will 
of tlie founder, ordered lo tt^ach * freely, twenty boys to read, 
write, and cast acrornpt^/ Tins number was, hi the year 1787, 
increased to tweiity-si\t by order of the Mayor and Deaii of Can- 
terbury; and at the same tiitte an addttronal Brother w^s added 
to the OTigmal mimber: the buildings form three sides of a qua* 

In the suburbs, or Borougli of Long*Port, is Smith's Hospi- 
tal, m called from its founder, John Smith, E^i* who endowed 
it for fi>ur poor Men, and as many poor Women, each of whom 
has a stipend of about 8l. yearly. Here, also, on the east side 
of Chuntry Lane, are sonre remtrins of a building called DoGE*s 
CitANTRY, from its tbnndcr, Ilanion Doge, Ofliciat to the Arch- 
deacon of Canterburv. m the reign of Henry the Third. About 
a rpinrter of a mile soul h eastward from Ibis, on the south side of 
the Walling StR-et, is Sr. LAWltEKCE Holse, formerly the site 
of an Ho&pkali founded l>y the Abbots and Monks of St, Augus- 
nne iu the year 1137, f'>r a Priest^ or Chaplain, a Clerk, aiul 
- 'St. sixteen 






sixteen Bret^iren and Sisters. It was intended fox the recieption of 
■tieh of the inmates of the Abbey, as sliould become leprous, or 
contagiously di^ased, &c. and it continued subordinate to that house 
till the Dissolution. Sir William Rooke, wlio becarac possessed 
of this estate about the time of Charles the Second, was father to 
tiie gfiHant Admiral, Sir George Rooke, who retired here In the 
btter years of hi^ hte, mid gave it the fancitVd ap|iellation of » The 
Rook*9 Nest/ Its present possessor is Mrs* Grahaiu, 

Still tiearer to the city, upon this road^ stood the Nu^kekt 
9lf Si. Septtkhrc, which was founded by Archbishop Anselm about 
the year 1100, for sisters of the Benedictine Order, and made 
subardmatc to the Abbey of St* Augustine. This Convent became 
fkinous about the period of the Refoonaiion, from (lie pretended 
inspiration of one of the Nuns, named Elizabeth Barion, but 
mote geuerally called the //cj(y Maid of Kent, who lieing tutored 
by the Monks, afiected to be endowed with the git^ of prophecy, 
ind endeavored to excite a spirit of insurrection against the mea- 
lurev which the King was ihea pursuing in respect to his divorce^ 
and to the suppression of iieligious houses^ For this offence, sJie 
ind kcf nccomplices were attaiuted of treason in the twenty-fifth of 
Heoiy the Eighth; and herself, with seven others, among whom 
mas Richard Bering, Cellarer of Christ Church, were executed 
it Tyburn. At the time of the dissolution of the lesser Monaster 
lies, the revenues of this Nunnery were, accordmg to Speed, esti- 
tnated at 3bL 19s. 7|d. Dttgdale records them at 29], 12s, 5|d. 
Tlie entrance Gateway, and some small remahis of the buildings, 
are now standing* Between Dover-Street and Riding-Gate arc 
Alms-houses for six poor Women, built In the year 177S, by the 
Kev* W* D» B}Tche, but not endowed; and about half a mil« 
Luther westward, in Wiiicheap-Stret-t, are Harrises Alms-homes, 
fo called from Mr* Thomas Harris, Hop- merchant, of Canterbury, 
who, by his Will, dated m Jtme, 172(), devised h]sli\^ messuagesi 
or dwellings, there situated, in trust, for (he reception of live poor 
families for ever; and for whose support he l?equealhed a fann 
then rented at 2lU per annum. In St, Peter-Street, on the south 
side, is Cogan's Hospital ^ which had been the residence of Mr- 
John Cogan, of this city, v^lio, on hi!> decea^, bi 1657, bequeath* 
M m m 1? ed 


9M ItBlfT. 

eel it for tlie habiLilion of six poor widofws of clergymen, who^e 
nimntenancc is provulcd fur by various small legacies, and dotia* 
tioiLs from difiereut persons. Some other Alms-houses liave also 
been estabttslicd m this City ; and various donations of different 
descriptions gi\m\ or bequeathed for the benefit of the indi^ul^ 
iiave been connected with tlic respective parishes, thou^li ifie ma- 
nagement of tbe»e charities b princi[>siUy directed by ihv Mayor 
and Aldermen. 

The number of Churches within the walls of CHntcrbuf\% in- 
dependent of the Cathedral, h eleven; formerly also there were 
several others; but these \vA\e been putle<i down, and the parishes 
to whicli thry were attached united to others. The benedces are 
mostly of small value; ami on Um account four of the parishes, 
the Churches of which are now standing, were united to four others^ 
in the seventeenth of Charles tlie First. Holy Cross Church, which 
stands Just witliin West-Gate, is a low but spacious edifice, con« ■ 
sisting of a nave, cliijncel, and aisles, with a square tower at the 
west end. It was built In the time of Ricttard the Second, ai'ter 
the demolition of the old Church of the same name, which fonnnl 
the upi>er part of the ancient West- Gate ; the King's licetiiie for 
the purchase of the ground bearing date in March, iii tlie third of 
the above reigo, lu this fabric %vaa a Mass or Chuniry of remote I 
foundation, to which belonged a Priest and Brotlierlioo<l, ntlled 
the Fniteniity of Jhesus Masse, which was suppressed in the second 
of Edward tlie Second, when iti revenues were returned at ■ 
llL 9*. 8d. aimually. James Six, Esq. F. R.8. an in«:enious 
naturalbt and astronomer, lies buritd here: lie died in 1793. 
Si Alphage Church is a spacious and respectable building, ueatly 
fitted up, and ciititaiuirrg nmny sepulchral memorials; among 
which are several tor tlie fannly of Roberts;, of whom fciiR JotiN 
KoDBRTS, Kut. died in October, l658» in his seventy-first year, 
lu the small Church of Si. Mai if Brcdman was buried Sift I'aul 
Barrett, Knt, Sergeant at Law, who ^ died in January, 1(j85, 
at the age of fitly -three, lu Si. Margaret's was interred die 
learned Wi lu a m 8o\i n fr , the hi-^lorian, and native of thi<i city j 
bis epita[)h on a niuiul monument of white murblc is as tbllows: 


, KENT* 


Cvlirirnvs Somntrus^ 


Saxonicam titeraturttm 

CivitiUU Cantuaria Iltslorhm 

(TcncbrU utramt^. inxoiutani) 

JUustvuvii : 
Cantij Antiquitates meditanUm 
Fat am inter ccpU* 
' Dtum pictaie xrierd 
Homiius probitate smpUci, 
PrincipetH Ji(k periculosa^ 
^Putnam script h imtnovtuUbui 
Jndictdur : 
Jta mores antiqtt04 
Stadium antiquitatis cfformat, 

(Nai. (St Marty 30, U^06. 
Qtntuat** -{ Omncm atatun tf^it. 

[^Obijt MarttJ ZO, IC69. 

Erga A 

In this Church, atso, is a haiidsome monument iii cominemomUuti 
of Sir George ?<cwm5in» LL. D. Coniiiiissarj to the Archbishop* 
Whit gift, Bancroft, ami Abbot, and Judge of the Cinque Porta 
almost thirty years: he died at the age of sixty-five, io \627. 

St. Andrew's, a modern structure of brick, has been erected 
woce l/^-i^j itt place oftbc more uncieul Church of the same name 
which stood in the middle of tfie street, aud was taken down un* 
dcr ati Act passed in that yciir. Among Ihe Rectors of this Parisli, 
\^ijo were buried in the old Cliurch, and the memorials of whom 
were placed in the new vestibule, were Ihe Hev, Thomas mid IV il* 
Ham Sv,'ift, the great great grandfather, and great grand fa tlier, 
of the celebrated Dean Swift: tiie former dic<l in June, 1592; tlie 
litttcr in October, 1^24-. St. Mary BrnUui:, tM Bred in, is a small 
ancient structure, stated to Jiavebecn built by Wihiam Fitz-Hamon, 
grandson to Vita lis, who came to England with tlie Conqiu^ror. 
Several of the Hales family lie buried in this Church: and here 
if also a memorial for James Ley, an accomplislied youth, second 

M m m 3 goii 




son to Sir James Ley, Master of the Court of Wards, inH after- 
wards Earl of Marlborough: he died «kt C«interbur^m \Bl%, viliile 
on his jounie^ to the CoutiiieDt. In St. Maty MugdnUn*if Church 
is a sumptuous montaneiit in memory of John Whitfield, 
Gent, a liberal beiwfactor to the poor nf tliiscily: lie died in 
iSgi, Sf. MildredhiA a spacious and well-built fabric, standbg 
near the end of Srour Street, at a linle dUtauce from the Castle. 
It was erected in place of ' a more ancietil church, that was dc* 
stroked by fire in the year 1247;' and cousislsof a uave, aisles^ 
and chancel, with a large neat Chapel opcuing to the latter by a 
high pointed arch on tlie uortli side, and coniumuirattn^ with ^ 
square tower, that stands between it atid the north aisle. On lb* 
south side is another Chapel, which abo 0|Mned to the chaocel hy 
au obtuse arch, now wa!led Bp ; this appcan to have been buill . 
by the At-noods, an andeiit family, resident in Stour Street, of fl 
whom Thomas Atwood was Mayor of Canterbury four times to 
the reigns of Henry the Seventh and Eighth; the walls arc of Ics- 
sclated masonry. Near the altar rails, adjoining to the south 
wall, h a large tonil:*, covered with a black marble slab, sctdptured, 
witli the arms and quarterings of I he lieccased^ in memory of Sir 
Francis Head, Bart, who died in August, 47 16^ tt the age 
of forty-six. Above thb is an elegant mural luonument of white 
njarble^ on a black ground^ in memory of William Jackson^ 
Esq. of tliis city, whose death was occasioned by a hurt received 
in riding an unruly horie in April, 1789, Over the inscription is 
a figure of Hope leaning on an urn, supposed to conl^iin die ashes 
of tha deceased^ and inscribed with hb initials: tibove are his arn% 

niblazoned on a small vase: this monument was executed in 
II79O, by the late J. Bacon, R, A. On the north side of the 

Itar is a mural tablet in commemoration of Thomas Cbanmer, 
fcq. son of Edmund, Archdeacon of Canterbury, and nephew of 
Archbishop Cranmer: hedicd inl()04. In a corresponding siluatiou, 
on the south side, is a cunotaph in mwuoiy of Sir William 
Ceanmer, Knt. (also a relation of the Archbisliop,) wh^ 
vras born in this pHrisli, but buried iu St, Leonards, Bromlev^ 
Middlesex, He was au eminent merchant; and in the lalleifart 



^ liis life, Governor of tbe Company of Merclianrs A<1veiilurers : 
dred in September, 1(^97» i^i 1*18 sixU-scveiitK year. On tlic 
t^li side of the chuucel la a inurBl monument, designed bv ibe 
Cciptain Riou, in memory of several individinds of tbe Bridger 
ily, Tbe Chapl of the Atwoods, or Wood*^ Chapd, as it 
afterwards cuUed, fmiii its baving been appropriated to a fa- 
il^ of iJmt minie, b now used as a iunil>er room. On tlje soulb 
^^ is a neat mural monument for the Lady Margaret Hales, 
ft«.B^kiter and heiress of Oliver Wood, Esq. She died in 1577, 
L'^^ng been married iu succession to three Knights; vix. Sir Wil- 
Mantelf Sir Wiiliani Haute, and Sir James Hales, At the 
om is a genenlogical tree, bearing ber shield of arms, with 
2:»alements. The slabs in tbe |)avenient, which covered the re* 
«.mns of tbe Atwoods, have been !ong depri^-ed of their brasses: 
whole Cba^K't, indeed^ is in a riiiuous state. The other 
mircbes within ihe walU contain btlTe remarkable: tliey are de- 
ited to Si, Peter, All Suints, and St, Margaret. 
*JTic Churches in the suburbs of Canterbury are those of 
^ Dunstan, St, Paid, and St. Martin. Si* Dumtan*$ is si- 
^^teci near tfie entrance of the City* on ilic London road, and 
'^^>>Tisi5ts of a spacious nave and chancel, with u ^nvAil cbai>el o|)en- 
to tbe latter by plain pointed arches springing from ornamented 
lumns: at the nortii-west angle is a square tower. In this Church 
*^*as a Chantry for two chaplains, t'omided in tJM.* reign of Henry the 
Fourth, by John Roper, &sq. whose family had long been seated 
at Place- HO USE, or Si. D^nxtun's Place, in I his ParUb, and 
^m a younger branch of whom descended the D oilers, Lordi 
Teyiibam. In the fault l>eneatb the Cfiantry Cliapel many of this 
fiuuily are deposited ; and here also is preserved the Scull of the 
celebrated Sir Thomas More, wliosc tbvorite daughter, Margaretj 
was married to William Kof)er, Esq. and is also interred here, 
She is stated to have secretly procnred tJie head of her futlier after 
Hs exposure on London Bridge, and to have kept it by her to tbe 
tfrne of her death, after which it was placed near hrr cotHn, in a 
mdte m the wall, sectired by an iroji gnite. In tlie Chapel are se- 
renil moiiunjcjiti of tbe H»»p""rs, tf>gether with a helmet, sAvord, 

M 111 m 4 tubardf 




908 KBKT. 

tabard^ and other trophies. In St. DunstanVStreet, on the north 
skie, is the Gaol for the Eastern Division of the County : and on 
the same side, somewhat nearer to West-Gate, is a Jews' Syna- 
gogue. Tlie number of the Jews is about 400, most of whom 
reside in this part of Canterbury. In Si. Paul's Church, which 
stands in the Eastern Suburb without Bur-Gate, is a mural monu- 
ment in memoiy of Sir William Rooke, Knt. of St. Lawrence, 
who was unprisoned several years for his loyalty ; but, after the 
Restoration, was made a D^uty Lieutenant of this County, and 
was also High Sheriff of Kent for several year^, in the reigns of 
Charles the Second and James tlie Second : his son. Sir George Rooke » 
was also buried here. On a slab in the pavement, are Brasses of a 
malb apd female, with an inscription and two shields of arms be- 
neath their fett. On the shield below the woman, a fess embattled, 
two stars in chief: on the other shield, the same arms, impaling, on 
a fess between three boars* heads erased, three lances : the inscrip* 
tion is as follows;* 

^pitapi){um 3[oannlis 

^tiHni 9rmioeri qui 

tflaulsitttr K^c tumuf 0, Koanne0 fife Waimuff 

qui imfto0 tiocuit berba ILattna f oqui ; 
£I^uiQ* urbem fmnc rexit praetoct tutbante blato 

i&cm populi et reeni aeDitione tafra 
Quit S)eu0 in ci^rioti munDato 0aneuine Donet 

Hoeta reourcenti', lector, inemq' tibi. 
Qlitift Dominuf* 

St, MartirCs Church, which is situated on a rising ground, at a 
short distance beyond the precincts of St. Augustine's Abbey to 
the east, consists of a nave and chancel only, with a low tower at 
the west end, the outer angles of which are supported by strong 
buttresses. This edifice appears to have been constructed with 
the ruins of a former building, the vi-alls being composed of a 
confused mixture of flints, stone, and tile : in those of tlie chancel 
the tiles are arranged with more regularity than elsewhere; a dr- 
cuinstance that has given rise to an erroneous yet generally re- 

eetved nolioii, of tbls liaviiij^ formed a part of tlic structuTc ^ 

Befie states to have heea built here in the floiimii times.* 'lli« 

it vie of lUe ajrchitecture, ho\.vever, furaisbes irKOiJtesti!>le eviilrticc 

la th« CQtiti^rj; and it is {irabahle that the entire edifice 1j«i^ becu 

erects! iiiice the coniineticcmciU ot lite reigti of llenry the Third, 

The east window is divided into three trf^foit^headed Hglil*i, with 

three quiitrefbila rising; to the point of tlie arch above. On ^ch 

side tbe djancel b a plain lancet wiudow. The Fmti h citrious, 

mad apparently of Noiman workmanship : it i* of a circutaf fortn, 

and is built of four courses of fine sand-atone, fixed to the pa\F©- 

utent in die midst of the nave. The two lowenuosl courses sire 

sculptured with small circles interlaced; the third exhiliiti a rangt 

of intersecting circular arches ; and the iourlh has a varied oma* 

raent in the Nor man style. Before the altar-raik let a niarhle slab, 

ittscribeci to the inetnoi^ of Sm Henhy PALMsn^ Kut, of How* 

ktts, in this couiity, who died in Deceniber, 1 6'59, iu his forty* 

ninth year. On aiioUier slab is a well engraved Bro.f^ in niemoi^ 

cf ThomoM Sioui^kon, Gent of Ash, who died in June, 159 1 : 

he 15 represented in armour, with a sword and dagger; and at each 

comer of tlie slab are his arms, viz, a ssiltire between four staples, 

in fess an escallop, a crescent for difference. On a tJitrd slab are 

Brasst's of a male and a f>niitle, wlllr tlieir anus sd>ove; and below 

them b a group of six children, with this inscription : 

CUquiearunt 0ub !)0C ^armore Corpora ^ici^aeUs JFraunce0» 
®enero0tt et ^[^nar, vxoxifs riu/s, jfiliae S2Hil|>efini ^uilrer» 
cnmai', muliei 4^ titt %'** JmuBiii 1587 S)ece00erunt$ 9iil« 
xxm coelo ifumicur* 

Against the south wall, within the altar-rails, is a large tomb and 
mural monument, with a Latin inscription, in memory of JoHK 
Lord Finch, Baron of Fordwicii, who died in the year l6'6'0, at 
the age of seventy-seven. 

On the eastern branch of the river Stour, and just withm the 
city wall, is a spacious and lofty flour-mill, called Abbotts Mill^ 
from its having been erected either on, or immediately contiguous 


S«e before^ p. 761 ; and Rede Ecclet. Hist. Lib. I. cap. 35, $d. 

to, the 9he of an ancient mill of tlie sam<> nnme, tbat tnii no 
homii»«ted fhrotigli ifs having be^i gr«iii(€tl to rhi? Abhoti of St, 
Augustine's by King Stqpliwi. This ^tnicltire was erected mt Ibe ■ 
rhar^'e of the Inte Mr. Simmons, and Mr Royle, wb% ohttiined a 
Ica^e of the premise* from the Corporation, nnd ex{>ejidefi t>erweea 
T mid SOOOL on the iniprovemcnfs of this part of fbe ealate. ■ 
Tl>e plans were furnished bv the Inte Mr. J. Smeatont and the 
whole liiiildfng exhibits an incontestible proof of the prc-cminefit 
tnlents of thai eckbrated mechanic and engineer. It is of a qttft* I 
drantiilar form, its s>itles nie^suring seiTnti^-lwo feet by fifty 4wo 
tiiet five inches; iti; fHright to the vane, is nearly 100 feel; it con* 
lateB six woiinng-floorB, and lias an olMerval<ory on the middle eC I 
the roof, forming an octagon of sixteen fett in diameter. •* Tl> 
tile gnuding-tloor tite walls are snbsl antral iy built of hncic aod 

stot>e ; from thence to tlve eaves the btiildiiig is continued 
massy tinit>cr, coTcred with pinned weather-boarding, liandsonielj 
and unifonnly sashed, with a liokl block cornice : the whole roof is 
covered with slates. The wheel- thorough s are accurately carved, 
and lined witli jornled Portland stone. The two water-wheels^ 
wliicli putt lie whole iiiHchincry hi mot ion » are sixteen feet in diame^ 
ler, and seven feet wide; the spur-wheels, whose nuts, arma, and 
shafts, are iron, carry eight pair of stones. From the spur-wheels, 
by a continuation of upright iron shafts, motion is given to the 
complicated macliiuery for clcauing tlic com, dressing the flour ; 
and lastly, to the lilting-lackle upon the ui>per floor. The jniU- 
w orksi whidi are disriiici tor each water-wheel, are of iron, where 
it could be properly substituted for wood; and the wliole is fitibb* 
ed with a mcchanit al accuracy, so much to the credit of the seve- 
ral artists employed in ihelr construction, that, though the greatest 
fall of water here never exceeds five feet three inches, this mill l& 
80 powerful as to be ca|>able of grinding and dressing into floui' 
500 quarters of corn weekly/'* 


^ Keniijih Regr«er, Vol. 11. p. ifiQ. Through the facilitiei aflTordei 

^f ibis m\\\i tijc returns from whicti have bctn computed at 40,00OL 
per annum, Mr. Simmons \vai» enabkd coniidcrabiy to mitigate the ae« 
fesiUles of nearly a thousand poor famtliei, dunag the gnrat icarrity in ihe 
year I SOD, by funmbing ihcm with meal at consldetably reduced prket. 


This Clly hm been regtilarly reprewjited In Parliatueiit by two 
BiiTge?ises ever sloce (lie tweitty-third of E<Kvard tli^ First, Tlic 
right of elecHoii is in tbe freemen, the numljer of whom amount* 
to Hbout 1560 1 of these about pOO ate re^irleot, and bOO iiofi-re^ 
dent, Ita]i|>ears from the recor^lt presenetl In Use City chain betj 
that svimi it wm cmtomary to give IVtii^c$ to tlie IMemliers of the 
House of Commons, the piiy of the Burgesses of Cnnterbtiry wa> 
fixed (imjio 1 4 n ) at hro shiiiirjg.^ a tiny far eaclu vi bile sucli Bar* 
gicss was abiieni from his family attending his duty. In i445 the 
wages were no more than tu-elve-ijeiuc athtv: (wo years lifter* 
wards they were iiicreasi^d lo shieen-pence ; and in liO:3, kid 
again been raised to two shilhngi. In Queca M<iry's ri^ign, tlic 
Coq>oratioti refused to conliaue this paymt^at any longer^ and the 
img^s of tbe Members were then levied by assessment on the in- 


Total IL 5s. lOd. Tbe same accounts for 1513 and 1514, contain simU 

lar charges ; and for a pair of new gloves for the Saint, also for pamting 

^he head and angel of the pageant, and for standing of the pageant in a 

'^Murvy to Che amount together of 13s. Sd. Also in 1521 and 1522, a 

^nfment ^ Is. for a staff and banner to bear before the mores pykei 

^^ndtbe gtmBCFs, on St. .Thomas's Eve.'» 

In the year 1500, the expenses of two persons who were sent from 
"^Canterbury to London on city business, were as follows. ** Drink 2d. 
^nVo horses, 2s. Supper at Sittinbournc, 4d. Fire, Id. Drink in the 
^^noming, lid. Horse-meat, 6d. Ferry, l^sl. Two horses to Graves- 
-^nd, 8d. Drink, Id, Dinner, 4d. Barge hire, Od Hire of two 
mantles, 2d. A wherry to Westminster, 4d. Drink, Id. Wherry, IJd. 
Spent going from Lambeth, Id. At London, 2d. Supper for five per- 
sons. Is. Drink in the morning, 2d. Fire, Id. Two beds at Billings- 
gate, 3d. Hostler, Id. Shipman to call ihcm, Id. llieir breakfasts, 
lOd. At Welling, 4d. At Dariford, 5d. Supper at Gravescnd, lid. 
Malmsey wine, IJd. Fire, 2d. Two beds, 2d. Expenses in the 
morning, 2d. Horse-meat at Gravcsend, lOd. Horse to Rochester, 
4d. At the wherry, OJd. At Rochester, 2d. Four horses there, 2s. 8d, 
For carrying the mails from Lambeth to London, 4d. 'jhe like by wa- 
ter to Faversham, Is. and from thence to Canterbury, lOJd. Total of 
the expenses, 17s. 2d.*' 


9U Mwmr. 

hBiMbmts at Inrge, ind were continued to be sb nhei fill Itese 
kind of payiiient^ were altogether discoutiiMied.* 
. Inlhereigilof £dwardtlieFir8tyaDiiol27l»Qr 1272»^rafaiiKMt 
violeot storoi of thuoder and lightiiii^y acoompanied by a tuddea 
IBundatioD, wliich drowned many of the iobabitants of thk city» 
and swept away many of the houacs and other buikliags.t la 
I36l, in a terrible wind here, many trees were overtarned, and 
looft and steeples blown down: < 00 Tart was ks facy/ aaysThom^ 
^ that it seemed as if the whole iiame of the universe w» iBvohned 
in rutn.'J Another tremendous storm of wind oocurred in the woh 
tmnn of 17S5> when vanoos housts and bams in the enriraos of 
the city, were overthrown, and the greatest part of the hop piatt* 
tations in its ne^hbourhood destroyed.§ 

Several shocks of EarthqutAes have, at difierent times, been 
ftlt in this cit\'. On the twenty-first of May, in the year 1382, 


In the tame year, the charges of an entertainmeat givea by the MajK^r 
11 his own bouse, are thus particularized. ** Fay for a diniier ma4e (be 
Vaster Poynings when he came to the city by the King's coo^puHid- 
goent, viz. a dozen and an half of bread. Is. 6d. A bushel of Aoor fiw 
baked meats. Is. A vessel of beer. Is. 6d. Two gaUoai of bastasd^ 
$s. 8d. Three of red wine, and three of claret, at 9d. per gaUoa^ 4s. 
A gallon and a pottle of Malmsey, 2s. For good ale, 8d. A laok of 
coals, 3id. Sugar, S^d. Eggs, 6d. Milk and cream, lid. Sak ish* 
4d» A cod, 4id. Another cod and whitings. Is. ^. A turbot and 
three ells to roast, 2s. Apples, Id. Ginger, mustard, and white tkU^ 
4d% Meat oil, 2d. Rose water. Id. For divers spices, 2t. Td^. T« 
the Apothecary at the Bull-stake, for dates, prunet, almondt^ comfitt^ 
and other spices, 2s. 3d. For making the same dinner, 16d. In wood, 
Cd. Total 11. 7s. 3d4." 

» Hasted, Vol. XII. Additions, p. (^16. 8vo. Edit. 

t Lsl. Coll. Vol. III. p. 419. Ex. Annal. T. Wike. Thorn, Col. 
1^20. Knighton, CoL 2460. 

% Thorn, CoL J122, 

§ Hasted*s Kent, Vol XI. p. 133. 8to« 


010113^ windowt of eliiirc!iGg« attd otltcr Uuiklingf , ni^re 

la easthquaket tbitt h 5;iid to have €\tcadci) tiirotiglj l 

tand : another earthquake^ of some yiokuce» occurred a Sej 
lier, 1^9'^* Tliat " lainiliar fur>'," tl»e Piaguc, has «s«>, ;^ 
rious iiuies^ extended iU nivagea to tbi^ citv ; and tbe years 1 j ; 
15^, i^3, 159-5, and 1(335, arc [larticularl} recorded 10 
tegi&ters of its opcufrence; in the letter year, it continued fpiiit 
the beginjiing of August to the end of October.' 

The memorahk A«iSodation of the Keuti^h men in [mot 0f 
Cliarlea the First, u hicbf after various events, terminated with the 
siege of Colchester, and tlie dealt] a of Sir Charles Luca^ Sit 
<ie4»^ Usle^ und Lord Ca|>cl, had its commence nient in thkcity. 
The particular circum^tauce wlueh led to the asioeiation, occurred 
^ii Chmtiua^day, 1^47, when naany of the inliaUtants of Cau* 
'lerhuryp who had assemhkd to celebrate divine worship according 
to the liturgy of the Church of England, were lotermpled in tiiw 
<le^^] b^ tiie Ftiritan5j and at length, at the llli^Iigalioa of the 
more violent of that party, were treated with insult and ^lersoiial 
TioJence. This was resented; and, as a measure of aecurity, %\m 
iiteulted persons seiiced on the magiuiiies, and placed gyiirdist at 
*ach of the dty gales : thej^ would probably Jiavc proceeded 10 
iurtlier eitticinitie^, had they not been influenced by the persuasions 
of Sir William Munn, Counsellor L(*veldce, and A'dermim SjvijiCj 
who, jointly with the Mayor, a zealous Puritan, drew up aiticles, 
by which it was agreed, that ' no man should be molested or ques- 
tioned for any thing which had been done,* provided that he ' re- 
tired in peace to his own habitation/ The Parhament, however^ 
"^bo probably thought tliat its own authority was involved in the dis- 
pute, sent down a regunent of foot soldiers, who entering the City 
^ ao hostile manner, took down the wooden gates, and Imrued 
them; and also made several breaches in the City Wall on tlie 
^est side. Many persons were then taken up on suspicion oi be- 
ing concerned in the late disturbance, and among them were tlje 
three gentlemen by whose particular exertious it had been quelled^ 


« Hasted's Kent, Vol. XI. p. 131. 



^ho, wTtli several otiicfs, were comnitKed prboners lo Le^ds Oti- 
tic, fie;ir MaiiUtonc, where they %vcre couiiDed upw'ards of two 
lUii^nlhs, but were then nihuitled lo Imil, 

About a fortiiijijfu before tiic ensiling Whitsiintkle, they were 
brought to Iriiil undor a speckil comuiisston of Oyer and Tem*iner, 
in the Caslle^of Canterbury; but the Grand Jur>', though care 
]iad been taki^n to exclude froiii it all those vrho were supposed 
to be any ways disaffected, returned a verdict of ignoramus, to» 
the great displeasure of the judges; and being again ordered out 
to reeon&ider the lull, again came to tlie same decision. This ^ns 
so conlrar)* to the cx|>ectations of tlie bench, lliat some sharp ob- 
ocrvations were marie on the conduct of the jurors, nhicli ex* 
cited so much displeasure, that the hitter immediately assemblerf, 
and, after a long discussion on the political stale of the Kingdom^ 
drew up a petition tn the Parliament, iccjuesting. in the name of 
all the inhabitants of Ihe county, lliat die ' King might be admitted 
to treat %vilh both Houses in siifety and honor;' that the * army 
itu*^lil Ih* disbanded;* tiiaf I lie * subjects of the realm be governed 
and judged by their undoubted birthright, tlie known and esta* 
lilished laws of the liingdom;' and that property be iio longef 
• invaded by innMi!>iLioiis and taxes,** 


* Ttu$ reiitian was drawn up In the followbg wordi: 

To the Right Honourable ihe Lord* and Com mom asiembled ia 

Partiamen! ai West minster. 

The humble Petitinn of the Knights, Gentry, Clergy, and Commonalty, 
of the County of Kent, subKribed by the Grand Jury on the tltb 
Mav, l6-tit» at a hes^ions of the Judges^ upon a ipectal Commiuioii 
of Oyer and Terminer, held at the Caitle of Canterbury, in th« 
«aid County, 
Thai ihe deep sense of our own miseries, with a fellow •^feeling of thi 

di&cuntenis of other couiiiiea exposed to the like mfTenngs, prevailetll 

with ui thus humbly to present to yoar honour* these our ardent dciireik 
I. lliat our most gracloui Sovereign Lord King Charles, may* wii 

all ipeedj be admit ted^ in safety and honour, to treat with his t« 




Thfs Peritioo was approved by most of the gentry and clergy 
throughout Kent , and the many copies of it which were dbtrihnt* 
cd for signature, were ordered to be delKered in at Rochester, on 
the t29th of May, iG^S; and mlimation wa^ given^ that alt who 
%mhed to attend the presenting it to the House, should assemble 
for that purpose at Blackheath on the folbwin^ nioroinj^. Before 
this could be accomplished « the S[)eaker of tlie House of Com* 
inous was ordered to send letters to the Lieutenants of the county^ 
and others^ autliorising tliem to suppress the Petition, and to seize 
all those wlio were most active m its support. Ttiese measures 
exdted a very strong ferment ; and the supporters of the Petition 
lesoived to maintain their claims by force of arms ; the parliamen- 
tary committees having already issued orders for tjie trained bands 
of the county to assemble at their respective places of rendezvous* 

Vol. VIL ApriLj 1 807* N n ii With 

Houses of Parliament^ for the per feci settling of the peice, boih of 
Church and Commnfiweatthi as aho of hi» own just nghtSi together 
with tho«e of tbc Parliament. 

II. That, for prevention and removal of the manifold inconveniencie* 
occasioned by the continuance of the present army under the command 
of the L^rd Fairfai, chcir arrears may be forthwith audited^ and they 

ML That, according to the fundamental conititution of this Common- 
iivealthf we may, for the future, be governed and judged by the English 
nljecti* ondoubted birth.^right, the known and established lawt of the 
kfogdom, and not otherwise. 

IV. 'lliat, according to the petition of our right, our property may 
HOI be invaded by any taies or impojiitions whatsoever; and particularly, 
thit the heavy burthen of exciJte may no bngei be continued, or here* 
afier imposed upon u»* 

All v.bich our earnest desiresi we humbly recommend to yourseriout 

ccia lideraiiont, not doubting of that ipeedy satisfaction therein which the 

case req^irei^ and we humbly expect. ^\ hereby we may hope to lea 

(wriiat otherwise we cannot but desp.iir of) a speedy and happy end to 

liio^c prcfsurcs and distempers, which continuance witi inevitably ruin 

tocli ourselves and posicri ties. Your timely prevention whereof, by a 

in 1.A tual agreement to wliat we here propose, in order thereunto, thall 

ob I f ^e u» ever to pray. 





Wilii thttf intctit thry seized on scveml el<*pAt<t of nmnitinitbn; aiid, 
tit a Helt-atlended mcetmsj held nt Caiit^rimrv, on Ihc ?3d o( 
Ma%% it wuLS resolved, tirat they had a rii»ht to *t3ip their grievances 
tu Purhanietit; and that, if cin^umstdnres reqiured it, they sliould 
march with the * Sworrl in otic hand, and the Petition in the other/ 
A sreiieral Council was then ibmied, and Coinmissiontn were ajv 
potnted, tor the more safe ancj elfectiia] coin[>1etion of iJiesc de- 
flgns* Two reginients were ordered to be raised ; the one of hone, 
under the command of Colonel Hattan, and the ottier of foot, 
under the command of Colonel Kohert Ifaminond : hirgc suhscrip- 
Itons were M the same time made for the f>aynient of the officers 
and soldiers. Nearly all the prif)cri>al inhabitants of Elast Kent 
hvtd now eiigaj»ed in the association : and their dependants and 
partirans asscmbUng in formidable mitnben^ they soon fotind 
ll«?msclves sufficiently strong to take possession of the Castles of 
Deal and Walmer: tliey aUo endeavoured to secure the Castle of 
Dovefi but in this they did not succeed. 

The day appointed to prcAcul ihe Petition being now at Itand, 
the Comniissioners assenibled at Rorliestcr, where tliey received 
fiotice, that the House of Connnom had issued orders to the Lord 
Fairfax to march against them with his anny : a general council 
was then held, in which it was determined, that all llic forces in 
the interest of tliose engaged to support the Petition, should ren* 
dcjtvous on Harnham Do^^ tis, about mid-way between Rodieiler 
and Maidstone: this they accordmgly did^ to the number of about 
7000, when George Goring, Earl of Norwich » was declared Ge- 
iierah Tliey afterwards ativanced to Elackheath, in expectation 
of reinforcements; but hcatiug that tlie Parliament array was in 
motion, they retreated in two bodies, one of which took post nt 
Maidstone, and was surprised, and totally routed^ on the Ibllow* 
tng night, by Lord Fairfax » In tliis exigency, the Eart of Nor< 
wich held a council of war, in w hich it was decided, that the 
maiu army should again march on towards London, as, by so 
doing, they shonld be coiitmually drawing nearur to the couatiet 
of Susseic and Essex, the inhabitants of which had engaged to 
join ia the assodatiou. In [misuance of tiiis plan, lliey marchetl - 



cm to Dartford» where they inived about mitlni^ht, and where 
th€ General was infomiefl by a messenger from Essex, that that 
counTy w^s ready \o join him, 2000 men fraving been already as- 
sembled at Bow, and more at Clielm?ifofd. The design was now 
formed of providing boats to convey the army across the Thames; 
but ihe Geuenil first wi*hiag to be assured whether tlie aspect of 
a^irs in Essex was so favorable as the messenger had represented, 
rrossed himself into that county, and was much surprised to find^ 
ofi his arrival at Bow, that no troops were as^^embled there, or 
in the vicmity, eitcepting such as were in the interest of the Par- 
Hament. He therefore rode on to Chelmsford ^ that he might de- 
tennine in what degree he conld confide in the promises of support 
which Ind been given him. During his absence, however, from 
his troops, who had a second time reached Blackheath, and were 
but ill supplied with provisions, such various contradictory reports 
were spread, that the soldiers began to steal away privately, and 
retire to their own homes, by which means their numbers were 
greatly reduced. The remainder, though in great confusion, found 
means to cross the river untler the conduct of Major General 
Compton, and marched forward over Bow Bridge to Stratford, 
where lliey met the Earl of Norwich on his return: he immediate 
ly ordered thcni what refreshment the place afforded, and having 
posled strong guards on the diifereot passages of the river, directed 
tlwni to quarter at Stratford till further orders. Here they con* 
tioiied five days, awaiting the decision of die Essex gentry, many 
cf whom were at length prevailed on, by tiie exertions of Sir 
Charles Lucas, to aid their design. The Kentish men were then 
ordered to march to Chelmsford, and were joined in their way, 
by arvenl parties erf horse and foot At Chelmsford their num- 
beit were increased by the party of Lord Capel, from Hertford- 
Aile; yet even with these addilions^ the whole body scarcely 
to 4000 men* This force bi'ing wholly insufficient to 
the array of Lord Fairfax, which was rapidly ad- 
Ttticmg, it was now detennined to retreat to Colchester, where, 
after enduring a sie^ of eleven weeks, and sustaining almost every 

N u o 2 kind 


9'26 KENT. 

kiiid of privatioQ, tliey were eompelled to funender.* The in 
pacity of the Euri of Norwich to eiecate the important duties of 
the station to which he had been raised, is thought to hafe beeo 
the principal cause of the Mure of this attempt to fntore the aiip 
thority of the Sovereign. 

The dissolution of Religious Houses proved a great check to 
the long-continued prosperity of this city; and the nihabitarta |M(r 
ing no longer enriclied by the expenditure of pilgrims, and other 
strangers, whom the oekbrity of its monastic institutioiiB had at- 
tracted for centuries, began to experience the evib of poveitj and 
want. From these causes the population decreased, and jMsqr of 
the buildings became ruinous; nor was it till after the penecntioD 
of the Protestants in the Low Countries, under the Duke of Alva^ 
in the latter part of tlie reign of Edward the Sixth, that its busi- 
ness began to revive. On that occasion many of the inhabitaais 
of Brabant and Flanders sought refuge in England, and having 
obtained the patronage of Elisabeth, tliey setded m difierent parts 
of the eountiy, carrying with them the knowledge of the vaiioos 
manufactures in which they had been engaged in theur native fauid. 
/< Those who were weavers in silks and stuA, made choice of Can- 
terbuiy for their habitatioD, where they m%ht have the benefit of 
the river, and an easy communication with the Metropolis: for 
this purpose they had the Queen's letters of license in her tUid 
year, directed to the Mayor, for such <^them as should be first 
approved by the Archbishop, to remain here for the purpose of 
exercising then: trades, so that they did not exceed a certain num- 
ber therein mentioned, and as many servants as were neoesmy to 
cany on their business; and tbb to be without any pay fixNB tbens, 
hindrance, or molestation whatever. Those who were then per- 
mitted to settle in Canterbury, consisted of only eigliteen honse* 
keepers, besides children and servants. On theur amva^ they 
joined in a petitkm to the Mayor and Aldermen for the grant of 
certain privileges for their convenience and protection: and the 


* See the particolsn of the Siege m Vol. V. p. 304—606. and a full 
Account of this Rising in Matthew Carter's Relation of it, a small tract : 
LondoDi lOaO, 12mo. See also Cens, Lit, Vol. L p. 164. 


KENT. 921 

Qneen, as a further maik of her favor, in 1561 » granted to them 

tAe undercroft of the Cathedral Church, as a place of worship for 

tJionselvei and their successors. Afterwards, the |)ersecutioii for 

r^f^poa still continuing abroad, the number of these refugees muU 

^^ilied ao exceedingly, that, in l634, the number of oonimuni- 

'^SMits IB the Walloon Church was increased to 9OO; and there was 

^almbtied to be of these refugees ui the whole kingdom 521 S, 

I VKNc employed in instructing the English in weaving silk, col- 

Hid woollen goods; in combing, spinning, and making di£- 

t kinds of yams, worsted, crewels, dec. About the beginning 

*^»f dtuks the Second's reign, anno ]665, there were in Canter- 

Imrj 126 master weavers, their whole number amounting here to 

-meuAj 1300, and they employed 759 English; so that the King 

^Vhooght proper to grant them a charter in 1676, by which it ap* 

Jfmn^ that their number here was then but little sliort of 2500, 

J^ this charter they were enabled to become a company, by the 

-jmam and description of the Master, Wardens, Assistants, and 

f eHowship, of Weavers.*^ The revocation of the Edict of Nanti» 

la die year l685, occasioned a fresli influx of refugees mto this 

cQuitry« and great numbers of them again settled at Canterbury, 

«here» by their industry, and by introducing new articles of m»> 

nn&cture, they considerably improved the condition of the labor* 

ing classes, who now foiiiHi full eiiiployineiit in the fabricating of 

lustrings, brocades, satins, &c. Since that period, tiie silk trade 

has gradually declined, from a concurrence of various circum- 

stances, but particularly from the rapid extension of the cotton 

branchy through the important inventions in machinery of Sir 

Richard Arkwriglit, and others. To provide labor for the dis* 

tressed workmen, tlie manufacture of cottons was at length intro* 

dured into this city, about the year 1/89, by the public spirit of 

Mr. John Callaway, who was Master of the Weaver's Company, 

and who also di!»covcred a method of fabricathig the piece goods 

called Canterbury and Chan^eny umslins, damasks, &:c, in wiiich 

both cotton twist and silk were united in the same fabric. This 

kiud of manufacture still flourishes; and though now curried on 

N n n 3 

Hasicd's Kent, Vol, XI. p. 94, Bvo. 


I. of tlie Iskod, the g<M>ds »tl]| retain the name <if 
ted cojnputes ttiat ihe iitiniber of mco^ wonim, 
npiloy^d in Ih^ difFeretit braQcb€d of tlic iilk, cot- 
fades, aiiioiinU to about 1000. 
inhabitants of this City are engaged io the rultka- 
ind great numbers of the Isbonog poor are con-^ 
I in the Delghbouriiig hop-grounds, whilst tlie more 
derive support from preparing the bags into witich 
itaU The tiop-plantatintis wiflHii the dreiiit of two 
round Canterburjs include opwards of 2000 nerrs 
igh a great number of acres have been grubbed tip 
JUT or five yeara^ through the fall of price In hopi* 
supposed to have been fir^t pved in the reign of 
ufth, when an Act of Paiiinnieiit i«^i obtained for 
1 before which the eommon wayi are stated to 
li noisome and dangerous/ Within the >ast tliirty 
t lias undergone great al(eratioti«, and been mucli 
genera! appearance, A new Ad for ptving, light* 
ng the City, was piifsed in the year 1787; aad 
the entrtmce« both from Ashford and Dovef htre 
y making new and more convenient roadi. lit 
mprovements, however, tbat attention to the pit* 
nent and curious buildings, whirh ought ttlways to 
>o frequently forgotten ; and in some instances tbe 
vatMHt was oirned ttt a reprehensible extent* A 




igh-Slrret, were eri*cfetl in the year IJiO, in place of Ihe mor« 
ciciil £>[iiiiubkji Hbkh stood in llie niiddie t*f' llie streel itself. 
!»e Butier Market, where also poultry, giirdcD-stufii ihiits, ^c, 
sold* is nearly opjwsitc to the great gate of tjje Catliednil, and 
cupies the site of tlie ancient Bull-Stake, where the city butchers 
ire accustomed to bail tlieir bulls previous to killing them, that 
ley raigfil make them, * proper meat, and fit to be eaten;' Here 
stood a Cross tliat was built iu tlic year 1446, but takeu down 
the year 16'45, by tlie Mayor of Canterbury* The old hnild- 
ig at the Butter Market, which was erected by Mr^ John Somner, 
ther to tlic antiquary of that name, aad the upper part of 
hich had been long used Rs a theatre, was taken down in the 
r 1789» by order of the Coq>onition, who, in that and the 
llowinj^ >*ear, erected tl»c present structure for the convenience 
tlie market people: it chiefly consists of a circular roof, sup|K>rt* 
oti wooden pillars. Tiie Cattle Market is just wilbout St* 
orge*6 Gate, upon ttie site of the City ditch, and 1ms been field 
the same spot troni time iuiniemorial. It is now regulated 
Act of Parliament; and occupies a spacious site, commodtousJy 
ted up for I he purpose. The principal market-day is Saturday; 
t thea- b another market on Wednesdays, and a good hsh market 
daily. Provistoiui are plentiful, though not so reasonabk as for- 
merly, owing to the great munbers of military now cjuartered in 
^and near the City* Several Fairs for toys and (ledlary are held 
iMinimlly 111 tlie dilTerent parislies, *' mostly on tin: days of tlie 
lilts to \^hom the res|>ective Ch 11 rdies are dedicated ; besides 
liich, there is a principal fair, held ycajly on October lOlh, in 
llie Catlie4irEl Cliurch-yard, usually called Jack and Joan a Fuir^ 
from its being a statute fair for the hiring of senunts of hotJi sexes: 
it continues till the second Saturday or market-day of llie City has 


The public Assaiihltf Roomst at the comer of St, Margaret's, 
In the High-Street, were partly erected by subscritition of tlie geni- 
tr^^ of East Kent: the Ball- Room i:^ a very large and elegant apart- 
ment. Beneath it is a public Bank: a second Bank has been also 
estiiblishefl at a little distance. The Canterbury Theatre is a hand- 

N n ii i^ uixm 


Standing in Prince of Orange Street i H was fi^"^ 
vear 17i)0, having been built at the sole charge ^crf 

|loii of this City hns greatly increased since the 

the late war, anrl the erection of permanent Bat 

military, on tlie high road to Thanet, about ha. 

4orth-(jlate, The Hojfal Cavalry Barracks wei 

I in tKe year 179^, at the eaipejue of about 40,000] 

Ipurchase of sixteen acres of ground. They fbm^iKii 

quadrangle ; Uie centre building contains the fipait-^^S^ 

oflicers; those at tlie afdes contain the lodgings fo^^^ -^r 

vith ranges of stabling, &c- The front is leit o] 

I^L of exercise, and the whole u surrounded with t 

the situation i^ very pleasant and healthful. Neai 

titional Barracks, for 2000 infantry, were erectei 

liave since been made a permanent station for detacfi .mh 

IovhI Horse and Foot Artillery^ New buildings^ foj^m -^t 

ilie military, are now constructing, as has beer»-^n 

ihe gronnd formerly belonging to St, Gregory 's^"" *s 

(i liferent parts of the City^ are abo temporary bar — ^^-^r- 

citvutry and iiil;jntry. From the returns made ui 

|)f I WO, it appears that the population of the City 

[>f Canterbury, amounted at that time to 11,413...^ 

[ tlie sf>ldiery : it h supposed, however, that the pre^—- 

inhabitant?! is between 12 and 13,000: the number — ~ 

•cr.NT. J^Jf 

Among the more i^inarkub]^ dmim^fnnfes rrbfirtg m \hm 
Police of Urn CilVj tarn lie menlioueJ lh<? (ollowii»ff: in iUt foriy- 
eigbtb of tlie reign ot' Henry the Tlurd, jis iijjf ean trotn tli« Par 
tfnt Ec4k of thur yeEr, quol^il Uy Pbilifxit, I he Ktii^* i^ntnted « 
free psidon to Frances fie Babhuin, ' ftir ibat aht was I tariffed tor 
lekifiy at Cooterbnry, frnm niiie aVlock on .^foiKk^ to tbe rmng 
of Ihe sun next ilay, mud yet esmijed w ith JiJ'e/* In ihe year 
1571* as» apj>eari from the City Krrord^^ tlie ftum o^* nitHv^R'ncc 
wm pmd for ' writing ppers for witches;' nnd the Grun*l Jury 
present ^ Motlier Hudson, of tlie jiarisli of St, Mury Dungr^oi^ tor 
that tbey vehemeutl}' suspect l»<r la }>e a witch/ In 1580, die 
Gtatid Jury present three persons d Helling In St. Andrew;*, * for 
keeping open shop^ they bein£^ unnuinieJ, and under the a^e of 
thirty year»/ At a sessions jieht here in 1(>56\ one John Akocke 
tras fo4iod guilty of murder; but execution wa5 ^tatd on hi« du- 
ckling himself to be a Clerk, and craving the benefit ot' clergy, 
^'niereupon,^ &aystbe record, * cotnes Janies Lumb, Clerk ei»d Ordt* 
nary, and tbe book being delivered iinto the said John Alcocke, tbe 
m<\ John Akocke did read as a Clerk :' he was therelbre only burned 
b the left haud^ according to tlie statute* In 1 560, »eveml |>ei^oiis 
were executed here for witchcnirtt The Ducking or Cucking Siaol^ 
appears to have been in use in this city, as a new one is recorded to 
haire been provided in the year I520j and the (irand Jurj; m 
1537 f ** present the wife of John Tyler for living viciously, and 
for tbe which her husband had forsaken her; and the Jury de^ 
she might be banished by the feast of St. James next, under pam 
of opes pnnishnient in the duckiug-stooK" 

Widi the most celebrated natives of this City are enumerate4 
Dr. Thomas Linacre; William Soniner, Esq. the antiquary; adi 
Un^AfraBehn, the poetess. 

Be. Thomas Linacre, whom Weerer h^ erroneously staled 
to bave been a native of Derby, and who has immortalized his 
name by having been the founder of the Royal College of Phy»' 
daos, was bom m this dty m the year 146'0. He wras taught tbe 


♦ Villarc Cantianum, p. 93. 


jcatioii Iv tUe learned Prior of Cbmt Clmrdt^ 

Vkliom he accoujpanied on Lib emba^y to Ibe 

it] 14^i)0» where he iicqiitred a raost exten^iTe 

Greek and i^Un languages. Soon after hb rc- 

be wai nppoJDied Tutor and Physician to the 

lur : be atkn^ arda became Physician to Henry the 

}iis deatb, was ronthmetl iu the same situation by 

lie icieuce of pbyiik ivaa at that time in the moit 

|tt}>le stHte, arid tbe very protession itjiclf bad be^ 

y the jguorriLice of \U praetitioners^ To rem^y 

inacre projccled the plan of incorporating the 

itlon, »iid be obtained a Putent for tbe pufposCf 

to Cardinal W'olsey, H^e meetings were at ^rst 

r's bouse in Knigbt-llider Street; aud he himself 

f President till I be time of his deatb, in 1524. 

u?<ly to ibis^ however^ be commenced tbe study 

ving entered into bnly orders, was promoted to a 

Ibe Calbrdiul of Wells and of York, lie died 

y-fonr, and was buried ia St. Pauli Calbedral, 

of bis bfe and character, writteu by the famous 

jwas in^rlbed on his moouinent, 

MNER, Esq. was bom in March 1^06^ tn the 

iirgarefs; and was so well plrased^ ^ys bb bio- 

eiinel, ^* vulb his lot of brenthing first in Ibis 


iumcnt were vpty prcaf, from the want of prccur^son in that 
le, he acquift'd surh ii romplefc kiioHlerfj^e of ir, as to crititle 
tiioi to the prHi!fies of tlie ino»t erudite s^fioliirs. The * Glngsaiy 
■ the Decern Scripiorcs n^as written b^ bini, {uiil led the way to 
wm * Saxon Dictioiiaiy/ which was ptiblialieirl in l(\5g: in the fol- 
hwmg year appeared his celebrated * Treatise on Gavel-kind/ 
fc died in l666, and was buried in St Margaret's;* having not 
ftly contributed to advance tlie interests of literature by his own 
publication^ but also by ver\' hWrally assii$ling the learned writers 
fats time^ ID whatever fell within the scope of bis own coune of 

I^Irs. Apra Behn, whose maiden name w^as Johnson, was 
io the retgn of Charles the First, probably ahout the vear 
% and when very youn^ was cBrnV^d Io the West Indies, her 
r having been apjwinted Deutenaut-Goverrior of Surinam, 
however, died on his passagfe, yet his family proceeded Io 
settletnent ; and there his daughter became acquauited with 
American Prince Oroonoko, wlio^c adventures she aflenvards 
ftbed in a novel of that name, On her return to England Jihe 
tried a Dutch merchant, named Behn, and having been intro- 
■ed at Court, was thought to possess sufficient address for state 
igues; and was in consequence emjiloyed as a sj>y in Holland,, 
the commencement of the Dutch war. She fixed her resi- 
at Antwerj>; and, by means of a gidlant, she discovered the 
nlion of the Dutcli to sail up the Thames, and hum the Eng- 
shipping : this intelligence being disbelieved by the Court, oc* 
her to relinquish her employment in disf;uit; and, after 
lime, she returned to London, where she * devoted herself 
pleasure and the Muses/ She possessed a lively fancy; and 
irr conversation is said to have been particularly witty and interest* 
Her poems, and other writings, partake too strongly of the 
itious clmracter of the limes in which she lived ; yet they dis^ 


See hti Epitaph, p. 005. When his life was written by White 
et, in ld03j his grave was neither * distittguishcd l>y stone noft 

Iciiius, and an rxuhtrance of inrcTiftofi aiid Im- 
|>re attention would easily have conducted to ex- 

voriotis liistories and novels, she wrote seveii- 
l^pe volumes of mhceWmiy jioemn : ahe a!so trans- 

Plurdlity of Worlds, and History of Oracles. 
, \6^Q, and was btiried hi Wcstmiiiitcr Abbey, 

has been erected to her niejnoryi ^ 

lie t>om Canterbury, on the road to TJVWtstabTev 
f's HILL, is a iR-at house, built by the late Co- 
Iriu lib widow now re^des, and the windows of 
tine ^Jie views o\ er the City of Canterbury* 
^'lURRY was E^iven, by King EtJielbert, lo the 
^uf^usiinc, and it conttnucd to belong to the 
tolution : it is now llie pro^ierty of Robert Foote, 
. The vilbge called Slurry Street ^ con^ts 
es, situated on the high road to the Ule of Tha- 
i-east side of the river Stour. Tl»€ Chitrch is a 


^ ^ '^ KENT, Jif 

I Toirtf, of which he li:i«l before been limit cnnDt4joveni0r. Ob* 
I latuiJig his relcaH\ Ucafu-rwanis wettt to Fi^oee^ where King Jetties 
I ffN^ved iHiii with luudi frJend^ip, and cre^t^U him Eurl af Teu- 
I tenien, and \'i%coant Tuiistall Tlie ancieitt niiiision, or PtacM 
I limuf^ of Sf, Ste|)hf>ii*K was jiuISed dowri hy tbc ktc Bvirfiuct, 
I idiOt in i\tc ycur IT^^i bc^n a ihhv and luofe exleiistve huiitlbg^ 
I ill a nior« pUf4<iaat ^tii^ition. tt stands on a caiiimmiditig tmuienct*, 
I dud rojut^t^ of a i$|}adous hodv, and two h ings for oitices, built 
I of brick, in the lomc Order, with stotie }Mith& mid mnucmj* 
I Mmy tniprovemi'iits have alw (>een made in tlie park aiul grouwli^ 
I H tilth occupy a GQiisidcmble extenCf and iiicbde some tine sceiicry, 
I Hi€ Ch^rckt which is dedicated to St Stephen, h built In th« 
I form of a cros», ^ itli a tower, atirwiouiited h^ a low spiie, at the 
I iresl end, Ttie principal psut was erected about the tinte of Arcli* 
I lu4iop Baldwin, who is stated to have be^n to rebuild it witb 
ii^onet it having beeu prcviou^Jy of timber. The south cross win 
^tl,buiJt %S]f% UoGRR Ma Pi woo Dp who lies buried here in « 
Attf^ vault, made in Kls life-time: on his tomb, whidihe meulioni 
an bis i^ill, to '* have aboe newe made ihere/* b his bust, in hit 
^aroii*st rolies, and cap, with the Jigwrcs beneath, of hiii two wivei 
^»d five childrou, kaeeling, &c. On tablets of black marblc» al 
^lie side» of the bust, are long inscriptions in Latin; and below it 
m^^^ ms tbUow^: 

Injudicio rum est pcrsonarum respectus ; 
MaMTQTt tiovis.uma, et iterum turn peccabis : 

Rogeriu Mamvaod, arndger ; 
xxiii aprilis, 1567, itrvient ad l^em; 
xiiii octobris, \bV2, Justiciarius de Banco; 
svil fiovembris, ISIS, miles, et capitaiu Baro Scaccarii. 

Disce mori mundo, vivere (Usee Deo, 
ObiU xiiH die decembris, annd Domini, 1592. 

On the flata, in the Parish of SEA^ALTER, a hve Whale was 
driven on shore in Decembefy 1763: its length was about fifly>iix 
feet. In the Domesday Book, Se-saltre is called a small Borough, 

* An Act btely passed, to enable the present Baronet to letiea the 

Siize by pulling down a part. 


MscribccI a* hmlng n Cliureh ami *ifbt Fisb*rl^s, Tlie 
!?kiiigii m llie Dt-Hii iiiitl Chaptf T t»f CanlcrbuiT, wUo Imi** 
r fi*li«iy near the slicirc, the gn^utHb of which urc !ea»«d 
ec flre<li*er-mcii oi' I lib Piiri»h. 

"STABLE SniEET, which is (wrlly iti III* I^riaJi of Sc^ 
n^ partly in that of Whitatilite, ia a tmaU but pofiolcmS 
iriiieiiialh inhabited by pcrw>fii eiisjJiijed in tin? Ovstrr 
>r other nmritiTiie occiipatiofis : the number of boats riti- 
1 ^K oj^ster tntife ia Ketwr**ti Kevi*nty and H^hty* Tlie 
Whttstttble u iilsa fTeTjtjenttrd Uy M*vrnil Ctifllen, whirb 
e inliabitawts of Cautcrbury, and iu lieighbtmrliootl^ mnh 
id by three lloyi, wbieh are eou^t^nlty en^^d in the 
ce of goods to and from London, Hie Salt Margies ad- 
the villagic, ba%(* been drained, und conv<?rl€d intt> nmlde 
lear the s<^-shore are scvt^nil Copptrm^Hm^s^ mtd luere 
?otne Salt-works, In tlie \ear 176!, a pemarkablc Sealed 
bt hi a shallow water on tl>i» toai(t, wfiere it had been left 
:ide; it meafured lix feet in lengthy and one foot eight 
>nnd; fts weight was npwuTds of thirty pounds. The 



rkt«^ 4.«. A n e^i„ 




whicli, sa}'*S Lelaod, he * bmldeti his fnire house for thi; coTiio<)it« 

of preserviiip; \m hell It/ Hfrc also are seteral uicmoriab for tiK 

tfiintily of MtKcs, who, for sevewl generations, resided at tlic Rec- 

tory-house in tUin Pumh; mud one of whom, Chkistdfhsr 

Mill Ed. Emj. was ** sometime Clerk of Queen Amvs Robes; 

aOerwuitls suece&sively swontc of King James and King Churtes*i 

hoitoumhlc Privy Chamber." lu Uie chancel is a murat dkk 

It for Sir William Thorn hurst, Bart, on whirl j is his 

kneeling at a de»k : he died in JulVt I606, in his thir(\-iir< 

Among the ancient Brasses remaining in Um ChnrtJi, k tlie 

^Jigtire of Liidy Hiehp^ uii'e of Mattliew Phelip, aomelimc Lord 

rlaj'or of London; she died in May, 1470, and is represented with 

gold chain, in the dress of the times. In the old register of tliis 

*an?>h, the following singular cotry occui's under lire dale of 1565: 

Joim Jarvys Iwd two woe men children baptised at home, joyned 

together in the belly, and havyng each the one of their arms iytnge 

one o( their own shoulders, and in all other parts well propor- 

iioDed diildren: buryed Aug. 29**' llenie was tlie tirst Cnrc of 

file pious Ridley, af^envards Bishop of Rochester and London; 

here be resided for several years, discharsring the datien of brs 

toral office with great zeal. He was collated to ihis viearagie 

1538, by Archbi^fiop Crunmer, uilh whom he lived in habits 

fjof fnendship, and fref|ni'ully visited at tfte Archiepiscopal Palwce 

Ford. At Heme Bay h a suuU Balhti)? plai^, resorted to by 

[ie hdiabitants of Canterbury* To this Buy belong two Hoys, 

each about sixty tons burthen, wbiih sail alternately to Londoii 

ery week, w ith corn, hops, flour, &c. Several Colliers also fre- 

1 this haven. 
In the chanttel, nearly opposite to •* Heme Bay," is the Pan 
so called from the abundance of fragments of Roman 
len-ware, anri some entire pans, which have been found here 
tbe oyster-dredger^, and which aie traditionally said to have 
fbnned the lading of a vessel that was wrecked here many ages 
3igo. The late Governor Pownall, in a letter published m ihe tilHi 
▼olnme of Ihe Arch^ratogia, conjectured tJiis rock to have heen 
Ihe lite of a Uonian pottery ; but hb opinion was successfully ci>n* 


iip\t volume of the same work, by the late Ed^ 
I]. i>f Favetisliiijn, unci the late Georj^e Kcate^ ^aq~ 

I ii\ FORD, which was psirtly situated in tJie Parisli 
|;irrly in that of Ch islet, was one of the moat me;- 
It fbe Arrhli^hnps of this See; but it was rtciDolbb' 
tur 16"5S» the iTiatcmls bdvhig been sold by the 
[^clibis^hop Craiiiiier frequently resided here; and 

5^1 ve tiitertaiiiuieiit and lod«;iiig to Heury tbe 

lilt Sovcretgii w'ds proceeding to Dover, in the sum- 

m^ hk WLjy to I be Conthietrt. Some fragments oC 

of the ^tcway, are now standing. The P^k^ 

II II bout 170 acres, ^ttll retains its name ^ at doet 
I hough both have long been appropriated to otbei 

[^tiwjy which in fortiier ages separated the Mt of 

umt\ lattd, xvas in the RoinEu times an important 

lis tlie ginienil passa^ tor shipping between tbe 

1 1 \ toil t h of I h c ^ 1i a 1 nes. Its rra me is variously spelt 

Ls: T:icitu>i calls it PORTUS RUTUPENSIS ; 

iTLri/L; miil Arjloiiiuus, PaTUPlS POETUM, Tlic 

\iipfi£, iis appears from the manner in wbicli it ImB 

pther uuthors, npplles not only to the Haren, or 

iilso lo the C a?. ties of Rcculver and Rkliborongh, 

rb ditlcrent enJ ranees, Tlie account of I he Poitns 

tiveu i>y the Rev. John Battel y, Archd^con of Can* 



in 2 ven narrow cbaunel, flows betvv*?cii I hem, y< t, if we rccoUfiGt 
tilt oi4 f4cc of tlie coutitr}' as it U drawn by uncknt writers, and 
liew it witli tlic eye of the iiiiiid, we shall soon discover the port 
Rutupi»^ the most celebrated in all Britain, llie drought, or 
scautiitrss of water^ which no^\ upjicHrs, was not of old : for Solinus^* 
tlie 6r8t Roman w nter who meiitjons tiie IsJc of Thunet, says, that 
il ii washed by the Straits of Gaul, and separated from Uie conritient 
ofBiilaia by a small estuary. But ifiis Ciituary, which Solimis calls 
i small one, Bedef says, was ' abotit three furlongs io breacHbw' 
for these are the words of that venerable writer: '* On the custcm 

Ictmst of Kent is Tlianct, no small Island, containing, according to 
tbe measurement used in Etigland, six hundred families, (or htdeis,) 
Bd seporatetl fiom the continent by the river Wantsunui, which h 
)fk breadtl) about three furlongs^ and Is pasisable only in two places, 
kt both its mouths extoiKl into the sea/* — Tiie chartrr of King 
EarJbert I has transmitted to us the name^ of both thew passages, 
mid admirably illustrates ami confinns the narrative of Bede, 
i Tli^e are the words of that Prince: " 1 give," says he, ** llie 
I tncooie of two ferr^-boats at the place whose nan)c is Serr,§ in 
f tbe flRDie manticr as a tax was long abo granted by Ethel bald and 
O^ ILiiigs of tJie Mercians, at a j)lacc whose name is Lunden- 
,"|| These are the two passages into the Island luentioned by 
of whiclt the former now communicates with Sarr by a small 
brid^sil and the latter at Lunden-wic, or Sandwich, is pa*- 
Vol. Vll, Apbil, 1807- O o o sable 


** Chap. XXIV. 

t Hist. Ecclei. I. 25. 

als of St. AugUitine*! ^fonastery, and I^tin MS* in the Librarf 
of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

$ Sarr, in tlie bile of IhaacCi 

[l Sandwich. See Somner on the • Roman Porfi and Forti in Kent/ 
0. Il wai c&tled Lundcn-wic, or the Port of London, rromits being 
? place where fuch as were bound to London from France first landt^d. 

% Thii bridge is now of brick* 


atble only m iKMits.* We read, in mir annals, tfiat an EngBdkf 
fleet, siich as b no where mentioned in the history of any other Kiogt 
sailing to Sandwich, Gontnined there; that Turiull,! with his fleet, 
came to England, and being .joined hy another inmmtefahle fleet of 
Danes, entered the Haven of Sandwich ; that the fleet of HaroM, 
after ravaging the eastern coast of Kent, proceeded from Sandarldi 
t6 Northmuth, and from thence towards London.§ And here, bj 
the way, it seems strange that Somner|tand Gibson IT sbooM eoigco- 
tnre that Northmuth was at the mouth of the Medway ; fbr^ m tbe 
first place, who is ignomit that the passage by sea to London lies 
through the mouth of the Thames, not of the Medway? In Ike 
Map of Lambard,*^ the nam^ of Nordimuth is given to thenoitb- 
em mouth of the Wantsume, or Stour. Harrison,tt in hb aecn- 
rate description of Britain, is of the same opinion, and saya ttiat 
** Northmnth is seven miles distant from Sandwich* Lasdy, tbe 
boundaries of the lands granted by King &dred to the Mooasleiy 
of Recidver, which are pablished in Saxon,^ P^^ee Nmtiimulh dso 
in the district of Reculver. Tliese, I trust, are s ofl k i en t proofs 
that the fleet of Harold steered between the Isle of Tfaanet and 
the continent of Britain, and sailed from Sandwich towards Loo- 
don tlirougfa the northern mouth of tbe river Wantsume, or 
Northmuth. So large was the river! A most iirefiragable argu- 
ment tliat the level, through which it flows, was formerly naviga- 
ble! After this, it b needless to quote the description of this 


"* A Bridge was built there by Act of Parliament, in the yean 11 $6 and 
1757, which was made a balance Bridge in the year 1762. 

t Saxon Chronicle, on the year M.IX. 

J Florence of Worceiter, on the year M.IX. 

§ Saxon Chronicle, on the year M.LI I. 

I Saxon Dictionary, on the word Northmuth. 

^ Explanation of the Names of Places at the end of the Saxon Chronicle. 
♦• At the end of his Perambulation of Kent. ft P. 30. 

I I In Dugdale's Monasticon> Vol. I. p. S7. 



i by Simeoa of Dttrham/ which, lie says, b smrounded by 
the set on every side; as it tppeaisin ao old drawing:, engraved 
in the MotiaAticon;^ or lo iutroduce the Motiks of Saint Augus* 

fe's» at Caoterbury, nbo, in tlie year 1313> claimed all viTecksX 
their Manors of Memtre, Chbtelet, aod Stodmersch; that b, 
m the Tery le?el of which I am speaking, Thb disquisition sbali 
conclude with ihc testimony of John Twjae,§ who died in the 
year 158 1 J| and who says, that, in his dine, ** Eight credible 
nen were hiriag, who aiRrmed, that they had seen not only small 
hosts, but large loaded vessels, frequently pass and repass betweeo 
the Island and the continent.'* And let it also be remembered, 
Umt, a httie iartfaer, he asserts, that ^^ there was a naval station at 
Sarr# about the midway between Richborough and Reculver;" but 
ii^betlier he learned it in writings of the ancients, or from conimoa 
lvportS9 or coctjectured it from the anchors there dug up, 1 am al 
^ kum to discover.'^ 

Tlte Castle at REOULBttM, or RECULVER, which de- 
coded the northern entrance of the Roman Haven, has been sin- 
{ularly incroached upon by the sen; whilst that at Richboroughi 
pr RuTUpiUM, has, on the coutmry, been desi'rtcd by the wiives, 
md is DOW considerably wltliin the land. Leland, in one page of 
lis Itinerary, describes Reculver as * scarce half a niyle from the 
.liorc:' in another, he says, that it * stoudelh wilhyn a quarter of 
I Diyte, or lytde more of the se aide :' these passage compared 
rviUi the present stale of Reculver, enable us to form a judgment 
»f the great dev<u>tatious which the sea has made upon this coast, 
Several houses have been overwhehned within memory; and even 
i^ithin ihe last three years, six dwellings have f^dleti a prey to fhe 

rof ihe wmves* The very area of the station itself has been 
O o o 2 partly 

^ On the year 8GK 

t Volume I. p. lU. 

J Thorn, 20 15p 

i Head-ma«ter (or Supreme Moderator, ai Auibony Wood itylcj 
>ffn) of the PVee School at Canterbury, and in J533 Mayor of that 
J'ry. Leland oumt>eri him among the iUuslrioui worthies of hit tim^i 
ia<i Camden, in hii Brittnnia, roentioni him ai a learned old mm, 

ll De r«bus Albionicif, p« 93« 


patt\y washed away; the noftkein tngle, eompriing tte utiote af 
the north side, and about one third of the west aide, k e a tiidj 
destroyed: and it is probaMe that the time b not ftrdiMBty ufaes 
die Tillage Church, which stands near the oniddle hf ^ sCidbii, 
and tiie high i^ires of which form an important sea-maik t^inim* 
aers, will be inckided in the wreck.* 

Tlie antiquity of Reculver, as Mr. Bflfttely has obsefped, is * k* 
fefragably proved by the internal evidence of the abundiot rt^ 
tnAm there discovered ; for what can be more certain ColMna <of 
the remotest antiquity^ than the comolar denarii ; the toin of 
almost all the Emperors from Julius Caesar to Honorius; aad, in 
particular, the brass coins of Tiberius and Nero, sliai|S attd, m 
ap|>earance, fresh from the mintft As to the < origin of tlM name 
Regulbium/ observes this gentleman in another frfaee^ ** it nay, I 
think, be derived from the old British word Rkag, whidl signffies, 
*■ before/ and Owylfa, * watcliing*/ these words joined, form BkMg* 
wyifa, or the ^former watch-tower */ but if, faistead of Cksyya, 
we compound Rhag with Golen, k will be Rhag-golen, tiie * for- 
mer light,' or ' light-house*/ and either of these, besides the sinrii* 
l^nde of sound, agrees exactly with the situation and convenienoe 
of the place; for Reculver wi» the first watch-tower 9am on the 
Kentish coast by ships sailing out of the Thames. The Gaalle alK^ 
commands a view not only of the open sea, but of the mouths of 
those noble rivers the Thames and Medway ; on which accoWt il 
was used as a watch-tower, to discover the approaches of an ene^ 
my^ and idso as a ligbt-liouse, to guide saflors, by firts klndM 


* Shodld that genertl insttemion to the encroftchmentt of the tea 
upon thi» coast continue to prevail, bm appears to hwe done during most 
of the last an^ preceding centuries, there can be little doubt but that 
the devastation will extend over the whole levels of the Parithes of St. 
Lawrence and Monkton, which are chiefly protected from the wavet 
by the high ground that forms the site of the station. As the danger 
becomes immediate, however, it is probable that the land-holders will 
see the necessity of decisive measures i — but may it not then be too bte > 

f Antiquitai€9 Rutupina, p. 79. j' lbid> p. jP. 



^"^IT oiglil.** Mr. Efiitt€r deduces the name Rc^ulbiura from the 
Brituh Htg ol uiont siguif^ing llie * i>oiiit ac^uinst tlie waves/ It 
opjiciH:^ frpitt tbc Notitia, Hint Uie Tribune of tUc firsl Cohort of 
ihe Vctasii %vns stationed here, uuder the coromitiid of lire Count 
<^f the Saxon Shore; whose juri'sdiction comprised Ihe whole of the 
•e»<oa&t in tlm part of the kiugdotn. 

The Ca&tie, or Station, was of a S4|uare tbnii, with tlte ^ii^te^ 

founded oli^ and surnounck^d by a ditch: the wail:» on tlie east, 

^^utb, aiid part of the west Bide, yet renmin, to the height of th« 

IlcvcI of the hjckised area; hut the up|i€r parts^ and flie facings, 

both wilhin and without, are entirely gon€. Wimt is left, sajs 

Sir. Battely, ' has so great a rescrnblance to the Custle of Ricli- 

I ilboroogh, that, whether we coutiider the aittiation, the forin^ or 

^Jie manner of their structure, there can be no doubt of their huv- 

M og been built by the same liand,*' Tlie foniidutions are laid on 

si^iiiall smooth stoue^ calkd lK>lders, phiced on the natural soil: 

^be thickness of tlie present reniiiins ib abont nine fii^t; tfie height 

ms fram ten to twelve. Tlie extent of tiie mdosed area, from ea&l 

t.o west, is about I90 yards^ and from south to north, IffS yanls. 

*Xlie ancient town is thought to have been witliout the station, 

' towartts the north, on tiiat part of tlie coast long since swallowed 

yn by the waves: ** and from the present shore, a* fur as a place 

dited tlie Black Hock, seen at bw-^vater mark, where tradition saya, 

a Chiirch once stood, there have been found great quantities of 

lil^, bricks, fragments of walls, tesselated pivcni^nts, and olbcr 

piarks of a ruinated town ; and remains of the household furnitme, 

<Ues% and equipment of the horses belonging to its inhabitants, 

are coulinually met willi among the sands; for, after iJie iall of 

the cliffs, the eartlien parts of tkem being washed away, these 

pieUlUnc substances remain tiehijid.^t 

Good * I rcnjeinberp* 

# .^_" ^und restate ialem iantamquc htibere cum castro Ealiipim 
^imilitudincm, ui sire nt urn, Hvcfigurum^ sivcJtihrkanilionem.tptC' 
$t$i9f tomiian conditarcjf utrumquc habutssf non dttbitdritis/* 

^ Htsted'i Kent, Vol. IX. p. uo. s^-o. Wit, 


fy^ Mr. Battely, Csp^kin* of ttiP time aboat 

hi^ seven frenth ceulurVT) ' l^af ^ h^n a part of 

I rmhied by the wavej, fell d&wu some veari 

|uTfdution»i of great bulk were dtscovered, in 

I nail vuulls arched ovori aod while 1 was «1- 

|iiv hand, 1 saw some fragments of a tesselatcd 

[)fJier Hotnan work?^; but 1 only saw llicm^ for 

lier broken by the waives, or swallowed up in 


jEv'a these ruin* were deitroyed 

Iwuves demolishing the cliflf, 1ia» discofered, i 

lci.steriis: of tliese, the size varies; tJrougb lbe» a^^^ 

tiiim h the saiiii.% namely, a square; the lengtUS^^^ 

111 ten to hvelve fVet; the depth Uie same* A«-^^ 

m\ lljey corrsist of posts driveji de€p into tb^ffjS't 

tides are ever) where closed up by oaketi joist*^^Li«i 

two inches thick; Uie boHoni is strengthen€c»^^ CM 

\U'r^ clay, thrown in, and well trodden downrm-^i^^ii 

Ling ouFj should be sucked up by tbe sand : n 

unlike our tun-pits; and some daterns, per 

IK end ^ which were found m Canterbury, are^ ot^^ c 

linlUnde^ styled by Somner, who knew not whasjcX Ire 

land olbt:rlik^ tanners ulen^ils.' — That oiir cis^Kj^^cii 

Kvere cfc.'^ignrd for mcdving and preserving i%lfMM.MBifh 

not onlv hv llteir mode of construction, bLV'<:Auf 

From llif vrof quantifies of coins^ and (lie ahundancc of metuHic 

msuses, ttiut have been tbund in I he fiddly and on the shore, in ihh 

OEighbourhood, ithds been cohjectured, thut the KoniHa;^ liada Miiit 

here ; and Du Fresue product?s some coins, on whi*h the piace 

i»herc Ihey were struck is marked tluis: PR. R. RB. RR. RPS. 

1 RT, RVPS. These arc assii;;iK^d, b^ Arclideacon Batiely, to Rut u» 

^■ABtf'^ ^ho sit|iposes RVPS. to signify HulupUs ptcunia sigjutia, 

^^Britisli coins iiave also been occa^Ioually futind here, ' made of 

^^lie luetal called £Ut:trum, or of tbat kind of hnis« which Pliny 

[ SR^s, contains * about one fourth gold :' and likewise * some silver 

■nedats, inscribed with barbarous inuiks, which seem to be neither 

Srilisb nor Goihic, but rather struck by some of the aucienl Ganl- 

Bsh Frinces*** Among tlie coins fonnd here of the Emperor Seve- 

I sus* is one of silver, with the inscripiion sevf.rvs. pivs, AVG. 

I :brit. POHTIP, TR, P. II. COS . . . ♦ and another inscribed L. 


There are also several singular colcis of the Emperor Cars usius; 
^ne of which has this legend: imp. c, caraVsivs. p, f. inv, 
AVG. PPoviD* AVGGG. c. To the rim of some of the gold 
coins of MaguentiuSf that have been found here, was aHixed a 
siimll hollow pipe of the siinie melal, "intended, no doubt, for 
ttie insertion of a small ribbon or thread, by whidi the Romans 
used to hang their coins, like a collar, round tlie neck : nor can 
that passage of Pomponius, llie i?tvili:m, he understood in any 
other sense, wliere he says, that, * the reversion of ancient gold 
and silver coins, woru as jewels, ntay l)e de^i^^d/'t 

O o o 4- Amonjg 

# ii jfgffiii^i itidtm horrcndh mils tmcutptit ^w/ neque Briiantta- 
f nun ntfue Gotkorum, sed antitjuorum Gatlitt regum fuU^ vidcMur,** 

f Ibidj p. ICM). *' lanumerable bran coint also are collected here* 

tirhicb, dioughimall and rtjugh, are, however, KomaD, a* appears by the 

^Cjids with which they are stamped, being crowned citht^r with laurel. 

Or a diadem ^ and on the reverse, chher inUitary ensigns, or horsemen 

BVerthrowiDg the enemy, or the 4he-%volf with Romulm and Itemuip 


94Q um^ 

Among the other Roman remaios that haf€ been found here, 
arc ennDierated rings, both with jBeals and keys; fibols of Tarioot 
kinds; ligulae; bullsi^* with little images of Uarpocrates, which 
appear to have been worn with them ; spoons of various kinds; weav- 
ing and sewii^ needles; pms; bodkins; tweeaers; brass onMMnenIs of 
chests, belts, bridles, and harness; a strigil; a gold bracelet, or* 
naniented with sapphire-stones; small hmss rings of armour; 
beams of scales, or stili^ds, 6ic. as well as many other instni;- 
ments, of winch the names have not been determined. Ifeny of 
the fragments of Roman eartiien-ware dispkiy elegant %iuiea» mostl]^ 
of animals, and on some of them difierent games have been i«^ 
presented. On^ 

'llie smallest of them scarcely weigh the twentieth part of a Romaa. 
drachm : the manner of making them 1 apprehend to liave been this |^ 
the melted brass was cast, like our shot, in very small balls, or globules; 
these the mint-master struck: nor is this conjecture void of proof, as 
ihany such globules have been found unstruck, together with such at 
have been struck, or coined ; and tome, though few only, have beeir 
found made of lead, and that of both sorts, struck and unfltmck.** 

' IM. p. 92. 

* * The bullae are frequently mentioned by the aDcients* Macrobius 
says that the bulls had two uses : first, " it was given to youths of dis* 
tinction, to be worn before the bosom in the form of a heart, that, view-* 
ing it, they might think themselves men, if their hearts were rightly 
disposed :" secondly, " it was worn by conquerors in their triumphsj 
with such remedies inclosed in it as were believed most efficacious against 
envy." Mine are applicable to either of these uses, as they are not 
only formed in the shape of a heart, but have also a heart embossed on 
them; and being also hollow, like boxes, are fit for the reception of 
amulets; but what these amulets were, 1 know not, unless, perhaps^ 
the little figures of Ilarpocrates, or images an inch long* with one band 
on the mouth, which were found in the same place with the bullas. 
This conjecture seems favored by the following passage, quoted by Cuper 
from the (Edipus jEgijptutats of Kircher: " A little coffer, in the form 
of a heart, in the middle of which is placed a naked, infant, Uarpor 
crates, with his finger on his lips, exhorting silence :''-^and that tho 
image of Harpocraies was accounted a charm, Cuper tells us more thai^ 
once in his learned work.' Antiquitates Huttxpinct, p. i28,-P. 

OnifH^ subjw*atJOO of Kent by llie Saxons, R<^^Ibmni I 
^ pfincipal st^t of tlie S»?lcmi Rings, under tUe name of , 
^sbul Hacii{f-€t;it£r; and liilber King £tli«r]b«it retired with his 
-^cr bis co«¥a^wfi to Cbrbliiinily by Augustit^, 
'^entur)', it obtaineci the name of Racajf-Minsterf frvm ^ } 

DICTINR Abeey tbuntkd lj€re by Ba^ssi » priest and no! 

IV bout some knife were given for the purpi^sr b** I 

4n &loii«iiient for die murder of Im t%vi) ut-pt w Ailr 

in ibt y*^ar (H9, tbe Mniior of Reculvtr, bclyd 
-^ il5 appurtenances, was graoted by Kin^ Ef a pi 

*«f Arcbbisbo|> Odo, (o llie Abbey of Cbikt-Cliurcb, t^antei 
^nhiequetiiiy to llili, tlie title of the superior of the Ab 

Reculver was chaii§^ed troin tlmt of Abbot to Ikati; y«t nr^ 
^o tLe Nomsau Couquesty tlie ^vliote society ap^iears i 
^^tbf?r dkwived or removed. Oti tbe divisious of the ] 
^^Ijtkt^biiich betweeu the ^fouks itnd the Arebbi&Iiop m U 
^f t^mfranCf tiu^ Manor was assigned to the klter, ann 
•^outinues to foixn jiart of the jiosse&sions of llie See of Ctiai 
^Tlie Farkbes of Hotb^ Heme^ St, Nicbohis^ aud AU Saitita 
^^liginally Chapelries to Kecohen Edward tlie Second, in tb- 

l^t5| granted the privilege of a \>eek)y market to thii 
~^ut thb (if ever held) hm been long since disused; and the 
^4K>w consists of only a tew mean housci. 

The (Aurch, iihich is dedicated to St. Mary, is a veiy largii 
mud not unhandsome fabnc; though by no means so beautiful ts 
:it has been sometimes represented, probably tlirough the pecuUari-r 

ty of its situation. Both Leiand and Camden have stated it to be 
Tthe Church which belonged to the Abbey; yet that this is erro* 

^leous, the style of the architecture clearly proves ; though it may, 
jpedi^y have been built on the old foundations. It consists of % 

^^dous nave, with aisles, a chaucel, and t>vo high towers, tuiv 

onounted by spires at tlie angles of the w est front.* Tlie nave ii 


• The ' Sister spires' of Reculver have furnished a theme for a beau- 
fiful legendary tale in Keate's 'Sketches from Nature;' and alsofdra 
pleasing elegy, intituled the Sisters, by Mr. W. Jackson, printed in 
puncombe's 'Antiquities of F^ecuKerand ^ernCt* 


$42 %v»r. 

Mparated from the aisles by fife pointed ardies oo each side, m- 
B« from oblong square .piers; and from the cbancelt by three 
snMiH semi-circular arches, springing from tall, round coltuniis 
with smgular capitals. At the east end of the chanod vre tliree 
loog, lancet windows, somewhat in tlie style of those in the chan* 
ctl at Hytlie: four others, of asimOarform^ bol most of them 
now filled up, appear on each side. The lower part of the towers 
are open both to the nave and aisles : the west entranee, which 
opens trader a recessed pointed jsrch immediately between tbem^ 
has been eurioosly adorned by scolpture on the ontaide^ but it 
BOW greatly decayed, owing to its exposure to the sea av. The 
floor of the Church seems to have been composed of a terra% or 
cement, thinly incnisted with a red compositioo, and of an ex* 
. tieme hardness : the length of the nave is about sixty fe^; that of 
the chancel, forty-eight. In this structure, according to an ancient 
tradition, lies tlie body of Ethelberi, the first Christian King of 
Kent, whose tomb, described by Weever, * as of an antique form^ 
■MHUited with two spires,' was formerly standing at the cast end 
•f the north aisle^ but is now gone, and in its plaee has been put 
up wn epitaph, in doggrel rhyme, inscribed on a wooden tablet. 
Ethelbevt the Second, who died in the year 76O, was aba buried 
here, as appears by the annals of Canterbury. On the floor of 
the chancel is an ancient slab, sculptured with a cross fleury, and 
ppMQd the verge thb inscription, iu Saxon cliaracters^ much nmtilated : 

iifi)6: mtajt ^i8.9ix^vivm^: eftfl)ilP«iPt cciFiuro^f 

Adjommg to this is another slab, inlaid with Brasses of a male and 
lemale; the former, who is in plate armour, with a long sword 
and spurs, b standing on a greyhound ; the latter has on a hrga 
head dress of the time of Edward the Fourth: between them is a 
label, inscribed, JFiat miiSnicarBia tua One fiu^n rmt and at their 
feet are two groups of children, consbting qf eight sons and sevep 
(jau<^htersy with this inscription: 

KENT. 943 

Iftif Jitrnt Koj^annfa ^anXJtBff Ztmim* rtlcUanna crrjrorriu0* 

At ihe comer* of the slabs were four shields, tlie two npi^jerniost 
of wbicli remain: that over the male figure dinplajs three boars 
lieadSf couped; tUsit over the feniaW, three mm's heads^ couped. 
On the south wait is a muntl moriumeut in memory of KalpU 
Brook, Esq. York Herald, who died in October, l625, at iJje 
ige of seventy-three: c^ii the inner tablet is hb figtire, neatly en- 
graved, in a herald's surcoat^ large cloak, trunk breeches, boots, 
spurs, &ic. Above are his arms, viz, a cross eiignjiled, party 
per pale, gules, and sable, ui chief gules, a hoii passant gardant, 
On the crest, an arm, dexter, holding a sword wreathed with 
some plant. Within the altar-raib, agidiist the wall al:iO, is an 
altar-monument of alabaster, in memory of SiE Cayalliero 
Maycote, and Dame Marie ^ his wife; the latter died in l(Job*; 
the Hgurei^ of the deceased, with their children kneeling, are re- 
presented on the monument. In the north wall of tbe body of 
the Church is an ancient pointed arched recess, or tomb. In tbig 
fabric were two Chantries; one of which was founded in the year 
1354, by Thomas Nave, Vicar of iliis Parish: at the time of its 
suppression, in the second of Edward the Sixth, its annual re* 
venues were \^lued at 14L 

RICHBOROUGH, or HuTtiPlUM, which guarded the soutli- 
era entrance of the Roman Haven, is generally supposed to be 
the fir^t station that the Romans formed in this country, *' From 
bence,** says Camden, " was the mf>st usual |>a^sage into Britain, 
and the Roman ^^*^X^ made this port. Lnpicinus, sent by Cou- 
stantius into Britain, to check the inroads of I he Soots and Picts, 
landed here bis com|janies uf Ihe Heruli, Balavi, and Ma^siti. Tbeo- 
dosius also, father of tlie Emperor of that name, to whom, accord- 
fog toSymmachus the Seniife voted e(|uestriaii statues for restoring 
tnioquillity in Britain, cante hither with his Herculean, J ovidn. Vic- 
torious, and Fidentiue cohorts. Ailerwards, when the Saxon pirates 
fiut 11 stop to commerce, made tlie sea a scene of war, and iniested 
our coasts witli their coiUiuual ravages, the Legio Ih Augiista, 
M bich the Einpeiror Claudius had brought out of Germany, and 


9M KMT« 

which bad beco fixed ratny yetn at Isca Siluniiiiy in Walei^ wu 
removed hither, and had its officer here under the Coiiiit of the 
Saxon shore.'*^ 

There can be little doubt but that, at tlie time of the existenoe 
of the Roman Haven, or Partus Ruiupensis, the emioence on 
which the City and Castle of Richborough was situated, was « 
small island ; and this opinion is maintained by the principal wi> 
ters on this subject, even though the same persons are decided^ 
at variance as to the real situation of the Urbs Buiypie, wbicb 
iHolemy describes as one of the three principal cities of Kent.t 
** There is positive evidence," says Mr. BoyS| ^ that the sea ap- 
proached, at some distant period, to the very foot of Richborot^ 
Hill ; for, in digging, a few years ago, to lay the foundatioD of 
Richborough Sluice, the workmen, after penetrating through what 
was once the muddy bed of the river, that runs close by in s^ nvMf* 
contracted channel than formerly, came to a regular sandy sea* 
shore, that had been suddenly covered with silt, on w,hich lay brQr 
ken and entire shells, oysters, sea-weeds, the purse of the tboror 
back, a small shoe with a metal fibuki in it, and some small humaa 
bones : — and even now, though tiie ground has been so much laised 
by repeated depositions of mud, the whole of the marsh land be- 
tween Deal and Thanct, would be overflown by every extfmon& 
nary spring-tide, were it not for the natural barrier raised hy the 
surge of the sea against itself, and the artificial banks tlvown u^ 
along the Haven of Saiidwich.'^t 

The period when Rutupiura was deserted by the sea» was pro- 
bably between the fourih and sixtli centuries, as about tbb time 
the name of Sandwich begins to occur in ancient writings as a fre* 
quented i>ort. Camden, speaking of the City, says, " Time haa 
devoured every trace of it; and, to teach us that cities are as 


• Gough's Camden, Vol. I. p. 318. 

t See Camden, Doitely, Boys* Sandwich, and I>Higtat, ia BibiiothecQ 
Tapoi^rtipfiica. 'Ibc twu latter gentlemen tix the Urh Jtutv^ia ac 
Camcrbury ! 

1 Boy.' Collections, &c. p, 86j. 

peri^abie as men, it is now a c^rti-ficld, wtitt«f mhmi the cc 
grown tip, one luai^ see the tracer of the streets mter»eeti 
Mher; for wbertvcr the streets have nin, the corn grows 
The site of the City, " now pbiighcd over," he eoolitiuf 
covets c^icteiiees of its aiillt|iiity, in Roiniin coins of g< 
filver,"* Lelifid*^ description is as folbui. 

** Raiesbnrg, otherwyse Riihchom\ whk, <vr etrr the T^ 
Sture dyd turn liw botom, or olfl canute, «idi\ii th hlc i 
■et, and by lykdybod tlie mi^yn m came to the vcr kiN 
CasfeL llic msikx se ys now of yt n myle, by tt 
iipfoXtMy oose) that has tJ>ere sv, oHen n\%. Ttie iciti 1 
or Cnstd ys wonderful tair, H|>on an iHlk-; The miHt^ 
lenmyn ther ycf, be in ciui)|ya!^ ulrjioist r* iTtnch n» the 'i 
Lutiijon. They have hetie very bye, thvkke^ strcMigc, mi* I < 
iMlelefl^ The n^ter of iheni k llynf, nierveb'i imd le 
l»olh while mid rethlf, after ih*^ TjiiIoit^ f^voifinr ff^e sem 
nmdt <jf se sand atrd ^okiuI pit>le. Tiier i^ a |*t^it ly 
thni the goodly hiL abowie the Caste f, and iNpedal ly in S 
ward^ bath bene ivel inhalilte(f, Cornt* groweth on »l^* 
iiier%elou«i plenty ; and yn going to phjw^U, llier t o 
mynde (been) fownd, and now i^, nvo aofif^urtirt oj' Hoiunyn 
«€y» than yn any place el* of England-- Suj^ly retison s|Trket 
Tliiit ^tiouid be Rittuphmm: for bos\de \\m I he wauui ^Uiii«4iilt 
^^hMichetby the very near passage fro Cales Clyves or Cales, wwb 
'^o Ratesburgby and now is to Sandwich, the which is abowt m 
^^aajfle of; ^ougb nwv Saiidwicii be not celebrated by cawse of 
^"^©bodiwine Sandes, and the decay of the haven. Thcr is a goo4 
^30tytt shot of fro Ratesburg toward Sand^vicli^ a great dyke caste hi 
'^i Ydmid emnpase as yt bad l>ene for fens of fnenne of waire. 
~*^3*e cimipase of the grownd wilhyn is not much a1>eve an acre, 
^^ttid yl is very holo by casting up the yerth : tJiey cn^^-lc tlie place 
"^fber IdtUhoTough, Withyn the Cuslel is a ^tlc paroclie Cbircli 
^f St. ADgiistine, and an llcreniitage : I bad anffiqutties of the H^ 
eremite, tlic which is an itidustrious man. KJ»t far fro ttic llerniH 
lage is a Cave, wher men have sowt and dijrcTcd fbr treasure: 4. 
^am yl ^rjr xandel withyn, and fher itere ewm: yl ipffiw so 'StralH*^ 



946 KKHT. 

timt I had no niyncl to crepe iiir jn. la the north side of tfi» 
Castel ys a hedde yo the walle, now sore deliioed with wether: 
they call it Queen Bertha hedde. Nere to that phiee, hard by 
the wal, was a pot of Romayne mony fownd." 

The stfe of tlie Castle is a kind of pfomontory of fc%h groood, 
projecting into the marshes^ between one and two nules ttorA-^west 
from Sandwich ; the Historian of which town has giveo tfie fcUow- 
ing account of Richborough in the latter part of his work. 

f Richboroogh Hill is entirely surrounded by marsh latid^ and 
jiodoubtedly was an island when the bay existed. Oo thisinsa- 
lated mount stand the remains of the famous Castle of'RuhqHf 
exhibiting to our Tiew, a more perfect spedmeo of Roman arelii- 
tecture than exists any where else m Brkain. The walls are con- 
structed m this manner: two rows of holders lie on the nataml 
soily which is a solid pit-sand, then a thin stratum of dialk no* 
dules; next a angle row of bolders, and over them another thki 
layer of small chalk; all without cement : then holders 9§mf mixcdi 
with mortar; and so the masonry proceeds intemallyy with a ooo* 
fused mixture of large boUlers, ochre stone, sand-stone, and bkMsks 
of chalk, with pholades bedded therein, and balani on their sur- 
faces; the whole cemented with a mortar formed of Ikne, grit, 
large and small pebbles, sea-shells, and fragments of baked bricks, 
much too coarse in its composition ever to have been fluid. Ex- 
ternally, on both sides, tlie walls are (were) faced with regular 
courses of square grit and Portland stone, except in some detach* 
ed parts of the inner side of the south wall, where the squared 
stones are small in size, mixed with holders, and dbpoted in the 
herring-bone way, and in other fashions. The general facing \ 
evidently worked up with the internal part ; but as the 
stones coukl be applied to tiie rubble-work only with a flat snr- 
face, it was necessary to band them together at proper intervab 
with double rows of large flat tiles, which, however, do not go 
through the wall, but only to the depth of one, or, at most, two 
tiles. The first range of tiles begins above five feet from the hot- 
tPUL of the wall, and the rows are sepeated to die top at diflStttnt 
inten-ak, from three feet three inches, to four &eC three inches: 



Tjfctwi*eii diesc are srciicnilly seven bourses of the sqtiareil stom 
but m liie e»isteni pari of llie mmh vrall, ihe rows vury from mx 
to iiiuc. Ttttf tiles are for the nioil part pbiii, and difier hi iUdt 
dkicitsioos, from iomteeu uicbe% by seven inches »ud three i|iiif^ 
Ijers^ to s'^-eiileen tiiclies and a half« hy eleven indies find a bAJf; 
iUKl ID tlieir thickties<i, troin one inch and a quarter, to one lotti 
aiicl three «niurters. Tltere H another sort, wiiji I he Icutj^est stdei 
disiied about an ihi:h> thiil occurs veT> ^>»rius1v in th{? tout ft and 
ii^t walb. Tiiey arc about fifteen u>clies tntd a half long, n rb<#l 
broad, and an mc(j tUk k : they are ran^d wkh the Am! ttle^, |j«.rr<^ 
and there one^ and arc gem^rally with tlK^ir bottonu itpv^nnl^^ 
A few of tiie plain tiles are of a pak, yellowiah tcA; but liutJi 
M)rt3 are^ for tlte mast part, of a fuje fuU red, and all of them uw 
e^tceedingk wdl burned, Tlie walls, to the height of six feet, are 
eleven feet tliree inches Uiick ; and aAerward^ only ten feet eight 
inches; and die north wall, in its mo^t ]ied^t part, is aboul 
Iwenly'lhTee feet high: the top of the wall is every wliere impcr^ 
lect; and llw iaehig is almost wholly thrown off ^om the soutbera 
a^Kct^ of the \t3tlb by the rools of the ivy* and the operatioos 
of tteat and moisture. The K^uld hole^ rcniab on tiie outer 
m^ksi of die north and west walls which sides luive suffered mncb 
k-i» injury from time and the weather than the otb^r liidca. 

** *n*e Castle has Ijeen a rrgiihir parallelogram; but a great j^rt 
of the east wall does not appear^ that having been undemiioed bj 
the sea; enough of it, however, remains to pouit out its directioii 
aud aitiiation. The whole site occupied six acres, one rood, and 
eight perches of ground ; the area within the walls measured five 
acres, three roods, and eight perches. — ^The wails were flanked by 
moad projecting towers at the angles, and by square ones at irre^ 
paSar dtstaoces along the sides. There are marks of two of these 
m the west wall, and of two others, besides the Porta Decutnand^ 
m tfie north wall, aud of two more in the south wall ; in which oa^ 
4toiibtedly was a third, that has' fallen down the hank. These 
sqwue towers, projecting about eight feet_ from the wall, were 
aolidy nearly eight feet from the fMindation, and afterwards boliowi 
la the main wall, withm these towers, are four laige, rowM^ 
2 smooth 

Jioies in a row, each about nine inchra in draitietftr 
about erght feet iuto the substance of tiie main 
are sniiiUer hales, four tnch^ in dbmeter, tin 
tu iuflies into thf* wall ; all which seeni to haie servi 
llioii of beams, to support an apjmratus of deff^nst? 

Ilun tlie area of lUe Castle, not precisely ia the centra 
lit towards the nortJi-east corner, under ground, is a 
|liir [)btJbrm of niHsonr}\ 144-5 iK't long, 104 fc«t 

feet thick. It b a compoailion of liolders and t 

laud tlie wlioie upper surfiiee, to the very verge, is co 

li a coiU of the siime soil of luortar^ »x inches thicli 

He of tite platfonn is the base of a superstructure i 

a cross, rising somewhat above the ground, and fron 
let above the platform* It has been fiiccd willi sq 
lojnt* of vfhkh remsiin. Tlie ihaft of the rrois, ni 
H south, is eight y-wTCn feet long, mid seven feel ami i 
lh(5 tm verse h twenl^-two teet in widtli, and fart]^3l: 
,■ — In the west ivall, much nearer to the uorth-we^t 

XKKT. 949 

hmva<Aiiiiid» or gutter, at the bottom, ibr canjpiog off witer 
fiom die U^^ ground withio tbe Caitk; the mtorior peMg^ at 
m rijgfat angle with the other, is seven feet, e%ht bdwi wide.* 

The Rmnan coins, and other antiqtnties, that haft been foond 
tidier within the area, or contq;uons to tiiis station, are my na- 
nmns: and <" all the viDages,'' sa^fs Mr. Boys, ** above the kvd 
of die mardies to die westward of Lower Deal, about Sandwich, 
tnd in Thanet, are oontinually fiiniishiog Biitisb, Roman, and 
Saxon mooej;* The remains of a Roman Ampkitkeairt are also 
am vctj aiiparent, at about the distance of 46*0 yards fiom the 
gOttth-wesI an^ of tbe Castle, though the banks have been paitfy 
deatiojed Iqr die operations of husbaudiy. Its form was circuhr, 
tbe diMiiftfT bebg about seventy yards; the present depth varies 
Ihm about seven to deven feet. The * paroche Chirch of St 
Aagaslhie^' noticed by Lehmd, ** appears to have been a Chapel of 
Kase to the Churdi (^ Ash, Cm which Parish Richborough b situ- 
ated«)aiid is mentioned as such in the grant of the Rectory of that 
Chmdi, m the tUrd of Edward the Sixth, at which tune it seems 
to have been standaf.*^ The site of this Castle ibnned part of 
die inheritance of the Veres, Earis of Oxford; but it fau smoe 
pnsmd throo|^ various families, both by purchase and otherwise, 
to Felsr Fedor, Esq. of Dover. 

ne 'fi^dCBl mention of Rvhtpiw^ says Archdeacon Batldy, 
" Vf andenl writers who have treated of British affiiirs, suflkiendy 
speaks its renown; for it is song by Lucan, Juvenal, and Auspnius: 
it b celebrated by Tacitus, Amnuanus Marcellinus, and Orosius: 
it occtttB in the Geography of Ptolemy, in the Itinerary of Anto* 
imms, in tlie Peudogerian Tables, and lastly, in the Notitia of the 
Western Empire. The City b said to have been founded by 
Caesar^s army, and to have been almost proverbial with them who 
had more than once seen Caesar's navy distressed and wrecked by 
-the boisterous surges of that coast.^f It appears, indeed, to have 
given its own name to all the neighbouring coasts, which, in the 
language of the poets, were called the Ruiupian Shores. 

Vol. Vn. May, I8O7. P p p ISLE 

* Hastcd't Kent, Vol. IX. p. 217, 8vo. Edit, 
+ Antiquitatcs Rutupina, p. 28. 




The efymologif of tlie name of ihh hh Ii;i5 never l>e«ij tEstiiirt^ 
traced : the Britous are stated to have called it Huim* or Inis 
Euochim, from tJie cotitigui^ of iu situation to the port of Hicb» 
borougli. SoUlius, ubo is quoted b^ Camden, calls it Aihanatof^ 
»iid in some copies Ihinatos, whkh probably gave origin to iLe 
Sa^on appellation Jenet, or Tanet-lond; tImugU this is derived by 
Lewis from TeiiCt * ii Fire, or Beacon ;' and he suppo«es the Isle to 
bave been so named *• on account of the beacons or tires whicii 
were here kept to give notice of Dauish or other pinttes, to whoiie 
ravages it was greatly exposed /f 

The wide estuary which anciently separated this Isle from tbe 
main land, is now rt!dnceil to the uanow channel of the Stour 
mer; and tlie smaller stream called the Nethergoog, which flows 

the ^ 
tour ■ 

•* * Inmla qua Saxrmica lingtta Ttmcd dldtur Brltantiico sernume 
Ruim appcUatur: Sim. Duoelm* Hi«. Col. 120, 

t Hitt. of Tenet : iccond Edit* p. 2, Mr. L, deduce* th« Saixon 
ward T€n€ from the British Idn^ or lire* *<' Jaliui Solious, Ifi his De» 
scription of Britain/' »ay» f^mbard, ** saith thus of Tanet : Tkanaiot 
nttilo scrpitur auguc^ if asportala indc ttrra angues ficcai* * l^erc 
t>e DO snskes in llkanet^* uitb he; * and the eartb that i% brought frori^S 
thence will kill them.* But whether he wrote this of any sure under*^ 
standing that he had of the qualiiy of the soyle, or onely by cn»iefture 
at the woord0aihitT^y which in Greek signifteth death, or killings 1 wott 
mot I and tirnch Iciie dare 1 determine, bycaute hitherto tieiiher I my-^ 
lelfc have heard of any region hereabout, oaely breland excepted, whicflfl 
beareth not both snakes, and other venemout wormo^ neither am I jet 
penuaded that thi^ phcc borowed the name out of the Greeket but ra^ 
ther tooke it of the propre language of thii oure native countrie: <br^ 
Thanet, in the Saxon, or olde Eaglishe tongye, soundeih as much a\V 
iDoysted, or watered, whiche derivation^ howe well it tiandeth with (h^ 
•ituation of Tanet^ being peninsula, and watered, in manner^ routi^ 
about, I had rather, without reaioning, referre to every mans iudg^ 
ment, than by debate of many woordes, eyther to trouble the reader, ^ 
10 interrupt mme ownt order.'* Pctamb, qf Kcat, p. 7S. 



into the sea at Northmoutli, between one and two miles eastwafd 
from Reculver. The marshes which border these stream!* are ex* 
t€fisi?e, and afford rich ^>a:»hirage for cattle ; hut the higher grounds 
are pfincJ|>ally appropriated to the growdi of conn* On the nortli 
and cast sides the Isfe ot* Tlianet is boimded by ihe ocean; a car- 
ctnmtance which, connecteil with the !>jilubrity of iti air, and its 
actuation within a convenient clistnnce from the Metropolis, has led 
to the establishment of se?enil wateririg-jilaces: a;id these, in the 
fiimmer md autunmal seasorrs, occasion a continued influx of visi- 
tants, whose ejipendrture ad'js greatly to tlic weallh of the fixed 
iodiabitants. The chalk-chds, which surround the coast, abound 
fci fo»ib; and among them the Cornua ammonis has been Ibund^ 
OKmnJl^ upwards of three feet in dlatiioter^t 

Sotfoeiy any ancient lamilics are now resident in this Isle; most 

of llieir estates having been alienatect by various oiuses, and tfieii 

■eaits eoD^Tted into farni*houses* Those of ftic inhabitants who 

reside neartlie sea, are cliiefly employed in maritime occupations; 

a principal branch of which, on this coast, is called Fo^mg; that 

*** g^j"§ off to strips with provisions, and asjastmg them when io 

iKcticsSy &c. In the latter pursuit they frequently evince an im* 

ilaiiDted courage, and are the means uf preserving many vaktable 

Km. In Camden's time, agricultural and sea- faring pursuits were 

nostfj ntuted tn the same persons; but change of circumstances 

has DOW completely separated them. His words are, ** nor must 

I here forget what redounds to the especial praise of the inhabi- 

ttots, particularly of tfiose \\l)o hve near the [wrts of Margate^ 

Ruaigate, and Brodstear. They are excessively industrious, get* 

ting their living like amphibious animals, both by sea and land; 

iB^g the most of both elemcjitsj being both fisliernien and 

(ioaghilieir, farmers and sailors; the same |)ersons that guide Uie 

pioa^ in the field, steering the helm at sea. In the rliflcrent sea- 

*M* of the year, they make nets, calch codd, herrijigs, madirel, 

P p p 2 and 

* ^te aa Account of the Agriculture of the Isle of Thanet, p. 434i 5. 
"^ Short Deicrip* of Thnner, by R, E. Banter, Surgcoii, p. 11. 



tod othet fish,' make tnidjog ToyageSi manure their land, plough^ 

sow, barrow, reap, and store thar com ; expert in both profes»OQ% 

L sod 90 canning ©o the round of labour/' 

The whole of Tlianet is divided tnlo the t^vo capital Manors of 
Minster and Monkloo, by Si. Mildred's L^nch* a narrow balk, of 
strip of lamdy left unplouglied, and extending quite across the Isle^ 
from Westgate, hy Woodchurch and Clcve Court, to Sheriff » Hop^ 
Bear Monktou. It anciently contained elefeu parishes; but thost 
of Sarr, and All Saints, haTe been united to St. Nicholas; and thai 
of Wood-Church, to Birchmgton. The Parishes of Minster^ 
Monkton, and Stonar, witEi ports of those of St. Nicholas, and SU 
Lawrence, arc under the jurisdiction of two Constables; the other 
Parishes, with the remainder of St. Nidiolas, and St. Lawrence^ 
are all members of^ and uidiin tJie jurisdiction of» the Ports of 
Dover and Sandwich. 

MONKTON derives its name frotn the Monks of Christ Chtuc' 
to whom the manor was given hy Queen Edith in the year $6 
and to whom it conttmied to belong till the Dissolution; soon afli 
which, Henry tlie Eighth bestowed it on the Dean and Chapter o1 
Canterbury, who are still owners. Henry the Sixth granted to the 
then Prior, tJic privilege of holding a weekly market here; but 
this, if ever held, has been long discontinued, and the village con- 
tains only a few indifferent houses. The Church, which stands oo 
the south tide, and is dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, had for* 
' merly a north aisle, but now consists of a nave and chancel only, 
with a tower at tlie west end. In the nave is ftn ancient Brass of 
m Priest; and in one of the north windows is the head of a Pnor* 
It appears, from the Domesday Book, that there was a Church 
here in the Norman times, together with a Fishery and a Salt- 
work: the latter have been long sbce lost by the fillbg up of the 

ST. NICHOLAS is a small and pleasant village, containing seve- 
ral respectable houses, and a good Church, which, from its dedih 
cation to St« Nicholas, gives name to the place. This was andeatljr 


^ For the history of thit Lynch, see under Minster* 



schapelry to ReculveT, but was made parochial in tlie year 1300^ 
during the prelacy of Archbishop Winchelsea. Tlie Church con- 
sists of a nave, chancel, aud aisles, with a square tower at the 
south-west angle, and a small Chapel, or Burial-place, adjoiomg 
the cJiancel on the north, belonging to an estate in this parish 
called Frosts: a corresponding Cimpel, on tlw? south side, is now 
used as a School- room. The nave is separated from the ebancel 
by a large, high-pointed arch ; and from the north aiale, by five 
siniilar arches, rishig from octagonal columns: the south ai^le k 
divided from the nave by three semicircular, and one sharp- 
IMbted arch, springbg from massive piers, with Norman orna- 
ments of foliage and human heads: the mouldings of one of the 
arches are particuUirly curious. The Scpulchml memorials are 
numerous : one of them, a sbb in llie north Cliapel, disj^la^^s small 
whole-length Brasses of * Valontyne Edvarod, Gent/ and his two 
wi%'e9, Agnes and Joane, and their respective chiktren in l\^o groups; 
together with a similar Brass of Thomus Parramorc, second hn^ 
band to the * sayde Joaue :* the dresses are of the time of the 
CommoD wealth, aud of Charles the Second. A small manufac- 
tory of blocks for tiie use of paper- stamer^, from the wood of tht 
pear-tree, was established here about thirty years ago. 

RIRCHINGTON is pleasantly situated on elevated ground, on 
the DOttb side of the Isle, at the distance of about half a mile 
from the sea. The Cfmrchf wliicli is dedicated to All Saints, con- 
sists of a nave, ciianeel, and aisles, with a high tower, terminated 
by a shingled spire, rising between the east end of the north aisle, 
and a small Chapel, now called the Vestry. The nave is divided 
from the aisles by five pointetl arches, supported on octagonal co- 
lumos. The east window is large aud handsome : tlie lov^ er part 
IS separated by mullions into five lights; the upper part b filled by 
various smaller lights, rising to the point of the arch. Adjoining 
%Q the chancel, on the north, is the ^ucx Chapel, so called from 
ks belonging to the Manor of QuEX, in this parish, the ancient 
IDheritance of a family of the same name, which was convened to 
the Crisps by an heir female, in the time of Henry the Seventh. 
Among the raemonaN of these families, are several small wholo- 
i* p p 3 length 

934 K£2IT. 

lengtli Brass figures, tlic most aodent of whicb is for * Joke's dudt/ 
who died in October, 1449. Agaiost the north waH b a Jaijge 
tomb, on wbic)i lie the efligies of SiB Hbnry Ceispb, Kot. and hia 
first wife, a daughter of Thomas Scott, Esq. of Scott's Hall, in this 
county. Sir Henry died in 1575, and b represented in armour; 
but all the finer parts of the sculpture are filled up by whitewaah. 
Pver this tomb is a mural monument of different colored amr- 
hlBb containing six oval compartments, in which are well-execnted 
frasts, in white marble, of John Crisps, Esq. (son of the above 
Sir Henry,) with his two wives, Margaret, daughter of Thomaa 
Harlackenden, Esq. and Elizabeik, daughter of Thomas Roper, 
Esq. and his son. Sir Henry Crispb, Knt. with his two wives. 
Maty, daughter of Sir Edward Monings; and AmSf daughter of 
^omas Nevinson, Esq. Acyoiniug to thu is a handsome monur 
ment of white marble, in memory of Annr Gbrtruob Crisp, 
who died in March, 1708, having devised fortyrseven acres of land 
in Bircliington and Monktoii, in trust for various charitable purr 
poses mentioned in the inscription: the deceased is represented by 
a good bust. On a slab in the chancel, is the Brass of a Priest in 
bis mass habit, holdhig the chalice and wafer, with this inscription : 

ffie rr quicsreit i^B^tetit S^ieier Vftmtfif Cleritu0, nun/ (Biattor 
It Wonftton Qui obijt nono Die 2)ctobxi0 anno Uni 9P«Q«jEjE333[* 

Near the village a convenient Poor Houss has been recently 
built, under the direction of the principal inhabitants of Monktoo, 
Sarre, Birchiugtoo, and Acole, for the reception of the poor of 
tbose places, for whose employment a manu&ctory of coarse 
sheeting, and sacking, has been establislied in the house. 

About half a mile soutii-eastward from Birchington, is QUEX, 
the ancient seat of the Quex family ; Agnes, the heiress of which, 
married John Crispe, Esq. >viio died in the sixteenth of Henry the 
Seventh, and whose son John was Sheriff of Kent in the tenth of 
Henry the Eighth. Some otiiers of tliis family were also appomted 
to the same office; and among them, Heuiy Cri^, Esq. who being 
an infirm and aged man, was in August, l657, forcibly seized at 



Im seal in tlie night-iime, ^nd conveyed a pmoner to Bruges, in 
Flmdcn, where lit? v^as detained vxgUl niontits, till the sum of 
Mod. was (Tdid for hb random.* He died in 1663» utthout male 
Imuc; 8t]d lhi« estate has smce |Ki5»ed through variotta femilies. 
The faniii} Maiii^ion was a lar*^ tmd nitciefit structiirr, parfly of 
tinilier, and partly of brick ; hut great part of it has heeu pulled 
down at differeut times, and the remainder modernized, and con- 
l^erted into a farm«bouse. Here Kii>g William k slated to have 
Occat^ioiiallv taken up hh abode, till the wind favored his embark* 
iDg for Holland. 

DANDELION, about one mile and a half sonth-west from 
Margate, was the seat of the ancient family otDem dt Lyon, who 
a|ifiear to have flourished here in the lime of Edward ihe FirSt,t 
and who were atterwards called Danndelbn, Danndelvoun, Dann» 
deleon, &c. The last male heir of this fjmily dic<I in 1445, %vhen 
bis estates were conveyed, by the marriage of his only daughter^ 

Ppp4^ to 


• ** Thif etvterprixe wt» contri? ed and cxecated hy Captain Golding* 
^ RaiTifgate, who was a sanguine Itoyatisi, and had some time taken 
rehige with Charles the Second in France. Hie party landed at Gore- 
End, ne^r Bircbington, atid took Mr. Crispe out of hii bed wichc>ut anf 
mitrance; though ic appears that he had been for lome lime under ap* 
preheniions of such an artfurk, and had crauied loop- holes, for the dis- 
charge of muikets, to be made in ditff rent parts of the house, to defend 
him. All these precaution!* were, however, of no effeci, and ihcy con- 
veyed him, without any disturbance, in his own coach, to the seaside, 
where he was forced into an open boat, without any one of hii domestict 
being luffercd to attend him, though ihac was earnestly requested at a 
Ikiror. He was conveyed first to Oitend, and then to Bruges, licth 
which placet were then in the power of t>pain/' Hasted's Kent, Vol. 
X. p. 300. Hks famUy experienced much difficulty in raising the moneys 
his ransom; as the Piotectory Oiiver, suspecting that the whole wat 

ly a scheme to procure 30001. for the use of Charles the Second, then 
beyond teas, made an order in Council, that he shautd nut be ransom* 
ed ; and the license for so doiogx wai at Utt procured only after ^real 
foiiciutions. Ihidfp,3Ql, 

f Philipott's f'^ilarc Cmtmrnm, p. 380, 


[to the Pctim, whose descendants sold Dandelion to Henry Fox> 
^4^rd Holland, who Iran^ftured it to his second sod, the late « 
Charles James Fox.E^.iiiice which it has become the property ofm 
WiUiam Roberts, Esq. iu right of his wile, the sister of the late 
John Powell, £lsq. The Gate- Home of the itncient residence of 
tlie DandeUons is ^el staiidiug, and in tolerable preservation. It 
is embattled^ and built with alternate courses of bricks and flints, 
havipg a small ?iq»arc tower at each angle. Over the greater en- 
trance is a shield of the amis of Dandelion; viz. nuble, turee liofis 
rampant, between Im o bars, dancctte, argent ; and at the spring of 
ibe arch of tlie lesser eutrance id a dciiii-lion rampant, with a label 
bsuiiig from Ills mouthy inscribed IDaunDdEonn in Saxon characters. 
The grounds belonging to this ancient seat have been partly con* 
^erled into a Tea-garden, and place of report for the stimmer visi- 
tants tu Majgate and Ram»igate ; for whose eutertaiinncnt a public , 
breakiust is given every Wednesday througfiout the season, wlikll ■ 
i^ foUo^vcd by dancing, and other amuscnientj. Tlie walks afibrd 
^iome iine prospects of the sea, ttnd udjacent country. 

In the year 1724, between the liamlct of Garlinq, or Gau* 
j*iNG Street, near Dandelion, and the sea, upwards of twenty 
ancient instrumenta, apparently a kind of chissel, or small adie, j 
iveie found by a farmer about two teet under ground. They woc^ fl 
i^niade of niixt brass or bell-metal ; the largest were rattier tnoit 
|thaD seven inches in length ; the smallest about live inches.* 




Though now one of the most fashionable, and best frequeoted, 
watering-places in the kingdom, ha^ obtained its principal celebrity A 
I 4?ilhin the last forty or filly yeai-s, before which it was only * a n 
fishing town, irregularly built, and the houses generJly old 
ud low/f Its antiquity, however, Is much more consideiaUe; 

* LewVf Hirt. of Thane t, p* 137 ; opponlc lo which it in Engravijig 
of several of these implements. 

f Lewii*4 liiat. of Tbaaet^ p. 123* 



it has been a member of tlie town and port of Dover from a »* 
mote period; and even in Lelands lime there was a PiEB ' hem 
for ahyppes/ but ' sore decayed -^ the time of building itihich is 
slated by Lewis to be unknown. When the Surrey of Maritime 
places in Kent was n^ade in the eiglith of Elizabeth, the number of 
)iouses in Margate was lOS; * j>ersoiis lacking proper habitation, 
^bt; boats, and other vessels, fifteen, viz. e^ht of one ton, one 
of two, one of five, four of eighteen, and one of sixteen : the pcr- 
^os belonging to these boats, occupied in the carrying of graia 
and fisbingr ^**^ sixty/ 

Where tl>c Pier is now built, tliere was anciently a small cr^, 

which probabfy gave origin to the town, from (he shelter it afford* 

^ to hshing-vessels, and other crafl. Tlie land on each side of 

this creek, was, in proc ess of time, washed away by the sea; and 

the inhabitautii were obliged to construct a Pier, to prevent the 

town being ovt!rflowed« and to defend that part of it which lies 

pext Ihe water, by piles of timber, and jetties. The Pier was at 

^t but small, and went but a Uttte way from the land; but the 

flifls still continuing to be washed away, the sea by that means 

game more heavy at the back of it tlian before, and rendered it 

necessary to enlarge it from time to time. In Queen Etizulseth'i 

letgn, tiiis Pier was maintained by certain rates, paid by com, and 

Other merchandize, shipped and landed here, which rates were 

confirmed by the several Lord-Wardejis of the Cinque Forts, who 

have, from tiuje to time, renewed and altered the decrees made 

for tlie management of this little harbour, under the sujierintea- 

, fience of two Pier- Wardens, and two Deputies, who were to col- 

' |ect the droits, or dues, and insjtect, and provide for its support 

and re(>aration. In the oldest of tliese decrees now extant, and 

, |)C4iring date in September, l6l5, it is stated, that these * Orders* 

Ibave been usually contirmed by tlie Lord Warden for the time 

I being, and * time out of mind' used by the inhabitants of Margate 

St. John's,* 

Tlirough the neglect of the persons employed, the Pier again 

L|rent t9 decay; and in 1662, complaint was made to Janics^ Duke 

• LcwWi UitL of Thanet, p. i;?3. 

96S KBKT. 

of York, the then Lord Wird^ of the Cmqne Forts, tliaf ttm 
** Piere and Haibome was much miiMted ^nd decayed ; mkI thoft 
the moneyea femeriy coUeded and feoeivad for the rcpaine there- 
of had not been duly impiOTed for tiiat and, and that for a long 
tine past there had been no d«e aocoootB given, nor ele^ioDs 
vade of tuccenive Piere Warden yearly, at by andent customs^ 
and orders of ibmer Lord Wardens, oogbt to be * This state of 
things, coqioined.with an opinioa that became current among the 
ahip<>wners fteqaenting this port, of the Wardens having no |Mfrer 
to compel the payment of the droits, or harbonr dues, at length, 
m th^ eleventh of George the First, induced the P&er Wardens, 
and inhabitants, to petition Parliament for an Act to enable them 
more efiectaally to recover the ancient and accustomed droits for 
the support and maintenance of the Pier: an Act tna acconJKnglj 
passed, to enforce the coUection of the anciait rates, and enqpoirer 
the Pier Wardens to apply the proceeds toaraids the effectual pt^ 
servation and improvement of the harbour. Under that Act, the. 
Pier was maintained till the year 17S7* when an applicalion to 
^urliament being intended for the improvement of the town, it 
was thought ex|)edient, at the same time, to provide for the repa- 
ration of the Pier; and an Act was obtained for that purpose, ui 
well as for ascertaining, establishing, and recovering, certain dnties, 
agreeable to a schedule then prepared, in lieu of the ancient and 
accustomed droits. Two years afterwards, in 179d> another Act 
was passed to amend tlie former, by increasing the rates and du- 
ties, that the Commissioners m%ht be enabled to make forther and 
necessary improvements. Under these Acts, the Pier has been re- 
built with stone, and extended so as to enlarge the hariiour, and 
to form a more complete sectuity for shipping. The cross also, 
^ it is commonly termed, which extends from the Pier towards 
the north, has undergone similar alterations. 

The improvement of the harbour, and the great resort of com- 
pany to this coast, have occasioned a considerable increase in the 
pumber of fishing and other crall belonging to this port; so Aat 
fbe town Is not only sufficiently supplied with fish for its own coo- 
aumption, but considerable quantities are likewise sent to the Me- 



tmpolis: die fish genemny caught hert, are skate, wraiths, siiwfl 
cod, liackbck, liirboU whitmgs^ soles, imd other flat fisli, mackurel, 
herrings, lohsters, and oysters^ Tlie whole number of packets, 
lioysy boats, &:c, which now bdong to this port, is sibout seventy: 
the hoys are chiefly employed in ilia (conveyance of com, and other 
(KToduce of the ikmis in the Iste of TImiier, to the Loudon mar* 
ki*ts. The average quantity of com annually »hi}^>ped from this 
port for the last four or five yeai:^, has amounted to nbout 24,000 
(juarters. Among tlie articles iuiportcd, are coals ^om NcwcA!^tte 
and Sunderland, and deals, hemp, tar^ iron, itc, tram Memel mid 

Margate is a large and scattered j^lnce, bwilt on irregular ground; 

part of it being very elevated, while the otlier part is situated iu a 

4>ottoiii desc4.nidiiig to tl^e sea. The hou^s arc principally of 

l>rick, and many of them are large and handsome edifices. The 

i^goeral recommendation given by medical men to sea-air, at>d sea- 

bathing, and the fashion wiiich so extensively spread among all 

vaoks durmg the latter part of tlie last century, of spending some 

jportion of the year at a watering place, have been the grand causes 

«Df tlie extenooo, and progressive improvementB, of tills town. As 

Mhe number of visitors Increased, the buildings for thetr accommo* 

^iation were rapully augmented ; the lanty»okler» rightly judging^ 

Shat the speculation would nol be unsuccesi»fnL Among those 

-^bo took the lead, were Mr. Cecil, Sir Edward Bales, ajid Sir 

^ohn Shaw, fiom the former of whom, Cecil Square, which was 

^uilt by these, and some other gentlemen, about the year IT^P, 

received its name. At the south corner of this Square stand the 

jisirmbly Rooms, which form a handsome building of the Ionic 

order, with Venetian windows, entablature, and cornice: on the 


^ Haiied*s Kent J Vol, X. p. 527. ^' In the mmmer of the jei^ 
t788, a female beaked ff^'hale came on ttiare at Margate t it was twenty- 
leven feet m lengthy aad in gtrth, ieventeen feet* Mr. Buoter, lur- 
gtoo of Chii place, in dissect rng the head of this Ash, discovered four 
teeih ju»t penetrating the gums in the lower jaw, which led him toccm- 
jrcture that it had scarcely aua in ed half its gro%vih, and that its common 
/tngth, when full grown, was probably at least sixty feet/' lbid*p*529. 




hHtod-floor is a good Billiard, and a Coffee-rootn, sereml Dmlng* 
Irloura, and a Piazza supported by a range of duplicated Doric 
lltimiiAp Do the first-floor are the Tea aod Card-rooins, and the 
iU-room: the latter is a very elegaat apartment, measuring eighty* 
cten feet in length, and forty-three in breadth ; tlie walls arc 
iVtefully ornamented with various stuccoed compartinentSy and 
jltoons of 6owers encircling girandoles and mirrors; at the west 
pd of the room is a handsome orchestra, with wings for the ao- 
Rnmodatjon of spectators; and five large and elegant glass chan- 
dlers are suspended from the eeiUng. On the upper story is an 
Etensive suite of lodging rooms. Adjoining to this building ii 
ifi Royal Hotel, which is very handsomely fitted up for the recep* 
DH of the first company. Shortly afler the erection of Cecfl 
^nare, Hawley Square was built on a contiguous field, then be- 
pigtng to Sir Henry Hawley, Bart. Various new streets and 
Dges of houses have been since raised, and scarcely a year passea 
Ithout some additions being made. 

The Bathing Rooms are situated on tlie western side of tlit 
^h Street, near the harbour: these are seven in number, and 
ere constructed for the use of the company intending to bathe> 
^ enter the bathing maclimes* in the order in which their namea 
ive been inscribed on a slate m tlie lobby .f The balhing-place ta 
, a fine 

*^ These machines^ which farm a kind ofcloie caravan, haviDg a door 
id small flight of steps behind, by which the bathers descend to the 
Iter^ and are concealed from view by a pendant covering of canrat, 
ire mvenied somewhat more than forty ycart ago, by a Quaker of 
targate^ named Benjamm Beale, who ii iiaced to have ruined himself 
' bringing them into ute, 

t The terms of bathing are as follows i a lady taking a machine. 
Bide included,) Is. 3d, Two or tnore ladies, (guide included,) Is. 
di. Child taking a tnachiEie^ (guide included*) Is* 3d. Two or mora 
ling children^ (guide included^) Qd, each. Gentleman taking a ma* 
be, (guide included^) Is, 6d* Gentleman bathing himself. Is* Two 
Imorc gentlemen, (guide included,) Is. 3d. each* Two or more gen» 
kmen bathing themselves, 9d* each. Warm bath 3$. ^. each, or one 
inea for sewn person}. 



le level saody shore, which extends under the diffs for several 
^yMmiiesy and at proper times of tide fortns a most pleasant walk. 
p^^tit the most fashionable promenade is the Pier, which being 
^l^viished hy a parapet, breast high, is perfectly safe, and is the ge- 
^^2«eral resort of the company before and after battling. In an 
M^^^^entng aL»o, and at the times of Ibe coming in or going out of 
I ^m l^ackety as the Margate passage-boats are called, it is frequently 
^^L^owded with a most motley group, in wliicb persons of all dis* 
^^xictiofis are indiscriminately btendetJ; a circum^^tance that lias been 
^ftius noticed by the facetious Pelcr Pindar: 


Soon 31 thou geit'«t within the Pier, 

AM Margate wilt be out I trow. 
And people rush from far and near. 

Aft if thou had 'it wild beasts to show. 

n one part of the Pier is a ninrlile tablet, with an mscription, 

K*«corditig tlje memorable occurrence of the preservation of the 

^'^ork East Indiarnan, wblcb, in a tremendous gale, on the first of 

January, 1779, was diiven from her anchors when lying home^^rd- 

bound in Queen's Clianncl, and carried by the violence of the 

stonn close up to the Pier, on wliitb the whole of the passengers 

and crew were landed in safety. The ship itself was aflerH-ards 

got off, and snbslantially repaired. 

From the exposed situation of Margate to the north and east, it 
has frequeully suffered by tempests, and violent gales of wind, set- 
ting in from those quarters. It has been observed, that the har- 
bour lies so directly open to tbe Northern Ocean, * that a vessel 
taking her departure from bence, and steering her course north 
half east, would bit no land till she came to tbe coast of Green- 
land, in the latitude of 75'' north, after having ran 1380 miles/ 
III the years 1765, 1763, 17^7, and 1300, great damage was 
done, by the violence of the wind, to the ships and boats wilhia 
the Pier, and also to the Parade and houses near the harbour. 

Tbw Parish was anciently a chapelry lo Minster, but was made 
parorhiiil in the year VZ90, Titc Church, which is dedicated to 
St. John Baptist, is a spacious edifice, slacdin*; ou an elevated 


90$ XEirr. 

ipot, on die south-east side of the tonu ; it eonsirts of a oatie, 
chancely ml aides, with « aqone tower at the north-west angle. 
The oafe ii difided front the aides hy e^faf arches^ sprittgiag limii 
octagonal and round cirfuiuiBy some of the arches art senRchcuhnTy 
aa^ the others ha^ ptobahly becuy though now altered nito tbe 
jpointed Ibmr the cfaoohv oohumis hate ominnented capitals hi 
the NonnaB style, some of them of peculiar chnracter* The mo- 
0imicnts are numeroos, and several are of coosiderahle age. Od 
a slab in the chancel, is a fuD-length Bras9 of a Knighl m phte- 
armour, with a sktiU-cap; a long sword, and a dagger: heneath 
bis feet was the following hiscrq[>tion, part of whicb is now gone. 

Vk^iacet Joiii DaunMron Ant. aid oM in Hfr inMidsnear 
6ce €iuti» anno ah Incamatisnr Vm noatit 3^ Cctei 

On the north side of the altar is a Bran oi Thoma$ Cardiff, whit 
was Vicar of this Church fifty-fire years, and died m 1515: he is 
represented b his mass habit, with his hands raised as in prayer. 
On the slab over the grave of Jhmtas Smyth, another Vicar, who 
died in 1433, is a Brass of a heart, with three bbek proceeding 
from it, .inscribed thus: 

_ f EeTiemptor meu0 tiltit* 
CccHo qo < ©e terra 0urtrcmrii/i inuUf ^ _ 
( Jn came mea tiHem H'n' 0alt»tm men* 

Among the other Brasses in this fabric, is a small fignre in armour, 
with a long sword, and a ruff, but without lielmet; over which are 
the arms of Cleybrooke^ a family which purchased Nash Court, 
a Manor in this Parish, early in the reign of James the First. 
Another Brass represents a complete Skeleton^ about three feet 
long; and a third displays a Ship in full sail: the two former are 
without inscription ; but the latter, which is much worn, is mscribed 
to the memory of Roger Morris, * sometime one of the 6 principaD 
M: of Attendance of his Maj» Navye Royall :* he died in October, 
l6l5. Several of the Petits, of Dandelion, lie also buried here; 
alMton a phuu stone b an inscription for Ann Dowdeswell, who died in 




November, 1763. ' age<l 100 yean.* This Cburtb is well pew^ 

has II brge g^Henr, which crosses it, and a good organ: flj 

liter H4ii the girt of Fraucts Cobb, Sen. Esq* of Ibis town ; it 

fit opened in 1795, Al the cast eud of iJie north ai§!e 

roug sitone buikhnf, tw>w ut»ed as tlie Vcttiy, aitd iormerly i 

t«>r* hoiisei but most )>n>b«ib]y, original) v coii«itructed for the i 

erjinig ol the rich plate and vej»tmen($ bclongiug to this edifice In 

be Catholic times. The Cburch-^ard is large, and crowded witli 

bs and grave-stones, B<^ides the Church, tliere are tbitr olhei 

taces of religious vvofisLip in this town; one for ^piintai anotba 

or the followers of the late Rev. J. Wesley; a tliird for RottM 

^atliolics, biiilt tiy subscription tn 1803; and tfte Uai^ culled Zioa 

^.kapcl, for the followers of the late Countess of Huntiugdoti: tldi 

iO wai erected by subscription, iu 1802, and is a respectabk 

of niodirQ Gothic, suliici^itly large for 1000 persons 

vera! charitable bcucfactions^ but mostly of little valtie» haw 

n made fur the use of tiie poor of this Parish; aud in IJEJ 

Charity School was built near Hawky S^juare, for eighty clitl< 

ireii, forty boys, and forty girh, who are educated, atid clothed 

y tlic voluntary subscriptions of the inhabitants, aided by lb 

tons of the numerous visitors who report hither: tiie building 

oQtsiinJi Ivio good school- room s^ Hith 9}>art]nents for the Mastei 

[| Misln^fts^ &c.* 

That tlie poor might be enabled to participate in lite advantage 
sea-batbiiigy a geneiid Sca-baiking InfibmarV has been esta 



^ In the year 1191, as some laborers were digging the foundalll 
For three new housei behind tlie Charity Scbtxjl, ihey discovered severs 
raves, excavated out of the solid chalk, and containing human skeki 
mt, which crumbled into duit on exposure to the air. In one c 
gravei wat found a coin of the Emperor Probui ; and a coin of Mail 
nttsus was picked up at the same timCi in exceUctit preservation* I 
t ensuing year* a smail Roman urn, containing a*he<^ wat found to 
^^^imilar excavation near the same tpot. About the end of ihe lummc 
^^mtoi 1791, a coin of the Empress Helena, in good preK-rvsiion, was ah 
^^band under the cUiT near the Lawn, Taur through (Iu: lik ^ lAoad 



blislted at fVcst-Brook^ near tliis town, by subscr^>tiofi : the iirst 
alone of tins buildiag was laid on the tweoty-first af June, IT^^r 
by the phttanthropic Dr. Letfciom, assisted by the Cofnmitt€€5 
which hud been formed both in London and Margate, for the 
purpose of carr} ing the estabhsbment into effect. It consists of a 
centre and two wings, and h suffklcntly large for the reception of 
about ninety patients^ who are boarded in the house ; adults pay* 
ing 5s. and children 3s. 6d. each, per week. 

Another charitable institution, connected mth this Parish, if 
Dbafer's Hospital, an Alms-House, so named from its having 
been erected on a piece of ground called Draper* s, about one 
mile eastward from Margate Church, in 1709, in pursuance of the 
Will of Micliael Yoakley, a Quaker* " It consists of ten very 
comfortable lenements, one of which is intended for an Overseers 
the others for decayed Housekeepers, (widows,) belonging to the 
Parislie^ of St, John, St. Peter, Birchington, and Acole, • of an 
industrious and good life, and godly conversation, and reduced to 
necessity, not by sloth, idleness, or their own hixury, but by age, 
sickness, lameness, or such like acts of Divine Providence/ The? 
«re allowed coals, and a yearly stipend; aiid to each is allotted a 
small piece of ground for a garden." Since the increased espcoses 
in living, of late years, the inmates of this Hospital have had their 
annual allowance considerabty augmented, through the beUevoleitt 
attention of the late George Keate, E^q. who promoted a liberal 
contribution for the purpose amnng the company at I^largate. 

On the high ground above I he town to the north, is a Battety 
of three guns, mounted ou the improved construction: this occi»« 
pies a piece of ground anciently called the Fort, which was de- 
fended on the land side by a wide and deep ditch, and a stroi^ 
gate; but the gate has Keen long removed, and the site of th** 
ditch converted into a small square. The views from this spot 
are extensive, and very beautiful. At some distance, on the oppo- 
site eminence, stands a very curious windmill for grinding coro^ 
called Hooper^s Mill, from its inventor Captain Hooper: the 
sweeps, or fliers, move horizontally, and are inclosed with shutters 
so Ib^t th« force of the wind, though ever so great, can be 



iwopcrly moderateil to the degree requite. Tlie immense forc^ 
with wfiich llip wind somefirae^ rasrcs on thb 5?hore, may be exem- 
pliiied bv an accident that befel Ibis Mill in a furious gale, on 
Sunday, November the ninth, ISOO^ when its upper tier of sweejJO, 
Mfith the cap and timber attached to it, wus blt)wii over the Pros- 
pect Hotel, to the distance f^f more than 200 yards, though the 
\*'ci^ht of tiie timber was supposed to be nearly five tons* 

There ap|>ear5 to have been a Market kept here in the lime of 
Charles the First, anno 1631, of which a monthly return was made 
to Dover; yet this was soon discontinued. The present Market k 
kid under a grant, made in the year 1777i ^^ Francis Cobb, and 
iohri Baker, (jenls. the fhcn Wardens of the Pier, and ihetr suc- 
neisors: before that time, I he town wus but indifterently supplied, 
I riie markets are held twice weekly; and are in general well stock- 
«?^ with butcher's meat, poult ry, fish, and vei;etables. The late 
f^ :viprovcments in Mai Lrate have been made un<1er an Act passed in 
k ^87, which not only provided for the rc4iiiilding and mainte- 
^.^nce of the Pier, but al^o for the pitving, lighting, cleansing, and 
Jdcning the streets, and other puqms^es; which removed some 
lall portion of tlie ineonveiiiencies attending tfie police, through 
town being a mendjer of the Cinque Port of Dover. 

UIo the year 1787, a spacious Theatre Ro^al was built near the 
It comer of Hawley Stpiare, at the expense of about 40001. 
le exterior is wholly devoid of ornament; but the interior is or- 
nented in a handsome st}le, somewhat on the plan of that of 
-^ vent Garden: the time of acting is restricted to the season, 
tber sources of public amu^^ment arc found in tlie Libraries^ of 
^ ^ich tiiere are several good ones in tliis town : the principal of 
fc^ifcesey IS Betlison's, iu Hawley Sipiare^ which is fitted up in a very 
™. ^gant style. Besides the several spacious hotels, and different 
^^mns, for the reception of the visitors to this town, here are many 
^^»ivale boarding-houses, where company are well accommodated, 
N.»3d on moderate terms. 

Tlie Margate boat^, or packets, winch are employed for tl<c 
te^^^uvfy^nce of passengers, baggage, he, to and from London, are 
^^Dmmodiously fitted up for the purpose; and the passage is fre- 
VoL. VII. May, I807. Q q q * quenlly 


9S6 KKirr. 

queutlj made in Cbc coune of from niae to eig^leen and twcnlji 
four boors. Eight, or nine; aod fom^tiyMs more, of Ibese bott 
are ia constant employ every season, sailing and returning dailj 
The season begms on tlie fourth of June, and termiuates with th 
last balUi^^ht in October. 

Several of our Sovereigas, aud inai^ distmguishad penooagai 
have embarked, or landed, at Margate, whea on their way to c 
from tlie Continent. William the Third generally came hither o 
.his.iounues to Holland; George the Fuvt twice laaded here; an 
George tlie Second, once; his consort, Queeo Caroline, icaone fis 
<m shore, and remained duruqg one .night, at this town. Th 
Great Duke of Marlborough, also, generally chose this as tl 
irtaoe of hn«mbarkation and huidiiig, wlieo commndiog against tl 
French : and here, likewise, tlie present Dake of Yoik enabarhe 
and re-landed, on his way to aud froan HoUand, in Ihe year ITSR 
wlieu the fatal battle of Alknuier destroyed all the hopes ionm 
by the Allies, of making a successful dnvcnwa in <hat ooontry. 

The number of acres in this Parish, ^ ascertaioed faf a b 
survey, is 39l6; that of inhabitants, asretusved under Ifaeb 
Act, was 4766; of whom 2 19 1 were nudes, and 2575 Amalc 
the number of houses was 1 115. It appears, from this stalemei 
that the population has been neafiy, >f ^ot wliotty, doubled, an 
Lewis wrpte his History of the Isle of Thaoet. 

St. John's Parish, was part of the ancient possessions of St. Aiigi 
tine's Abbey, aliH the Mansion-house was occupied by the Mod 
as a country residence. On the Dissolution, tliis estate fell to tl 
•Crown: in the tliird of Elizabeth it was given by tlmt Qiieeo 
the See of .Canterbury, in exchange for other tempordilies, and 
still belongs to the Archbishops, by whom it is leased out for liw 
llie Chapel and lufirniaiy ave still entire, witli the exception 
the windows, and interior ornaments: one of them b now a \m 
and tlie otlier a granary. In the Infirmary is a ludicrous atiti^ 
jcarving of a human face, well executed. 

About a mile and a half south-westward from Salmstone, a 

hUp in, St. John's Parish, are some remains of DENE CHAPI 

3 wh 



^^hid) WBf erected under a liceose gianted b)^ Robert, Abbot of 

St, AugiutiDc*:), to Sir Henry dc Sandwich, in the year 1230. 

TTie beirs of this family conveyed the Manor of Dene to the i>y- 

Wiirt; aiid Juliana de Lcyborae, Countess of Huntingdon, f*efie> 

'^Uy styled the Itifiinra of Kent, afterwards granted it to tlje Abbey 

^ SL Augustine, oii coodttion tlial the Monks, and their succes- 

•Ptl, should, at'ker her decease, celebrate certain n}a!»scs, daily, and 

pearly ; and also distribute :200 [lence to poor persons twice in the 

caurw of each year. I 

^r NASH COURT, another estate io St. John's Parish, was an* 

^BocotJy the property of tiie Prion of Oirist Cliurch ; but in the reigti 

^ Heary tlie Fourth, it belonged to the Garwintom, of Beke^- i 

^^QCB^t and became the property of the Hants, by the marriage of 

^Q betiess: since this its possessors have l}een numerous. TIjc 

I ^tanaioo has been a large etiilice, occupying a retired situation, in- 

closed by lofly trees: the Hall still displays some remains oi an- 

^ieat grandeur. 

5T. PETER'S, formerly a diapelry to Minster, » a pleasant 
standing on eleralcd ^ouiid, environed with trecs^ and 
its name from the Sainl to whom its Ckunh is dedicated. 
edifice is very handsomely tilted up, and consists of a uave, 
icel, and aisles, with an emballle*! tower of Hint, with stone 
and buttresses at the nortii-west end : on tlie east and west 
of the tower are the marks of a rent, or fissure, reaching 
;fimii liie top to the bottom, whidi is trdditionalty said to have 
occasioned by an earllj quake in the reigu of Queen Elizabetli. 
itave is of Norman architecture, and was originally separated 
its aisles by five circular columns on each side, with square 
SiMUies, and fluted capitals, having onianiental heads at the angles : 
""two of the arches on the south side have been filled up to form a 
<2chool. Here ve several large tombs, aud other sepulchral me- 
moriaU. Near (he font, at the west end of the nave, is a slab 
Jaiaid with curious Brasses, in memory of Richard Cidmcr, who 
died in November, 1465, and Margaret his wife: on another slab 
Bratics of Nicholas EUtone^ who died in 1^03, and his wife 
:«. Among the monuments arc &everHl tor the Dekewcrs of 
Q q q 2 Hackney i 



Hackney; one of whom, Jolin Dckewer, Esq. i*ho died m I76*A 

at the age of seveiity-siiv, * was an especial benefactor to ibis parisli/ 

About one mile and a half norlb-easlward from St. Peter*? 

Church, isiIiejM>int of land, called the NORTH FORELAND, 

supposed to be the Cantittm of Ptolemy. It projerts into tbe sea 

nearly in tJje form of a baition, and being soniewlmt higher tban 

the contiguous roast, has had a IdgkhHouse erected on its siim- 

mit for the gcueraJ safety of mariners, but more partkulaiiy ta 

enable them to avoid striking on tlie Goodwill Sands, The fir*t 

Light-House built here \vns of timber, having a glass lantern at 

lop: tbb ^vas burnt down by accident, in iKe year l683, and a 

strong octagon building of flint was al^envards eri?cled in its stead, 

having an iron grate on its summit, quite Ojien to the air, in which 

a blazing fire of couls was continually kept during the night. 

About 1730 an attempt was made to decrease llie consumption of 

the coals, by ioclosing the grate within a kind of lantern, with 

large sashdightsj but this l>eing found prejutlicial to the navigation^ 

tbe lantern w^s removed, and the light was contiinted m its former 

state till the year 1793, when the building was repaired, and 

heightened by two stories of brick work. The coal iire lias also 

been changed for patent lamps, having mRgriifying lens, each 

twenty inches in diameter, contained in a small room, or lantern, 

under a dome, coated with copper to prevent fires, Tlicse lamps 

are regularly lighted every evening at sun^set, and continue burning 

till day-brcjik ; and are so brilliant, thai in clear weather the light 

is visible iit the Nore, a distance of ten leagties. A galleiy sur* 

rounds the light-room, from which the vj«ws are very extcnsiYe 

and beautiful ; and particularly so when the Downs are fiiU of 

;ihip^>ing. This Light*House, as well as those at the South Fore- 

hmd, belongs to Greenwich Hospital; and every Britisb vessel 

iviiling round this point, pays two-ptjnce per ton, and ci'ery foreign 

Vessel, foiir-j>enre per ton, towards its support, 

Iktwven the Light House and Ringsgate, are two large Tumuli, 
called Hackkndon or Hackingdown Banks, which tradition 
states to have been raised over the graves of some of those who 
were slaia la a bloody battle fought near this spot between tbe 





[Oaties and the Saxons. Lewis cotij^tures that the batfk reftrr 
*o, was that mentioned by our bBtoriaJis as occurring in tl>e 5 
9^3, when the Danes landing in thb Isle with a considerable 
Were opposed by Earl Alchcfj with the Kenti -iinen, and 
Htida, with those of Surrey ; but, after a well-contested %ht^ ja 
^hkb many on both sides were driveu over the cMs into the sai, 
obtained the victory. Both these TuniuU b^ve been opened, and 
k^ the account given of their contaiti by Hasted, he cprrsect, it 
^oiild seem to go tdt towards diiiproving the tradition^ Of the 
t*tgest Barrow^ which was opened in 17^3, he aayt, " a tittle be- 
low the surface of the ground levenl graven were discovered ^ cat 
^ut of the solid cballc, and covered with tiat stones: they were not 
H niore than three feet long, ui an obbng oval form, and the bodies 
" *^in to have l>een thrust into them atnio^t double : a deep trench 
^^^ dag in the mtddle, and the twdies laid on each side of it ; two 
^^ the skulls were covered with wood^oals and ashes. Tlje skele> 
'^ns seem to have been of meUf xconiertf and chiidrm ; and by the 
^^al loess of the latter, these were conjectured to have been unborfU 
^liree urns of ver>' coarse black earttif not lialf burnt, one of them 
folding nearly half a bushel, were found with them, but crurnbted 
*t^lo dust on e?tposure to the air, Tiie bones were ratht^r of a 
^arge size, and far the most part perfectly sound/** The smaller 
-Harrow was opened in the year 176*5, by order of the late Henry 
Xord Holland : ** the appeairances were similar to the former, but 
^H> urns were found/'f Now, had these tumuli been actually 
^^^^ised over the bodies of those who fell in battle, the skeletons of 
^omen and children, it may be presumed, would not have been 
^uod among them ; yet this obvious contradiction appears to have 
Escaped notice ; and Lord Holland himself, in an inelegant Latin 
inscription affixed to the central part of a singular kind of Gothic 
Setii, erected by him on the larger Barrow, has given currency to 
the tradition. 

KINGS-GATE, formerly called St. Bartholomew's Gate, de. 
mes its name from a narrow passage, or gate^ cut through the 

Q q q 3 chalk 

• Hijt. of Kent, VoL X. p. 308, 369. f Ibui. 3CP 

f7^ KSIVT. 

cMk cfifi to the sea-shore for the convenieKy of ih€ Fishery; 
tfnd from the landing here of King Charlel the Second, (with bia 
brother, the Duke of York,) when on Ins way to Doter in Jtme, 
1683. This estide was the [m^rty Of Robert WhitfieU, Esq. «f 
whom it was pmrchased by the late Lord HoUand as a pboe of V6« 
tirement during his dechning years; a cireurostanee wUch,. coti* 
fleeted with the various fantastic Rvins erected- here by that Noble* 
nan, gave origin to the following severe lines, written by the Pbet 
Gray, durii^ his abode at Denton in the ^ring of 1766. 

Old, and abandonM by each venal friend, 

Herv Holland fbrm'd the pious retolution 
To smuggle a few years, and strive to mend 

A broken character and constitution* 

On this congenial spot he 6xM bis choice ; 

Earl Goodwin trembled for his neighbouring sand; 
Here sea-gulls scream, and cormorants rejoice. 

And marinen, though shipwreck'd, dread to land* 

Here reign the blustering North, and blighting East, 
• No tree is heard to whisper, bird to sing j 
Yet Nature could not furnish out the feast. 
Art he invokes new horrors still to bring. 

Here mouldering fanes and battlements arise. 

Turrets and arches nodding to their fall. 
Unpeopled monast'ries delude our eyes. 

And mimic desolation coven all. 

The immediate seat of his Lordship should, perhaps, be excepted 
from the general censure ; it was built on the model of Tolly's 
Formian Villa, on the coast of Baiae, under the superintendence of 
Sir Thomas Wynne, Bart, now Lord Newborough. It is a low 
building fronting the sea, and sheltered by the cliff: the centre is 
of tlie Doric order ; the wings are built witb squared flints, and 
over the doorways are two basso-relievos in white marble. The 
principal apartment is a detached Saloon, the ceiling of which ia 




pifiited with the slory of Neptune, mid supported by columns aiid 
fiUaufers of Sca^liola nmrbk tti mutation ot' potptiyrv, execQteii 
by Bartoli aud llichf er. The gard*-!! is neatly l^id out ; and al the 
upper did b a small column of Kilkenny marble^ inscribed in me- 
mory of Margarcl ot" Kildure, late €oiUi4c5$ of HUlsborougli, who 
died at Naples in 176r. 

The wliinisical coogregation of bmldlngs round tlm seat are 
compofied of chalk and fliuti, and con^st of a Con^cau, with the 
remaitis of a Chapel and Cloister, a Ca$tle, a Bcad-HoMe, now 
an Inn, a Ttrnpte of Nt^tune, a stiiall Fart, Uc. Near the road 
^ding to Margate^ is nlm HatUj Tower, a column so called 
from being dedicated to the honor of Thomas Haklky, Lord 
Mayor of London in 17<>8. This estate was bequeatiicd^ by Lord 
Holland, to bii s^icond son, the late Qiarles Jiimcs Fox, £sq^ 
bom whom it passed to the Hoberfs'i in the tame way as the 
manor <A Queiu but some parts have been recently sold 

BROADSTAIRS, ancienily called Brad'$toiL\ has of late yean 

Wcome a very thriving and tasluonable watering- place, and uany 

ftew houses have been erected here, which, in the jiummer season, 

ane isibabrted by families of tlie first respectability. About tlie 

time of Henry tlie Eighth, a small wooden Pier appears to have 

t^eeii built here fur the safety of the ^shin^ craft ; most probably 

t*v the Culmer family, who forltiied tlie gate or way leading down 

to the sea-shore, by an arched i>ortaU defended by a portcullis 

And strong gates. This was dmui to prevent tlie inhabitants being 

l^ltuidered by the sudden incursions of privateers : the arch still 

^'enuiius, it having liecn rt paired in ]7i^^t by ^ir J. Heuniker, Barf- 

K^iw Lord Hensiker. In £liziibeth*s time, by two iaden lures, 

^i^ii^ respectively in 156^ and 1586\ tlie Culmers granted the 

X*ier« and tlie wiiy leading to it, under certain conditions^ to the 

«tibabitant« and panslitoncrs, to hold for ever, ' tor the good of 

l^e comn^nwealth/ from the dues becoming insufHcient to keep Pier and Harbour in re(>air, an Act was oblaijied in the thirly- 

«!ecc>ud of his present Miyesty, for granting public aid for tliat ptii^ 

g>ose ; yet tlie desired improvements have not yet been made^ the 

l^xade to this Port having greatly decreased| through the nar, ami 

^»tber causes. 

Q <l 1 * Vm 


972 KBNT. 

Near the Pier are some remains of a snaHHOkapel, now coo* 
>erted into a dwelling-house, which was dedicated to the ViffgiD 
Mary, and in which, -says Lewis, was her unage, called cor Lady 
of Broadstairs, formerly held in ^ so great Teneiatioo, that the 
ch^, as they sailed by this phure, qsed to bwer their top-saib to 
salute it/* Some ship-building is carried, on here, under the di- 
rection of the son of the late Mr. White, whose professioiial abiU- 
ties have been highly extolled. Twtf good Uhraria hate been 
reoeutly established here; and some other accommodatioiis, as 
warm baths, &c. provided for the visitors who annually flddt to 
this coast. '* Here," observes Lewis, *' as ibrmeriy, within mj 
memory, after a great deal of rain, or irost, which has occaaooed 
a fall of the adjoiuiiig cliff, have been found a great many bniH 
coins, &CC. of the Roman EmperoTS.^t 

• Near Broadstain, says Kilbume, '' on the ninth of Jvly, 1574, 
a monstrous Fish shot himself on shore, on a little sand, now 
called Fisbness, where, for want of water, he died the next day, 
before which time his roaring was heard above a mile. His length 
was twenty-two yards, the nether jaw opening twelve feet : ono 
of bis eyes was more than a cart and six horses could draw, and a 
man stood upright in the place from whence it was taken. > The 
thickness from his back to the top of his belly, which lay upward, 
was fourteen feet ; his tail of the same breadth : the distance be* 
tween his eyes was twelve feet : three men stood upright in his mouth : 
some of his ribs were sixteen feet long; his tongue was fifteen feet 
long: his liver was two c^rt-loads; and a man might creep into his 
nostri]5.''t A large male fVhale, of the qpermaceti kind^ was also 
found on this shore, in February, 1762. Its length was sixty-one 
feet; circumference, forty-five feet; perpendicular height pf its sides^ 
twelve feet ; distance of the fins, eight feet, six inches ; length of 
the fins, four feet, six indies; breadth of ditto, three feet; distance 
from the nose to the eye, pne foot, three inches; extent of lower 
j^w, eight feet ; distance from the tail to the navel,- fifteen feet; 


» Hist.ofThanet, p. 165. + Ibid. p. 164. 

. X Survey of Kent, p. 215,-16- 

KENT. 973 

EAST CUFF LODGE, between Brodbtiin and RanH^gpite, 
^ creeled by the bite Beiyanun Bond HoploDii Eeq. bat binns 
through several huMky is now the property of the Right 
Uooonbie Loid Keith, IL B. who puidnsed it fitim its tknttioK 
htkag convenient to his present conmMnd in the Downs. The 
psincipnl firont^ which is open to the see, is-vspiesentod in the sn* 
nesed engraving; the sommit is embattled, and the whole balding 
may be regarded as a not indegant sperimfn of modem Gothic: 
the Dining-BoMtt is a very handsowr apartment The grounds^ 
Y^hidi include about tlurteen acres, eitend to the verge of the diff; 
md there is in one part, a qpadoos subterranean passage, 500 yards 
ba^, extending to Ae sea: thb is well lighted by means of apop- 
Itaret cut through the dialk to the face of the cliff. In 1803, this 
i was th^ summer residence of the Princess of Wales* 


I^iK£ Margate, was formeriy only a small fishing^ianilet, con- 

; of a few mean and iudiftrently buik dwdlmgs; and, tfaou^ 

member d the Fort of Sandwich, b returned in the 

t Survey made in tlie eighth of Elizabeth, as containiiy 

''^t twenty-five inhabited houses: the boats, and other vessels^ 

^^n belonging to the Port, from the burthen of tlirce tons to six* 

^^n, were fourteen ; aud the number of men appertaining to them, 

^^^enty, who were employed in earning grain, and in fishing. 

Af^f the Revolution of l6'88, tlie extension of trade with Russia, 

^^^Hl the Easteni Countries, was of considerable advantage to this 

P^^Ure, as the inhabitants had engaged in it with much success ; 

^*^ the buildings were, in consequence, improved, and greatly 

^^Hrreased in number. Tiie principal augmentation, and consequent 

^portance ot* this town, has arisen, however, from the improve* 

^nts made in the Harbour since the middle of the last century . 

f^r, although a Pier for * shipping' existed here at least from the 

^iitie of Henry the Eighth, as we find mentioned in Leland s Ituie- 

^ry, yet it was by no means adequate to afford security to the 

l^mcrous vessels that were drivtii on this coast in tempestuous 

weather ; 



weather ; and the public ailtenlion bdn^ eadted tn llie toEfl 
» dreadful ^torm iii I>e<«itiber, 1748, dttrmg which mvny ah 
were forced from tben^ anchorage in the Dowm, it was delermiii 
hy the Parli'diiieDt, early iii the ensuing yem, on llie petition' 
the merchants and shipowners, that a suthcient Harbour shoi 
t>e made here for the reception ** of fhipa of and under 300 t4 
burthen," ticc* ^B 

The trustees appointed under the Act then passed for tM^f 
pose, elected a Committee to consider plaos^ and forward 1 

^ Amrmg the facts thai were proved to the Committee of the Hoi 
oTCommoD^^ appointed to consider the aHegationi of the petitioo^ wt 
the following — " That m the said great storm of the December p 
ceding, a number of ihipi were actually forced imo and iared to Ra« 
gate Harhour, although then so smaU ai to be scarce capable of receiv' 
vei^els of 200 torn at any state of the tide ; the Pier there having Ih 
only buih and maintained by the fi.shermen of the pbce^^ — That at Rai 
gate. Of near h, wai not only the beit, but, m reality^ the omtfpU 
where aw/ //arbour could be buih, that would be lervjceable to at 
ia dliiresj in the Dgwtis ; becauie Ramsgate was ri^fU inikcUt qfi 
roudf with tuck winds as produced tfiot distress j and at such a prci 
distance^ that, after driving, or breaking loose, they had tiute to | 
Wider sail, to thjit* with a slender share of seamanship, they coi 
make an Harbour, if built there. — That when vessels break lotise firi 
iheir anchors in the Dcnuns, it is generally from J flood to J ebb, dor 
all which time the course of the current of tlie tide is tu the N. I 
N- £* which therefore would carry them right into an Harboar 
Ramsgate ; to that, by the time they got thither, it would be withm 
hour of high water. — ^1 bat ships in Ramsgatc Harbour may sail out o 
with ant/ wind that would carry them vxntnard out of the Dtnsius; i 
even with a strong wind at £. or with a scant wind at S. E. by K» tl 
can make good their course out of Ramsgate Harbour^ in virtue of | 
flood tide under their lee, and sail westtLwd, when slaps in the Ikft 
cannot purchase iheir anchors, — ^ITiat large cnift might be conitai] 
kept afloat in Ramsgate FlarbouTi at low water, luch as tnight be ii 
to carry out pHoU, tmchors^ cables, and other assistance to meii qfu% 
and the coast is so circumstanced^ that whenever they could not go fis 
Ramsgate, boats may go out frum Dover to ships in the Downs/* 
Smcaton's Historical Jccow.t o/Eamsgute Harbour , , 


«w! in tlic begintjing of 1749-50, the new Harbour was 
^oiunienced from the designs of Wilfiatn Ockeocfen, Esq. one of tlic 
trustee?, *ikI Captain Robert Brooke : the East Pier, dcstgiiect by' 
die forinerf was to be of stone ; an<l the West Pier of wood. The 
^^^iiodatioiis of Ihe Piers were laid in ca3^, or caissons, agreeably 
the plan of Mr. William Etheridtje, one of the surveyors, and 
hkh * being attended with certainty, and every necessary degree 
f diapatch^ bas ever since been U\c nietbod put in practice bei'e/ 
be work was carried on wirh mtirh spirit for three or four years^ 
hen a disagreement arose among Ihe princrpal ojbcers; and the 
otnmtttee faaTing voted that the width of the Harbour should 
* contracted to r200 feel/ various re nionst ranees were made 
rom di^erent parts against this resolution ; and at kuglli^ in 
755, a petition was presented to Parliament, allcdging, that the 
iroposed alteration would render ihe HarlKinr * in a great measure 
'Uss; and that the expeuce thereof must be lost to the public/ 
proceedings resulting from ibis schism had the effect of put- 
ing a total slop to the works till June, 17<i>l, wlien the Committee 
>rdefed the contracting walls to be taken np, and the Harbour to 
completed according to the tirst <!esigns, TJje carrying out of 
^»be Piers was now pursued with fresh alacrity ; but, in extending 
^^hem towards each other hy ka nix or Jkjctircs, it was fonud that 
^•tie form tlms given to the Harbour, occasioned such a considerable 
-^cpo^itioQ of sand, as to threaten to cboak it up, and render it 
^Uterly Quser^iceablc, This threw a great damp on Ihe progress of 
^e work ; and though diflerent means were employed to clear the 
Harbour, the CominiHee, in a report made in August, 1775, ex* 
jxtssed their 'great concern tu finding sucft a vast quantity of sand 
£lld sullage still remaining, Jiotwitlr^lamling upwards of 52,000 
tofts had been taken out since January, I77^f at the expcoee of 
J lOOL and tliat it was feared it was ratlier increased than dimi- 
tiislicd.' — ^They therefore advbed Ihat * nothing more should tie 
^one* till the opinion of the celebrated Mr, Sinealon,* or souifl 
<Jl-i:aer able engineer, should be oblaiiied. 

Wof some particulars of the extraordinary ikiU and ingenuity of thii 
^cntkmaDj tee under Edystone Light-Mouse, Xol IV, p. 202— P» 


April fbtbning^ ^h, SmeatOD made an accurate I 

tien state of tiie Harbour ; aod^ tiler an attentive considc 

circumstaxiccSj preaeoled a Report* in the ei 

k givmg it as his decided opinion, tbat the dieape 

lectu^l means of cleaimg the Harbour^ would be 

\xl Back-Wata-^ operating by meims of &luices. *' 1 

water is lo be procured/' he observes in his Report 
V^ at Hamsgate liaibour, the only re^murce h to cod 

or Bamn^ to take in the sea-water^ ihe tid« there I 
If-rable rise and fall ; and in order to keq> tbe 
ir an the Harbour, it may be divided into iwo, 
|i, with a sluice^ or sluices, upon it, capable of feti 
|cr in cither J while die other b empty ; for by this \ 
reciprocally be made a Bason for clearing each c 
Ih udled, for clearing tbe Harbour*" He therefon 
lliat a cEoss wall, then building in tbe upper part i 
Ir, for the purpo^ of confining the mud and silt disdi 
|e hghtcr;^, should be further extended in an eastern 

that it niight inclose a sjiace of about eight acres, ^ 
I wo Ba&oiis, with proper sluices, might be formed ft 
If U port, and a subjoined Plan, were taken iuto the co! 

' the Comruictee ; and, though not adopted, were evit 

lie fouiuUtion of another Plan, delivered in by Mr, Tl 

who had been Master Mason of the works from tbi 



ifter 9ome experiments on a smidl scale had been made by means 
of a scuttled lighter of fifty tons, tlie Committee ordered Mr. 
Pre'ston's Plan to be executed witli all possible dJspatcb/ 

The first trial of the skire^ was made jn August, 1779 5 ^tA' 
though several diflicultics occurred in startiug tlicni, the eifccts 
produced greatly exceeded the general expectiiti<Jti, ** the stream 
of crater carrying the sand a great way beyond the entrance of the 
Ha^rbour in such quanlitles, that the sea at the distanre of a mile 
W2i« observed to be exceedingly thick and foul.** This formed a 
oe%v era in the progress of the Harbour ; the works were now car- 
ried on with increased spirit ; and as ihe sluices were successiveiy 
brought into action, the sand and sullage rontinned to be driven 
lulo the sea ; and in some instantes the currcul from the sluices 
was so powerful, that it forced up the chalk rock to the depth of 


" The vast importance of the advice given by Mr. Smeaion, may be 
appreciated by the folJowIng atcouni of the stare of ihc Ifirbuur in 1771, 
n recorded in hit own memoraada* *' At that time, m the very centre 
of the outward Harbour, the sand wa» accumvifated to an elevation four 
feet above the level at which the thrf.iholdi of ihe preient gntes are laid ; 
and thii being then ihe bt»st, tlat is, the deepest* part of the Harhonr, 
fetftclf drawing above ten feet water could hardly be said to get into it, 
even ai spring tide** At tosv water, there was no water to be leen in 
the HartKfUr, excepting a stnah roundish area, reaching a httle withirx 
the Fier head* at neap tldei j and at ipring tides ^onc but what wAs 
immediately between the heads. — Under the curve of the I:last Pier, 
where were the proper births ior large vessels, (could they have occu- 
pied them,) the sand lay con»idi:rably higher; so that, in the third an- 
gle, which afTordi naturally the best hirlhSt there wai no less than 
thirteen feet in depth of iilt lying upon the chalk boiiom, which would 
be •even feet above the level of the present threshold of the gates ; and 
if this wa« the condition of the Harbour in J 774, we may conjecture 
how ffifich worse it had become in 1779, whtn the sluices were fint 
brought Into action, notwithstanding thai the barges had been aU the 
time employed in getting the sand out as fa^t as they could.'* — In this 
forlorn state the Harbour of Mamigatc had become justly reprobated by 
Ihc public, as a work not having the least appearance of utility, or like- 
lihood of being iBade useful. 

97ft KBIIT* 

fereral feet. The Basoo itself wnf also parUaOy ckarv^ of l| 
•ullage that bad collected tbere-; and an a Survey vade JQ Aogm 
]782y was found to have fourteen feet water i|it spriof tMef > wlu 
m the Harbour in the channei under the ^ast Pief, the dcpl 
lunoouted to nineteen feet a^ the s^uae limes. 

These great improvemenls were accompanied bj sone oonaida 
able incoinrenienciesy which it became nectsciry ^o remedy by se 
imdertakings. The buildii^ of tl^ cross wall to form tbe Bffoi 
firevented the waves from breaking upon the shore na tfaej b^ i 
therto done ; and the swell being thereby stopped, and npellci 
rendered the w^te^ of the Harboorso extremely un^met,' pnrtia 
hrly in strong gales, tliat it bec^ui^ very wiiafe for vessels af «b 
burthen, it was therefore determined that aboid: 300 or 300 fm 
of the western end of tlie cross waH shonld be taken down, and 
new wall built up towards the cliff; and that^ in order to give 
passage to the waves, about eighty or one hundred feet of the midd] 
part of the Timber Pier should be removed. These oieasores wop 
attended with much success ; and to render the Harbour of iti 
greater utility, it was resolved to construct a Store-home^ and 
Dry Dock, for the more convenient repair of damaged vessels : tl 
latter was commenced in July, 1784, on a Phm given in by M 
Smeaton, wlio recommended that it should have a timber bottoo 
but this advice being departed from in the first instance, and 
flooring laid vvitli stone, it vras found, on trial, that the groni 
springs, conjoined with the action of the tides, had so powerfid i 
effect, that ' the greatest part of the pavement was disjointed, u 
hove up,' though composed of blocks of Porthind stone weighic 
a ton and a half eacli : nearly 100 feet of the north w^ also w; 
hove up at tlie same time. The whole pavement was afterwav 
taken up, and a timber floor laid, as originally proposed; h 
these circumstances occasioned such a loss of time, that the Dot 
was not entirely completed till 1791. 

Tlie improvements thus made, combined witli the increasti 
depth of water obtained by means of the sluices, had now dei 
dedly established the utility of this Harbour ; and the. number 
»hips and vessels which annually t«ok shelter here m stormy wc 




progressively augmented ; ibou^li it was fount! tlmt llie 

i were still greatly agitutcd during itroug giiles from the cast. 

atid nortlt-ca.«it. To obviate thi*i iiicoriveiiietrce, it wa^ resulved^ iu 

17 &7i Ibat an advanced Pier should be ciirritd out in a soutli- 

easterlv directiou from the bead of llie East Pier, as tlie mast CJt* 

^rieoccd seaufeit uiid piloL> of Ramsgale bad formed an opinion 

tjbat sucfi a work would liiglily cuoduee to tlje qtiiet of ttu? Har- 

iKMir. Tbis wa>i accordjugly comnienced in the tolbwing yewv 

under (lie dircctioa of xMr.Srneaton, (who had icccnll)' been nmk 

<hkiL Engineer,} and wiis successfully pursued till its coiapkboii ; 

Its Uiefidi»e55 becoming prrtduully appareut a 8 the work advanced^ 

^)d that not only in producing the effect dej»tgned, but also in fa- 

diil^iiig I be ejitntnce of blnf>ping in tempestuous weather. 

Between ihe years 17 9 Z aud l$0'2^ several additional btiildiog^ 
were made; a new Li^k- House of stoiie, with Argand lumps and 
feflector^ was erected ou tlic bead of the West Pier. '^Tbe Uason 
waH was wiiieiicd mi as to form a wharf for tbe laudins* and sliifi- 
piug of goods : a low edifice was constructed on llie bead of tbe 
advanced Pier, as a Watch-bouse, and to deposit baweers in, for 
the aji&Utauce of* shij>s in distre^: a convenient bouse wa^ built for 
the itarbanr M'.i:»ter; aixl adjoining to it, a very handsome struc- 
ture for tbe meetings of lite trustees* coramittees, &c. On the 
lop of the latter h a cupola; which, when in a line witli the Light- 
House, forms the Leading mUrk for vessels maliing Uie Harbour* 
K large Wareliousc has also been erected. The Timber Pier, wbidi 
extended 550 teel from the cliflT, in a straight direction, i* now re- 
building with stoue ; and a nitlitary road^ for the emburkatton of 
troop<>, for which senice this Pier v^ peculiarly favorable, has been 
leccntly completed^ Further improvements are iu coutemplatioD ; 
andy to the lasting honor of llie trustees, it may be affirmed, tJtat 
BO cost has been spared to render tliU Harbour as extensively use- 
ful, as the situation of vessels is dangerous, when navigating tbe 
C0Dtigimu5 chaimel in stormy weather. 

Tlie sums expended in constructing Ibis Haven, are stated to 
amount to between 6 and 700,0001. hut this bears hardly any 
ptopcN-tioii to tbe property saved by its means, which, if it were 



980 KENT. 

possible correctly to estimate, could liardlj be found less thai 
forty or diiy millions. Yet this n but a very inferior coosidentioii, 
when ive advert to tlie many hundred valuable lives that have beett 
preserved to their families, and to their country, by the security 
afibrded in this Port; which, as formed and preserved by methods 
entirely artificial, must be regarded as the most important work of 
the kind in Great Britain. Its pre-eminent utility may m some deu 
gree be estimated by the mention of the fact, that during the 
storms which occurred in December, 1795, upwards of 300 nM 
of vessels were slieltered here at one time, some of them of 500 
tons burthen, and upwards.* 

The area of Ranisgate Harbour is nearly circular, and con i pre* 
hends about fort}^x acres. The Piers, Bason, &c. are chiefly 
constructed with Purbeck and Portland stone, prineipally the latter. 
The entire length of the East Pier, including its flexures, or angles; 
amounts to nearly 2000 feet : that of the West Pier is about 1500 
feet : the width of (he entrance b 240 feet. The general breadth 
of the Piers is twenty-six feet, including a strong parapet, wliicih 
defends the outer sides next the sea. What is called the East 
Channel, is formed by the passage between the East Pier and a 
large bank of sand, which nearly crosses the Haibour as flu* as the 
Bason, and is of consklerable use for ships to bring up upon in a 
hard gale, when driven into the Harbour without anchors or ca- 
bles.! Near the north end of the West Pier is a massive fhuue-work 


^ How much the celebrity and security of this Harbour must have 
increased since 1780, is proved by the circumstance, that, during the 
whole of that year, only twenty-nine vessels sought shelter here, though 
subsequently the number has increased to the amount of five, six, seven, 
and even eight hundred. 

t " It probably will be thought by many,*' observes Mr. SmeatoOp 
" v.l.o cLir.oiily view the place, and are not fully apprised of the requi- 
.site> <'i an artificial Harbour, to be a defect, that this Harbour is not 
{uflrrf:; court il xvith Ziuter, all over us area, at low water; but the 
bonk is rta!Iy of the greatest utility, not only for ships to bring up upon, 
but al'^o for ^ipplying them with ballast. However, notwithstanding 




of liinl>er» inclodbg a stair-case, called Jttcoh's Ladder, forming 
a communicaliorj from the tap to the bottom of the cliC Thb 
wms erected in 1754>, 

Through the mouth of the Harbour beiiij,' so far Advanced into 
the sea, the entrance of a vessel in tempest tious weather, coiDhined 
witli tlie rolling of the waves, and the dushing of the spray, fortns 
a mry grand spectacle, though it b scarcely possible to contem- 
pbte it williout strong emotions o( terror. In the bathing season, th« 
Fiers are frequent!) crowded with company, particularly the East Pier, 
\v)uch then becomes a favorite Promenade * The sea views are very 
fine, cipecially when the Downs are full of shipping: in good wea- 
ther, the Cliife of Calais may be seen, though at tfie distance of 
tlurty miles, and when tinged by the lieams of the western sud, 
Igjffita most delightiul distance to the prospect. The home views 
de tlie towns of H^ndwich anil Deal, together wilh some 
s£jikiag features of tlie uplands and fruitful vallies of East Kent. 

The duties payable towards the maintenance of tJiis Harbour, 
^wt collected from all vessels passing through the Downs, under an 
^A-ct passed in the thirty-third of his present Majesty, by which all 
• Aeli for the same piirjiose were rescinded. All ships, whe* 
r nmFigatiiig on the west or cast side of Ihe Goodwin Sands, are 
3«w charged: vessels between twenty tons and three hundred^ 
pay lwo*pencc per ton : every chaldron of coah, and every ton of 
»txNies, are rated at from three-pence to three^ice halipenny. 
Vol. VliL May, ISOr. R r r The 

ti^t, for theie reasons, none of the iloices have been brought to phy 
»^poq the bank, yet ic hat, in realiry, lo much wasted, that the highest: 
pan uf tt'hat now remaini, nlov^r, hy^five feet, than the middte of the 
iiarbour was in 1774^ and, indeed, it is lo far watted, and watting, 
tiiai probably it will f>ot be many years before expedients b« found ne" 
c^«Aary lo preserve It. There have already been compbinti that if ii 
grown fo bw, that, at neap tides, the vewels (on account of ii« bein^ 
overflown) canaot get their ballast therefrom j and the expedient of fill- 
ing barges in reaiiness, has lately been ordered by the irusteci» as a 
"^tnedy for that defect. At a spring iJde, there is now thirteen feet 
^*^^ter over it, so that a number of the smaller vessels miy occasionally 
l«« upon ii '* 1 

dS2 KEHt; 

The yuUa( Rann^te, as it is denomiiiated in jodjod 
reeding, ^* though in tlie Parish of St. Lawrencey yet 
its own |)oor separately, notwithstanding which, it is assessed 
ti]e Church hi common with the r^t of it ; but the inhabit au^^ 
have the pririlege of chusing Ode Churchwarden from amoic::^ 
tlicraselves, and raising oulj a proportion of the Church cess. Z- 
b an aneieut moiuber of the town and port of Sandwich, an* ^ 
within the jurisdiction of tlie Justices' of that phice. The Mayo^^ 
of Sandwich appoints a Deputy or Constable here, . and the iiihui^^ 
bitants are allotted by the Commissioners of that Corporatioo^J 
what proportion tliey shall pay towards the land-tax raised by thaS-^ 
Port/'* A small annual sum is also paid 6ut of the duties colJecl--^ 
ed at Ramsgate Harbour, towards the support of Sandwich Haveo«P- 

The great infltix of visitors to this town of kite years, has occa*-*-* 
&ioned the erection of several new rows of large and respectable^ 
houses, besides various detached buildings. A spacious Chapel of 
Ease has also been erected^ under an Act passed in 1785 ; and 
was first o|)€ued in 1791 : here are also two Meeting-Houses; one 
for Presbyterians, the other for Anabaptists. Otlier iin|»ovenieota 
have also Ix^eu made witliin tlie bst twenty or thuty years: the 
streets have been paved, watched, and lighted; and a Maricet has 
been establislied, which is well supplied with meat, poultry, fish, 
aud vegetables. 

The acconnnodations for the summer residents of Ramsgate, 
are similar to those at Margate ; though, perhaps, not quite so 
nuiiUTOus, and somewjiat less splendid. Tlic Assembly- Room and 
Tavern is a large building, near the Harbour, elegantly fitted up, 
and containing convenient Tea and Card-Rooms, a Billiard-Room^ 
aiid a Cotfee-Room. Here are several good Inns also, with 
Bathing-Rooms, Libraries, Boarding-Houses, &c. The Bathing 
Place i% a fnie sandy shore beneath the Cliffs to the south of the 
Pier ; the machines are of the same kind as those at Margate. 
The RanHijatc Hoys, or Packets, are principally employed in the 
<:onvcyance of luggage, goods, &c. as the frequent difficulty of 


•* Ha>icd's Kent, Vol. X. p. 38o. 8vo. Edii. 



Weathering the Norlli Foreland generally induces those who prefer 
I sea-lrtp, to sail iu I he Margate Packets, 

Tlte |>opulution of this town has more Itiao doubled within th^ 

bfit thirty-iive }ears ; and is continualiy receiving increase from 

tlie numbers who arc induccfl, by d liferent inotiveSf to ^ttle here. 

fiE the year 177 3f the number of liouses was below 500; in llie 

•^fisr 1801, they were returned at 7'^b^; ^nd since that |X'riod, they 

^^a've been pwportionably augmented. The amount of the popu- 

iat^MOQ, in 1801, was returned at 3110; of which the number of 

umaiiw was I UU Since the completion of the Harbour, tiie ship 

pEm^j^ trade hm been much improved ; and two or three vessels now 

belong to thiaPort, which are constantly employed in the im[x>rta- 

tion of coals from Newcastle and Sunderland. Boal-bu tidings and 

tlie repairs of shipping after heavy gales of wmd^ arc also earned 

oo here, and occasionally to considenible extent. 

ELLINGTON, a small fsiate, about half a mile westward 

from Ramsgate, was anciently the seat of a family of tlie same 

name, who, towards the end of the rei^ of Edward the Fourth, 

were succeeded by the llmfchcrSf another ancient Kentish family, 

from whom, in the time ol Elizabeth, it passed to the Spracklyns, 

Adam Sprackling, Exn[, who resided here in the reign of Charles 

iJie First, and had married Catherine, daughter of Sir Robert 

I-eukner, of Acri.*e-Place, was^ in April, 1653^ executed for the 

*Qurder of his wife, against whom he appears to have conceived a 

footed antipathy, through conceiving her to be in league with his 

«^reditors, after the deningeinvnt of his affairs by riotous living, 

l*ad compelled him to lock himselt up in liis own house, to avoid 

^tiing arrested* Occasionally, however, he seems to have been 

^tfflicted liy outrageous fits of passion, mingled with insanity, and 

*ii one of these he committed tlie horrid deed for whirh he suftered ; 

though, from the many aj)pea ranees of design wlu'ch accom)>anied 

the sanguine act, the jur\ were imluccd to declare him sruilty of 

premeditated nuirdcr. The uuforlunate victim to his rage was 

htghiy esteemed for her piety and virtue. Her deatli was pafticu- 

lajrly dreadful : he fir^t struck her on the face with his dagger | 

9(jri ihnif oil her altemjHing to open tlie door to leave tlie ruonii 

II r r ^ ttrucb 


hgloOod to 



i«r, k. 


7 HI ddwi 


1 iiiiiiini ■ 

w, 1754; 

M « 

CT. L\WRENCE» i Inst vil^e, «o odU Ami tb^ 

attifepmckid in tiie ytmr 1275. It atudt 00 tfae Imw o( iWl 
ka ivipnliifel J above fUim^lc tlie hoiBtt JbtoM^ t leog 
irindhi^ ilscct oe dw }a^ md to tint Ihipii* The Ckmrtk h 
brge edifice, tomMn* ofa mte, iisles, lod dvee cbiaeels* wkH 
a iqiafe lewer rieo^ fhiai fimr maHm cdDiM» bef ««» t W mne 
and pf m d p al dtaoecL The towerp ind part 4>f the body, are of 
MorniaD arcfattectofe : the outyde of tbe fatmer n wnameMi ed 
with nm^es of small semidrciilar ardiesy springpig h^m fltm ac- 
tagpruil ptlliirs : the capitaU of tiie piexs which lappott It, di^ilij 
iome cufiotu sctilptiire. Among the oainectMii lifialehfal mem^ 
rials in this fkbrie, are seircral bi memor^r of the S^citin^, of 
Eilingtoin Tbe bscriiitioiis for tlic MafLitoiig, of Msantoit Caait« 
hi ihW Piimh, pvtn by Weever» who supposes iheCbitfch I© baft 
been founded by that familYTt are now deatioyed» at ohileffalnlt 
At a short dbtaiice eastnard from Ibis stmcfore, ate 
of a Chantry Chapd, that was detiicated lo the Ilol? Tdolt^ bat 
has been long converted into a small dwelUn|;* In thislMih wav 
bom Richard Joy, who, in the Teig;ii of ^tlJtam ilieTb^d, 
00 celebmted for hk extraordinary strength, at to obtab the 
of the English Sampson, or tbe Strang Man qf KetH 
bts picture wa« eftgraved, and round it M*veral 
his performances ; as pulling against an exlraordinaty ftnN^ 
jumpbig; breaking a rope tliat would sustain 3o bundrtd vretgjhl 

I© baft _ 

It^ botV 

ai«M of^ 

^ Ijewii*s Thanet, p, 183— «f. f Tun Mon* p. CfH, Edit* ttntj 


fiftiitg a weight of ^^40 lb. ice'* He was drcywned at the age of 
sixty-seven, in May, 1742 ; and was buried in St. Peter's Church^ 
Yard, in this Isle. 

About one mile southward from St Lawrence's Church, is 
PEG WELL BAY, above which a neat Villa was erected a few 
years a^o, by the celebrated Counsellor Garrow, wbo stiil makes 
it his occasion;i) re^ii^lence : the views from it are very fine. Be- 
tween Pegwell and Ramsgate is another handsome Villa, caUed 
BELMONT, built by Joseph Ruse, Esq. and purchased between 
four and five yeiirs since, by Lord Daniley. 

MANSTON COURT, about two miles north-west from St, 
Lawrence, wa«, for many generations, the seat and inheritance of 
a family of the same name, of whom Richard de Manston was 
one of the Recognii&res Magna Assistt'in tlie reign of King John ; 
and William Manston, Esq. w*as a Sherilf of this County in the 
fourteenth of Henry the Sixth* It has since {lassed through vari- 
ous families, and the Mansion has been converted bto a farm- 
house; though it stilt retains many vestiges of its ancient splendor: 
towards the north end are the ruins of the Chapel, now reduced 
to Its outer walls, which are finely mantled with ivy. 

MINSTER, anciently written Mynstre, derived its name from 
a Church and Nunni^iry founded here, about the year 670, by 
Domneva, who had been married to Merwald, son of Penda^ 
King of Mercia, but afteiwards took the vow of chastity. In the 
early part of li(e, she had been Icfl, with her jilster Ermengithn, 
and her brothers, Ethelred and Etlielbright, under the guardiaik 
ship of her uncle Egbert, King of Kent, who, through the counsel 
of one of his courtiers, named Thmior, or Tymor, and that be 
might retain secure possession of the throne, was induced to con- 
Bent to the murder of botji the Princes^ In expiation of this crime, 
which Thunor is said to have perpetrated, and which the monkiati 
legends state to have t>een discovei^d by a * light from Heaven, 
■een pointing to the very spot where the bodies were mterred/ 
Egbert, by the advice of Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, 



• Lewr4*i\hanet, p* lt9. 


and Adrian, Abbot of St. Augustine's, in accordance with the 
custom of the times, promised to give to Domneva * whatever 9h« 
should ask/ besides offering her many rich presents. 

Domneva, who appears to have mixed no inconsiderable poitioa 
of craft witli her sanctity, refused tiie presents, bat requested that 
the King would grant her as * much land as a tame deer could 
run over at one course,' on which she might found a Monastery in 
memory of lier deceased brothers. The King readily complied ; 
and in \m presence, and tliat of his nobles, and a great con-' 
course of |)eop1e, the deer was |umed loose at West-^rate, on the 
sea-coast, in Bircliington Parish, and, after running in a circaitoiis 
tract eastward, proceeded towards the soutli-west, tliough eveiy 
endeavour was made bv Thunor to obstruct its course. This im» 
piety, says the Chronicle, ' so offended Pleaven, that the earth 
opened, and swallowed him up while he was in the midst of hb 
career, and he went down with Dathan and Abiram into hell, 
leaving the name of Thunor-his-lepe, or Thunor^s leup, to the field 
and place where he fell, to |)erpctuate the memory of hb punish- 
ment.'* Meanwliiie, the deer continuing its progress, stopped not 
till it came to the estuary of the Stqur, at the place now called 
Sheriff's Hope, near Monk ton, having completely crossed the 
Isle, apd cut off a tract of land comprehending above lO^QOO 
acres. Thi$ was immediately given by the King to Qomneva, and 
afterwards confirmed to her by his charters, which Weever men* 
tions to have read in the Book of St. Austin's^ in the Cottooian 
Library.! ^hert, 

* Regc — cum %uis aspiciente vultu hilar i cur sum cercc, Thunor trux 
aspectu torvo cursum reprimcre prcstolando equo cut assedit^ terra 
dehiscente in inj'crmun cum Dathan et Ahiram absorbetur, in quo loco 
usque in preseus pnteus est apparens qui Thunor- hys-lepe appellatur. 
'i^horne. Annates Monast. St. August). Lewis supposes the Puteus 
Thunor, or 'Ihunor's leap, to be the old chalk-pit, called Minster 
Chalk-pit, * which it is not unlikely was first sunk when the Abbey an^ 
Church at Mynsire were built.' Hist, of Thanct, p. 83. 

t Fun. Mon. p. 261. On the infringers of the grant, says our author^ 
Egbert bestowed this * fearefull curse:* Si cut lero hec largicio 



^bert, wliom llic fate ofTlnmor hm] affected wiili 'great fear 

ami trembling,' also assisti^rl Donmeva with * wealth, imd all 

togi necessary,' to enable lier to build lier IMonastery, wliich she 

now fouptkd on the spot * where the present pariK hial Cfinrch 

tttniU.* WtK'n roniplcted, it was consecruled hy Archlii^hop 

Tbaodorc, in honor of {Iw IMtiMsef^ Virgin Mar} ; and Uoftuieva 

i*ing endowed it for seventy iuuis» witii the estate grunted for 

ipiiq>05e^ became the tir^t Abbess-, und, on her decease, was 

buried here * on the glebe .** 

** rims/' says Lewis, from whose History most of llie above 
parttctdiirs are derived, ** do tbc Monks tell the story of the foun- 
dation of this famous Abhy, known afterwards by the name of 
St, Mtidrcdh Jhby : bul it seems to me to be a great paft of it 

Iia\^ntioo and fable. Wliat ibey ciill the Ihrr*s Counc, is no 
more than a Ivnch, or balk,t ca*it up to divide the two cnpitaj 
IManors of Minster and Monkton, in this I^le, nnd to be the 
bounds of them; and, very probiibly, was here before the Manof 
of ^linster was cranted to Doinpneva.**! 
B St* Mildred, the daniihter inid successor of Domncra, was held 

■ in %-ery high repute for Ijer grf:at hfdiness, botJi in tlial and in suc- 
ceeding a^es. ** Thii woman;" says Limdiurd, rellrrin;^ to Capj»mvc 

■ a» hi^authonty, ** was so mightily defended with Divinu Power, Uiat, 
^ lying in a bote oven three honres logetheri slie suffered not of tlie 

flame. She was also endued wilh suche godly ke virtue, that» 

K t r 4 comming 

dtspUcfif Tcl H guis fquod ahsk) hanc donutionem tele ductm dtaholi, 
quoquo ingtnio infrifigerc tcmptamrit^ if am Dei e( omnium sanctorum 
makdicta incurrat, H mb/la moiie hUercat, ticut prtdictus Deo odi* 
hiiu Thimur inUnjt pcrcutidtqnt: earn Dens mncntia, ccvilaqite, ac 
/urore mentis, omniqur Uttiporc cohttuptuim mdedwtiunis Dei sit^tineat, 
f^^ sit qui cum Uberct, iM penitus nc-iplsvit « i di^iia sati^fiictione 

• Glebe instituit tumuium aMignan, 

Alii narrow srnp of hnd may yet be traced in place* ^ though ii \m% 
been, much eocrcached on by the operations o( Uuxbandry, 

; Ifiit. ofThanft, p. 83. 



eommipg out of Framioey the very itooe wfaereoo ihe fisst ftepped 
at Ippedsflete, iu this Isle, received the impressioa of her footed 
and releined it for ever; having, betides this properties that wbe» 
ther so ever you removed the same, it woulde within shojl tiiiie» 
.and without heipe of mans hande, retume to the formerplace 

£dburga» said to have been a daughter of King Ethelbert, suc- 
ceeded St. Mildred in the government of this Abbey : she is stated 
to have rebuilt all the conventual offices .on a more extensive plao, 
jBndiog the former dwellings too small and inconvenient for the 
number of virgins who were here associated. The new ' Ten^de/ 
• as it is called, was dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul; and bither^ 
about the year 750, Edburga translated the body of St. Mifalred, 
who, according to Thorue, < seemed more like a Lady in her bed, 
than one l>ing or resting in a sepulchre or grave ;' and even * htr 
garments had continued unchanged.' Sigaburga, the next Abbesf» 
was doomed to witness the commencement of those devastations 
which eventually proved the total destruction of this M oo a a te iy^ 
In her time the Danes begun their depredations hi Thanet, and 
frequently plundered the nuns, and wasted their possessions. This 
ponduct they occasionally continued during two centuries s but at 
length they entirely destroyed the Monastery with fire, togetlicf ' 
with all the nuns, the clergy, and Qiany pf the people, wbo bad 
fled hither for sanctuary.* 

Through all these ravages, if the legends of the inpnks may be 
credited, the remains of the holy St. Mildred were preserved by 
miraculous interposition ; and were afterwards, in 1027} 9^ 1030, 
given, by King Cauute, to the Abbey of St. Augustine's at Canterr 
bury, on the earnest solicitations of the Abbot, together with all 
the possessions of the foundation over which she had presided. 
The great estimation in which this Saint was held, obliged the 
Abbot and his brethren to proceed with considerable caution in 
procuring the removal of the venerated reliques ; which they at 


♦ Whether this was in the year 978, 980, or 1011, is uncertain; as 
historians differ as to the preciie time. 



eflrcted in the night-time ; lliough not m secr^ly, biit that 
tlie iiibaljitmits were alarmed, and jiursued the Abbot, and bU 
comrades, with ' swords and clubs, and a great force of arms.' 
The monks, bowevcr, having got ihe slart, secured the ferry-boat, 
and liad ahnost crossed the river, before the nien of Than^t could 
reacli it, who were therefore obliged to give up I he pursuil.* 

In the Doiuebday Book, tliis Matior, which is there called Tanct 
Manor, (mo^t probably from its com pre bend tug the greatest part 
of the Isle,) is stated to have * one hundred and fifty villeins, with 
forty borderen, having sixty-three caiacates,^ — ^Therc is a Churdi, 
continues the record, * and one Priest : one salt-pit, and two 
tisiieries of tbree-t>enre, and one mill/ Henry tl»c First granted 
llic Abbots permission to hold a weekly Market here; and Henry 
Ihe Third gave them liberty of free-warren in all their demesne 
lands in Minster; which ^ontijiued lo belong to the Abbots till the 
DissolulioD, when the value of the Manor and rents was estimated 
at 276L j>cr anntira* The Manor itself, with the Court Lodge, 
part of the demesne lauds, royalties^ &c» is now the property ot 
Lord Conyngbam, wlio derives it from the marriage of his ances- 
tor, Colonel Henry Conyngham, with the heiress of Sir John 
\A illiams, Bart, to one of whose family , in conjunction widi Sir 
Fliilip Carey, and W, Pits, Esq. afterwards knighted, tJie entire 
estate liad been granted by James the First, in his ninth year.t 

The Church, which is dedicated lo St. Mary, is a large edifice, 
exhibitmg some curious specimens of different styles of architecture. 
It is built in the form of a cross, and consists of a nave, aisles, 
transept, and chancel, with a square tower, surmounled by an 
octagonal spire at the west end. The nave, which ii the most 
ancient t»4rt, is di^ified from the aisles by short massive columns, 
»up|K)rtiug semicircular a re lies: the chaucel iji vaulted with stone, 
as well as some portion of the traustpt. In the north wall of the 
IrEnset>t, under a pointed arcb, is an ancient tomb, in memory of 
£dii€ de Thorntf as appears from an inscription in old French, 


^ Ixwis*s Hist, of Tbanfit, p. 90,. 91. 
t Haitcd'i Kent, Vol. X. p* 27i,.(5, 8vo. Edit. 

^ KENT. 

DOW partly illegible. Here also are several menioriab for tiw 
Paramares ; one of which is a mural monument, displaying lmeel?> 
iiig figures of Thomas Paramore, Esq. some time Mayor of 
Canterbury, and Anne, his wife : the former died in July, lft?l. 
In the chancel is a plain stone, inscribed hi menKNT of the Rev. 
John Lewis, the Historian of this Isle, who was Vicar of this 
Parish, and died at the age of seventy-two, in August, 1746. 
The learned Henry Wharton, A. M. the compiler of the Anglim 
Sacra, was also a Vicar of Muistcr ; as was Dr^ Mcrk Catauham, 
the younger ; who was dispossessed by the noted Richard Culmer 
soon aAer the commencement of the Civil Wars. The Court* 
House appears to have been built as a kind of Grange to St. Augus- 
tine^s Abbey, the arms of which, viz. sable, a cross argent, are 
over the portal on the north front. Inland says, ^ S. Floreruius 
jactt in ccmeterio S. Maria in Thanei cttjus tumba crcscit signis.** 

The views from the high grotmd, in the northern part of this 
F^uish, are extremely extensive, and beautiful : they not only io- 
clnde a great part of Kent, and coast of Essex, but also the 
Downs, the Cliffs of Calais, and the British Channel. Here, at 
Mount Pleasant, was found, about 170 years ago, a pot, or 
vessel, full of Roman coins, of the lesser and larger silver.f 

THOKNE, a Manor in Minster Parisli, was anciently possessed 
by a family of the same name, of whom Henry de Thome Avas in* 
hibited, by the Abbot of St. Augustine's, in the year 1300, from 
causing mass to be publicly celebrated in his Oratory or Oiapel 
here, which he had previously done ' to the prejudice of the Mo- 
ther Chnrch, and giving an ill example to others :' the remains of 
the Oratory are now used as a bam and granary. Nicholas de 
Thorne, wh'o was Abbot of St. Augustine's in 15283, and 
William de Thorne, the Annalist, a Monk of the same 
Abbey in 1380, are supposed to have been of the same place and 

Near the borders of Minster Level, in the soutlveastem part of 
the Parish, is EBBS-FLEET, formerly called Hypwincs-Jkote, and 


• Itinerary, Vol. VII. p. 130. . f Lewis's Hist, of llianet, p. C7. 



tpyidf, or Wippids-Jletc, wliicli, in the early Saxon liaies, tjppean 

to have been the usual place of landing in \\m Isfe from the Con- 

tiiient. It is now considerably within the land ; for, after the 

ianrl5 had l>e^ unto choak up the passage of the Wantsumc, and 

the «ca to leave the marshes dry at low wiiter, a wull of earib, 

called the Abbot's IVait, v*as made by an Ahbol of St. Aik 

sli, to prevent them being again overflowed by the tides: 

many acres also, between the Abbot's Wall nud the mouth of the 

^^toar, have been since embanked from the sea. Here ibe Saxon 

^Baders, Hengist and Horsa, hvnded uith their forces in the tiAh 

' century, when invited to tfie assistance of the Britons by the ini- 

prudettt Vortigcrn* This also was the landing-place of St. Angus* 

^oe, and his companions, when on their mis&ion to convert the 

^BlRxons to Christianity: and here likewise St. Mildred is stated to 

^^rare first ste[i}>ed on shore when returning from France^ wlilther 

^he had been to receive instruction in monastic discipline. The 

^■rliole level of the marshes in this quarter of the Isle, are under 

^The direction and management of the Conmiissioners of Sewers for 

the district of East Kent. 

STONAR, anciently written ^astiimyre, and Etisianores, was 

♦ ^hreii, by King Canute, to the Abbey of St. Angusline's, the At>- 

liQts of which, ill the twelllh century, procured the grants for n 

I five days annual fiiir, and a wei'kly Market, to be Iiekl here. 

Thome says, that, in a great dispute, in the year lO^O, between 

the Citizens of IvondoiT, and the Abbot of St. Austin, and his men 

of Stonore, the Londoners claimed the Lordship, or Scignory, of 

Stonar, as a sea-port, subject to their City ; but this claim was 

disallowed. Aftenvards, the inhabitants of Stonar witlidrew from 

the government of the AbboiB of St, Augustine, and united them- 

I selves to the Port of Sandwich; and, notwithslatiding frequent 

dispittes and htigations, this Manor was considered as within the 

jurisdiction of the Cinque Ports, tilt the year 1773, when the theti 

owner, Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward, procured a Confession 

of Judgment at u Common As^^embly, held at Sandwich, that 

* Stouai was not within the jurisdicltou of Sandwich, but in the 

3 county 



eocuity at larote ;' smd tiib was immediately entt Kd tifioa record fa 
llie Court of King's Beocb. 

Durmg the tbrce centtirics wcotediag tW Ccnquest, Stomr tp- 
pean to ha^ been a considenibte plate ; though it b now, and 
bas toog been, reduced U» a siogle fafm-bou^. lu pro«perily was 
probably checked b^r the growth of the tootiguou» town of Sand- 
arkh ; ami it was iie%t, to the thirt)Miuith of Edward Ibe Thini, 
allROft destroyed by * a terrible iinmdatioD of the sea,* which o?tSh. 
wbeioied a space of grouml about three miles 'm length, reaching 
Irom Ciifi'Vend to this place. But '^ the utter ruin and sub^-enioii 
of the lowTi," says PtiiHi>ot!, •* happened in the year 1385, aboot 
the ninth of Richard lije Second^ at which time the French^ with 
dgliteen sail of galliejs, designing to infest the marititne parts of 
Kent, landed, and laid this town of Stonar in ashes, which ever 
since hath found a sepulchre in its own rubbish ; and accuses the 
bad govertifnent of Sir Simon de Eurley, the then Lord Warden 
of the Cinque Ports, and Cofistable of Dover Castle, as chief au- 
thor thereof,"* Burlev, it appears, had refused to permtt the 
forces collected by the Abbot of St Augustine's for the defence of 
the Isle of Thanet, to pass over at Sandwich ; and they were, in 
coosequeucci obliged to inarch round by Fordwich and Sturry, 
which allowed time for the French to destroy this town. In a 
Manuscript of Dr* Plotl's, quoted by Dr. Hanris,t and written 
about the year 1693^ it is said, that " the ruins of Stonar, till 
within I he memory of man, took up many acres of ground; but 
were lately removed, to render the ground fit for tillage." Lewis 
tlie Dauphin landed here with his troops, in the reign of Kmg 
John ; and Edward the Third lodged here on his way to Calais^ 
m the >ear 1359, ffom the eleventh to the twenty-eighth of Octo- 
ber, with many of his Nobility, and priucipal Otiicers. Some ei- 
tensive Sah- Works have been cstablt&hfd here, near a new cut 
nade for the more sj)eedy drainage of the Levels in wet 1 


• riWfife Caniianum, p. 39<k 

t Hist, of Ktnti p. 300. 

End of the Isle of Thaket. 




LiTTtE doubt can be entertained, but that llie der^ay of the 
^tntti Rutupensis, or Haven of Hutupiitt was the occasion of 
tiie rise of Sandwich, tliougli tiie e^tact period in which that 
took place be uncertain. Its name, Sond-wych, clearly evinces 
it to be Saxon ori^n, atul intimates \\% lf»w situation, as built on the 
teft-^uids^ According to Soinncr/ atnl oJliers, it wa^s alfo called 
EMmievh^ich, either as situated at the entrance to the Port of 
London, er from being the place of general re^»ort of the Merchants 
trading to and from that city. IVjy^, the Historian of this town^ 
IS, however, of a contrary opinion ; and coiyectu^es that tlie 
names Lund€n^wic^ and PoHus Londinensis, which ap))ear in 
iome Saxon taws and charters, are * refciTable only to Londofi, 
mt to some place upon the bajik*i of the Thame^/f The name of 
Sandwic occurs in a Life of Will red, ArclibiUiop of York, written 
by Etldlu^ Stephanus, in which the Arcbbisliop is stated to have 
arrived happily and pleasantly in Uiis Port, about the year 655, 

From this penod till the time of the Conquest, both the town 
and Haven of Sandwic h| appear to have gradually advanced to 
intportance ; though the former was frequently plundered in the 
Danish iocursions. The Sa%on Chronicle mentions a battle to 
have been fought here, both by sea and land, iu the year 851, or 
^52 ; when the Danes were put to firglit, and nine of their ships 
t^en. Shortly afterwards, the Danes again hmded trorti 550 
ships, and pillaged Lundcn-bttrgh (supjwsed to lje Sandwich) and 
Canterbury, In 993, or 994, Anlaf, the Dane, with upwards of 
ainetj ships, rame to Sttndwicb, *- spoilmg ail the coast/ In 1006V 

* TreatliS on the Roman Ports and Forts in Kent, p. 9^-li* 

t Coll. Tor an Hist, of Sandwich, p. 833. 

J The writer of the Life of Queen Emma, primed at Parii, in lQl9p 
^tylei Sandwich the most noted of all the Englith Hortt : Sandwich qui 


99^ kenta 

or 1007, another Danish fleet arrived here, and all the coasts both 
of Kent and Sussex were ravaged * with fire and sword.** In 
the succeeding year, the fleet assembled by Etheldred the 
Second, to oppose King Sweyn, rendezvoused at Sandwich rf Und 
here, also, Sweyn himself, with a strong fleet, remained for some 
days in July, 1013, before he made sail to the northward. Id 
1014, Canute, when leaving England, touched at this Port, and 
set on shore all the ' English hostages, after depriving them of 
their hands, ears, and noses;' and on his return, in IOI6, ho 
landed here with a numerous army« Nine years afterwards, (anno 
1023,) when firmly seated on the throne, he granted the Port of 
Sandwich, and all its revenues, to the Monks of Christ Church; 
Canterbury.^ He is also stated to have partly rebuilt the town, 
which now began to become very flourishing ; aifd its importance 
was still increased by ils being made a principal Cinque Port, and 
constituted a Hundred of itself. This was probably done bj 
Edward the Confessor, wlio, in the year 1049» resided here a 
considerable time ; and in 1052, fitted out a fleet here to oppose 
Earl Godwin and his sons : the latter, also, in the same year, 
came into this Harbour, and afterwards sailed through the channel 
of the Wantsume towanL> Loi)don.§ 

In the Domesday Book, Sandwich is described as a * Borough 
held by the Archbishop of Canterbury for the clothing of the 
Monks, and as yielding tlie like service to the King as Dover.' 
When the Archbishop received it, continues the record, ^* it paid 
a rent of forty pounds, and forty thousainl herrings for the monks' 
food : in the year when this survey was made, it yielded a rent of 
fifty pounds, and herrings as before. In the time of the Confes- 
sor, there were 307 houses uhabited; now there are seventy-six 


* Sim. Dunelm. Roger lioveden. Ran. lligden Polycroo. 

f Etheldred collected this fleet by ordaining, that for every 310 hide« 
^ of land, one vessel should be fiued out, and mainuined* 

J See a copy of his curious grant under Canterbury, p. 776,-7# 

§ See under Portut Rutupentis, p. 933,-4« 


fmorcj siiirl in hll three huudred and d(>bty-tlirc«.'* a Urn 

Camiuertirt and Henrj^ the Second, mnfimttii lo the Mtnib of 

Ckriirt Clmrdi, nil tbdr Irberiir* «ml cusiomi b iSaiuivvkh; and, 

Wm the great re^art Id llie port, it r«pitil3^ incrtMsed >K>lh in 

Wealth and jjt*puktiou; tlicmgh tiie lawn was jiMrtty deHlro^^ 

% tbe, by the Daupliiii o^' Fmiifc, iti Til 7* Hmrv fhr Tbiul 

jrvantcd to I lie iiiiiiibitatits a >vei*kly ^larkct, besides oOier prwi- 

i^f^: and Edwanl the First, tor a short pi:rbd, fixed the staple 

^iof wool ^re. 

^ la the year 1290, ** tiic monks of Chrbl Ciuirch «!ave up to Ku^ 

BSUward,^ thetr port of ^attdwich, and all ihtk rfglits ami custoatc 

»^ltre. ti^eptiii^ their liou«ies iind <]tiay$, and a free p»i^ge in tine 

mny-boat^ and Iree liberty tor themselves and their people to buy 

^i leli toU-fn^e, in exchan^ for sivty libratae of land in another 

I fart of KcDt^^'f The^ e.%ceptiQiis hein|^ aften^ards toiind }nre)ndi^ 
m] to tite pnbhc tervtee, Etlvkard the Third, in \m thtrty-ej*htli 
yfM^ granted to the INf onks other lands in E^ieit, ki exc\mi%v fur 
"' ail thetr ri^iis, pfivLkge!^, aiid pos^ssioti^ m this town mat 


During the Frendi wars in the rei^^ of tbti Rin^, Sandwich wu 
the general place of rendezvous for hii^ Rwbi aHdamiicpi; and lum 
^ £d«mfd himaeif nK»§t commonly entt^arked^ and relanded* HitJierf 
^ 111 iVf*»).iPr !-iV. b^^ Jjr^jiiirht bl^ w^ir eii'/tn^''* irimi ihc To\f€r; 
but not being able to procure shipphig to transport tM>th hia troops 
and engines to Bretagne, he left the last behind, having appointed 
Commissioners to press as many ships in all the ports of the king- 
dom, BS would be necessary to carry them back to the Tower.f 
In lS57f Edward the Black Prince landed here with his prisooersi 
Mm, King of France, and his son Philip; and in 1372, Edward 
^ Third assembled at this town and port, an army of 10,000 
archers, and 3000 lances, with a fleet of 400 sail, and embaiiied 


. * Hasted »ay», ' to Queen Eleanor/ Hist, of Kent, Vol. X. p. 150. 

f Boys's Sandwich, p. 663. i Hasted*s Kent« Vol. X. p. 157. 

S Boyi, ironi K. de Avetbury, Rymer, anfl Hem/. 



for the relief* of Tboimrs, and the nest of Poktou; but, tfber being 
six weeks at sea, be was obli^e^j to relum* 

In the year 1384, or seventh of Richard the Second, a Royal 
order was issued for iiiclosinj^ and fortifying this town, wbicb, from 
tlie nneans of annoyance afforded by its shipping, was now eoosidered 
as a principal object of French vengeance. At lliis time, indeed, 
the French were preparing to invade England ; and^ in order ta 
protect their troops from the English archcrs» they constnicted m 
wall of wood, 3000 paces tn length, and twenty feet high, having 
a tower ten feet higher thvw the wull at the distance of every twelve 
ieet, and every tow&r being sulbdently capacious fur ten men. lo 
the ensuing year, part of tliis wall was taken in two large Te«€ls» 
and brought to and set up in tills tovvu^ ^ to our great »fetie,' sa]p» 
Lambard, ' and their repulse/ In 14 1 6, Henry the FiM, wait- 
ing to embark here for Calais, took op his abode in the House of 
Ihc Carmelites, or While Friars, 

Iq file sixteenth of Henry the Sixth, the Frendi landed bere^ 
aud plundered the gri^atest part of the town ; this they agaiii did 
ill the ihtrty-htih of the same reign. Not content witJi these d^ 
l^redations, they nought to destroy the town entirdy, and for that 
purpose landed in the night, in August, 1457, 1o the number of 
4000y under the command of the Marshal de Brexe. AHer a 
long and bloody conHict, they succeeded in getting posse«saon of 
ti»e place, and having wasted it with tire and sword, slew many 
of tlie inhabitants, and then re-emburked< Soon afterwards it was 
again ransacked by the Earl of Warwick,* To prevent the recnr- 
lence of similar disasters, Edward the Fourth ** new walled, ditch- 
ed, and torttfied the town with bulwarlis; ami gave, besides, lOOl, 
yearly out of the Custoni-hauie lieie, which, together witb the 
indiistry and efforts of the merdiifll^ who fireqiMiflited this lisi\en, 
in a very short time restored it to a i^ourtshing state; msomutb-^ 
that, before the end of thjit reijjn, tlie clear yearly recdpt of the ^ 
customs belonging to the King, amounted to upwards of l6 
m 17,0O0K and the town had nine^-five ships belonging to it, 


^ Hatted*! Kent» Vol. X« p* 1:^8^ 



ind above 1500 sailors.*'* The walls were ordered to be kept iji 
repair by a duty upon all uool shipped at rhU port. 

About this time the Harbour began to decay, * by the aboun- 
daance of the light Sande* dnven in by the sea ; and iii llie first 
of Richard the Third, * suit uas made to the King for a new Ha* 
¥eit/t Six years afterwards, iu 14ti9, the inliabitauts agreedj 
*' that if the gentlemeii and yeomen of the county, who have landd 
and pastures in Flele Va!ley, do not scowr the dikes, and make 
their sluices, as of old time liath been used, by a lime hniited, the 
wbole town wiU break up the whole walk there/'t In ] 4^5, a 
mole was ordered to be made **• for ntakyng and hetpynis^ the ha* 
fc^, to be set oon worke by the HoUandyra wliich ben comen 
f&T that entent.*" The measures resorted to were insufficicut for 
the pur(K>se« and the port continued gradually to decay; llie de^ 
stmctioa being in some respects accelerated by Cardinal Morion, 
and other landholders, who began to enclose and wall in the 
mmbes oa each side of the upper part of tlje Wantsume, by which 
mems the water was deprived of its usual course. Different at* 
tempta were made, in the reign of Henry the Eighth, to obtain 
the assistance of the government lu preserving the Haven, but w ith* 
out success J and the sinking of a iurge ship at the very eutnmce, 
still further contributed towards its decay. 

Ufbud, who vbiteil this town sojuetime afterwards, describes 
it in the following words : " Sandwich, on the farther s^de of the 
lyver of Sture, is neatly welle walled, where the town stoiiddeth 
most in jeopardy of enemies : the residue of the town is dicbed 
^_lDd mudde waul led. Ther be yn the town iiii principal gates, iii 
^HATOche cburclies, of the whkh sum sup}>ose that St. Maries was 
^Bftintyme a nunnery^ Ther )s a place of While Freres, and an 
^Wl<>^tat withowt the town, tyrst ordeined for mariners desesyd and 
laiift, Ther is a place where inonkes of Christ Church did resort 
Vol. VIL May, 1807, S s s when 

^P» • Haitcd't Kent, Vol. X. p. UB. 

^ TJccordi of Sandwich, quoted by Boyi ; Hist, of Sandwich, p. 078. 

t Ibid. 


when they were lords of the towno. Tlie Cnryke that u»as sonW 
in tlie haven, in Pope Paulus r>'ine, cticl iT»«che hurt to 1?ie ht?«n, 
and jetlieir a.^ut bank. The ^ounde self from Sanrfwich ta tlie 
hav^n, and imvard to tlie land, h raulUd Sanded hay.** 

EarlY in tfie mp\ of Edwurd th^ Si\th. a 5«pp!ici»riofi whs prr» 
seated for sttfHcient fwkwem to aii«Hid tlie Haven, from the Mavor, 
Jurats, ^r. to the Proteelor Somerset, in which it was atnled^ 
tiiat * the said Havcti ut t\m present h utterly destroyed mid loAle, 
so tliat the navyc and ninryners of tlie said towne are nowe brougKl 
utterly to naught; that the nowe inhabited e^rede not 
above the nombre of ii C. and that the nomlire of iiiliabitants are 
wm utterly impoverished and diminvflied/' Two eoniuirMmii 
were at^erwards issued by the Prrvy Council (anno 1348 and 15^9) 
to inquire into the &tafe of tiie Haven, asid n new cut wat com- 
menced for its improvement: Ihis^ liowcrcr, was soon abandoned, 
on a reprefleritatton l>eing made of its inadequacy to produce the 
requiidte etfect, tlic Haven being ' growne to so great flatrte^, tmr^ 
rowiies»» and crokednes; — and differeth from his ys9ue two mylea/ 
Some further attempts to obtain public aid to restore the Harbour, 
were made in the rei^n of Elizabeth, but ^vithout snceess. 

Tlie decay of the Haven would, ill all probability, have occ«i- 
«s)oned the total ruin of Sandwidi^ if the |)er3ecutk)ns in the Loir 
Countries had mt induced multitudes of Protestants to ^uit tiieir 
native homes* and fake slielter in those States whose h\r% wef# 
adminisifen^d on principles of enlightened tolenition. The policy ■ 
of Eli/abelh wan in Ihi^, as in many other instances, exerted «rilli 
consummate judgment : by hartKJuriUg ll»e refugees, jshe became 
lire means of introducing into England^ a knowledge M tl« m\k^ 
the paper, the woollen, and other valuable munufactures of Flan- 
defs and France, which had before been * alrr)0*>t jx'culiar to those 
countries, and till then in vain attempted elsewhere.* Under hef 
Letters Patent, dated at Greenwich, inJidy, 15^1, the workers in 
saves, baiie, fianueJ, ^c. fixed themselves in this almost de{>opi>- 
lated town, together with lljeir famihes, the total number of per- 
sons atnouuling to 406' : in the same year, they were admitted to 
hold two markets weekly, for the sale of their baize, and other 
doThs. * The 






The eontimiefl induftry and good conduct of these strangers, 
\ atrended by their usual concomitants, success and afHuence; 
1, notwilbstntidint: tlie jealousy thereby excited among the iia* 
ve townsmen* and the additional tuxet and cuiloms whicti the 
arporation compelled theiti to pay * they quickly formed a vert 
onrishing community. Amons; them was a small bady of gaiv 
etiers, who tindmg the grounds siwrounding Sandwich to be ex* 
emely favorable lo the gro^vth of aW esculent plants^ begun to 
iikivate them * to ibe great advantage of the landhokicrs whose 
tnls were considerably increased ; and of the inhiibitants of the 
and neighbourhood, whose tables were thereby cheaply sup- 
ilied with a variety of new and wholesome vegetables/ Flax, 
cazle, and canary, were also cultivated by the same people ; and 
latter h still grown in this part of Kent, on a greater scale than 
any other part of the kingdom.! 

Tlie settlement of the Flemings at Sandwich, was probably the 

a use of the visit made by Queen Elizabel^i lo this town, in 1573. 

tsiderable preparations were made for her reception; and, 

nong other order* issued by tiie Cor[>oratioR, tlie Brewers were 

ojo'mcd * to brew good JB^^r gainst her coming/ She arrived 

»ut seven tti the evening, on the thirty-first of August, and con* 

F^ued here three days, liighly pleased at ber reception and cnter- 

ItiUiUiieut/t How greatly I he trade of tliis Port had decreased 

S s s 2 through 

* See Boys*s Saodvvich, p. 743,-4. 

t Ibid. p. 743, The seeds of ihe above, and other useful phnti, 
irhtcb were now fint culiivated round Sandwich, were conveyed by the^ 
loys to London J and ihence disseminated over all parts of the Inland. 
Inderson, in his Hiitory of Commerce, nsserts, that, in J 509, there 

at not a tall ad in £In gland ; and that c^ibbiges, carrots, turnips, aarf 
kher plants and rooti, were imported from the Netliertandi* Ibid. 

X Oq this occasion, the Queen was tnet at Sand own by the Mayor^ 

kirats, &c. the former of whom • yelden up to her Majestic, hit mace/ 

nidst a general discharge of smalUhot, and great ordinance to the nuro- 

rof Qce hundred, or &n« hundred and twenty. " X htti her Maiestie wenC 


1000 KENT. 


through the decay of the Haven, may be seen from a return made 
in tlie dghth of thb Sovereign, at whicli time ibe number of ves- 
sels belonging to Sdnd^iicb, em(>Ioyed in the coasting trade, and 
in ibe fisheries, was only seventeen ; viz* nine cmyers, tVom four* ■ 
teen to twenry-four Ions ; five boats, from six to ten tons ; and 
three hop, from twenty to forty tons : tlie number of sailors was 
nty-tw0« The bouseboldere, at Hie same period, were 420, of 
which ^91 wcr^ English, and 129 Walloons; and seven peiaofii 
were then in want of habitations* 

In the time of James tlie Fint, tlie trade of thb town had again 
increased so mucb^ that tlie customs amounted to about ^ODQl* 

aooaaUy : 



toxvardi the towne, and at Sandowrie Gate were a lyon and a dngoo, 
all gih» set up uppofi ii posts at the bridge ende, and her armes were 
hanged up uppon the gate. All the tow^ae ^'as graveled, and strewed 
with rushei, hcrbs^ fl^gft and luch tyke, every bon-ie having a nomber 
of grene bowes standing against the doors and wails, every howie 
paynted whyte and black. Her Maiesiie rode into the towne, and in 
dp'crs places as far ns her lodginge, were dyvers cords made of vine 
branches, with their leavct hanging crosse the itreett ; and uppon ihem ■ 
dyvers garlands of fyne flowers. And tn she rode forth till she came 
directly over against M^ Cripps howseij almost as far ai the pellicanes 
where stood a fyne howse, newly buytt and vaulted, over whereon her 
arms \^'as sett and hanged with tapesirye. In the same ttode Rychard 
Spycer, Minister of St* Clemcmi partshe, a M*. of Art, the townei 
oraior, apparralled in a black gowne and a hoode, both lyned and f:iced 
with black tafTatye. — He made unto her Highnes an oration, which she 
*o well lyked, at she gave thereof a singular commendacion, sayenge, ■ 
It was both very well handeled, and very el|oqacnt« llien he pre- * 
tented her with a cupp of gold of a CI, and a New Testament m 
Greeke^ which «(he thankfully accepted. And so rode untill she came 
to M*. Manwood** howse, wherein ihe lodged, a bouse wherein Kinge 
Henry the viiith had been lodged twyce before. And here it is to be 
noted, that, uppon every post and corner from her first enirye to her 
lodginge, wer fixed certen verses, and agaioit the court gate ail thees 
verses put into a table, and there hanged up/* live following day ftht 
was amused with a combat on ibe water, between two men on stages 
in boats, " with either of them a stafTe, and a theld of woodd, and 



stitmtsAVj? btrt they aflerwards experienced a coDsidcrakle dedica- 
tion through tbe establishment of the Company of Merchant Ad- 
venturers; and though the descendants of the Dutch and Walloon 
manuLfacturers still continue*) here, they not long afterwards entirely 
discontinued those manufactures which they had originally carried 
on, and mixed with the rest of the inhabitants In the general occu- 
pations of the town,* A gradual increase, however, both in tbe 
population and buildings, has since taken place ; and though the 
Haven can now be regarded as littie more than the outlet of the 
Stour,t the exports and imports are considerable. The exports 
S 9s3 mtt 

of them did over throwe an other; ai which ihe Qiiene had good *poTt» 
Arterwardi ihe was eniertatned wtth an attack on a forte, which ' the 
towae had buylded ai SioDer, on the other syde of the haven — s,nd m 
tbe ende, after the dtschardge of n fawkeneii^ and certett chambert^ 
after dyvers assaults, the forte was won/-^*' The next daye M™, 
Mayrei and her sisters, the /urati wyves, made the Quenes Majeatie 
a banket of cl« ditihe] on a tabfe of xxvlii foote long in the fcole howse; 
iwheare the wai very merrye^ and did eate of dyvers ditihes withowt 
any aisaye, and caused certcn to be reserved for her, and carried to her 
iodginge/' On the fourth day, ** being llmridayey and the daye of 
her departiijgc, against the scole howse, uppon the new turfed wall, 
and uppon a scaffold made uppon the wall of the scole bowse yarde, 
were dy vers children, Engliihe and Dutche, to the nomber of cth or 
vi score, all spynning of fyne bay yame, a thing well lyked both of her 
Majetiie^ and of the nobilitie and ladies. And ivithout the gate stode 
all the soldiers with their small shott j and uppon the wall at the butti, 
stode certcn great peces; hut the chambers, by meane of the wetnes of 
ihe mominge, coiild not l>e dischardged* The great peces were shott 
olF, and the small shott dischardged thryes. And at her depajrtioge, 
M^. Maior exhibited unto her Highnct a supplicacion for the havon, 
whkh she tooke, and promised herselfe to reede." B(yi/s*s Sanduick, 
p. 602 — i, from the town records, 

* Hastcd's Kent, VoU X. p* 1 8?. 

t The measured distance of the courae of this river, from Sandwich 
Bridge to high-water mark, is about four miles and a quarter } ai»d to 
the mouth of the Haven at Low water apring tide, about two mifei 



ve cQCPy graia, 4^ur, teocby bops^ wool^ oialt, iMPjIes, j)mi» 
l^her, oalL-bvk, asl^csy &c. Th^e imports are grooery» fiirnilurc, 
linoiy wooUeiiy and other shop goods, finnp London; uoq, planiFy 
^paxs, tiniber, lead, coak, salt, wine, qpirks^ ^ass, grindstones, 
^c ii-on» Wales, Scotland, Sweden, Nonrajr, and the Bf^tic. 
Ship-buildiug, rope-makiiig, dcc« are alio qmried on here. 

i^Dioag the occunences al Sandwich, may b^ meotiofied, that 
ley^ smart shocks of an Earthquake wese felt |ieie, io the 
months of Apnl and May, 1679 »* ^ad that the Phguc hi^, i^ 
di^J^ent times, ravaged this town with considerable violence, pvti- 
cularly in the years l6s6, 163:7, l644, and 1666: in the hitter 
year, upwards of 380 persons became its victims. The great 
Storm of November, 1703, did damage in Sandwich to the esti- 
mated amount of 30001. 

The site of thb town is extremely low ; and all the surrounding 
country, with the exception of the range of high ground on which 
Richborough Castle stands, towards tlie north-west, is, to a consi- 
derable extent, similarly situated. In all the lower parts, at thf 


more. At ordinary tpriog tides, the depth of water, at the mouth of 
the Harbour, is about fourteen or fifteen feet ; and aometimei* when 
the wind blows strong from the north-west, about nineteen or twenty 
feet. The perpendicular rise of the water at Sandwich Bridge, in com- 
mon spring tides, is about eight feet ; and the whoJe depth of water it 
then about fourteen feet. Boys's Sandmch, p. 193. 

^ «< On the vj of April, xxiid. of Elizabeth, abcut six o'clock in the 
evening, there was heard froiA the south-west, a marvejooae greate 
noyse, as thoughe the same had been the shou of some greate batterie, 
or a nomber of canons shott oif at oae instante, withoute decemyng of 
any dyfTerance of tyme in the going off of the same thott; which noyte 
semed to be, from the place wheare yt wat herde, at thoughe yt had 
been mydwaie betwene Calleis and Dover. But sodcnlie, and in the 
twingling of an eye, the same noyse was as thoughe yt had been round 
aboute the hearers ; and therwith began a muste feirce and terrible 
Earthquake, which, with the noyte aforesaid, and other circumstances, 
contynucd not above the tyme,. at we commoolie call yt^ of a paumotter 
2 while* 



d^ptli of only a few feet, fluits rounded by allrition, sli'mijle oti 
iriHill pebbie^ with broken »ti<l entire seu-sbells, uuti Mnt-^;uHl« 
ire ciMistiiiiUy iouml i nnd tsvet v wbere bctiealh tbe tuwn^ at tha 1 
deplb of froui forty to forly eigbt (eel, is a stralutij of fiiitt* Tb«l 
Utter, w lie II |)ei)€tr3t€d, pivcs issue lo a pjcntiiul sir cram of tiiii 
Hpiiter; but tbe springs wbicU lie al»ove it are much less pure* 
The olber supplies are from tbe river Stour, wbieb boiuads 
town on tbe nortb-ecijit &ide, mni from a siualt stream whkb rlsef I 
near tlie village of Eiistry, and b conveyetl into tbe towu by a caoat^ 
about tbree miles long, cuJle<J tbe Iklf, wbich was made 
Letters Patent of Edward the First, granted iu bis thirteenth year*1 
Saodwicb is very irregularly byilt, aud has an appearance of I 
inreater antiquity^ perliaps, ihati any other town in this county«| 
Tbe streets and buies are mostly nairo^v and iuconTenieiit ; tboug^ 
some considi'nible improvemeiit^ have been niudc under an Act 
pm$A ill 17 &T, for new paviitg, lightbig, watching and cleansiDg 
tbis town* It WMs fonnerly divided in! o eight wards; but, froim| 
tka year liS7, it has been divided into twi^ve wards, or district^ j 

S 5 s 4i eadi] 

vihUe. Tbe pUce w heart the inhabit an ti of Sandwiche fyrste herd thf I 
um^, W3t comyog out of SandQwne — ^fron) whence yt paiied into thf^l 
lOM^nc, being theare universal ly, to the greate feare of all the people { 
and ibai with lucb ratlinge, asthoughea nomber of persons with chaynet 
ihakinge had been prcsentc i and ytt, thankei be to God, dyd little 
bartne, saving that in the cnde of ihe north vale of St. Peter's Churche, 
yt ihaJted downe the gable and copinge of the gible end thereof^ and 
dyd tbake and c!eave ^o^ve^ archies in Si. Manes C birch, and over* 
threw a pcccc of a chymncy. Tim Earth tjuake corny revved to muck 
longer in the towne as yt did with them at iianduwne: the ibippes ii| 
the lea^ 25 abo such 3s wcare at the ke^ye, and within the ha von ai ih|| 
liftcoDs, teUe ihe (yke, Sotnthing betbre nyoe of the clocke the lan 
ntjfbte, the satne begun H^»mtr, but endtired a vtrie »horte »pace| at 
alio a lytle before eleven of the clocke in the tame nighte, wuh lyke 
tbortue^; and a small noyse was lierd aboute fowerof ihe clocke tlie next 
mornynge, but no shakinge } and wuhin one halfe hower after, a like 
noyte^ and a hitle thakinge/* Mem. ** That the second date of MaiM 
in the said xxii^yere, aboutc il of the clocke in the mornynge, hapaed 
an EartbqiLikei which came wjih a greatu aoyse and shakin^e^ allniQlii 
H terrible as that on the *l of Aprill lai|e," 



I each tinder the jurisdictioa of a Jarat, who notnmates a C(mstalile« 
Pwitl a De|mty Constable. Great part of the Wath stiH remain ; 
land, till of late years, five Gatrs of entrance were standing also : 
were Canlerbury Gate, Woodnesboroiigh Gafe, Sandown 
5ale, New-Gate, and Fisher Gate. The first of these, which 
c(j bv a )K)inted arch, flanked by round towers, was pulled 
down nbout the year 1784; and the three next soon afler. 
Pishcr Gate, the only one that now remains, k an anrient meftiH 
llooking fabric, o[>eninG: towards the ^vater, at a short distance 
am the Bridge, which has a drawbridge in the centre, to admit 
! passage of vessels with masts. 

Sandwich contains the three Pari^fics of St. Clement, St. Peter, 

t&nd St, Mary, Si, Clcmcni's Church is a spacious edifice^ consial* 

ling of a nave, chancel, and aisles, with a massive tower, of Nof> 

l^ati archilecture, rising from four semicircular arches in the centre 

Ipf llie bdlding, supported on strong piers: tlie outHide of the 

liower is ornamented with three small ranges of round arches; and 

[the capitals of the small cotumns which face the piers within, are 

uriously sculptured with scrolls, folia jre, frets, and grotesque 

ads. Hie nave is separated from the aisl^ by pointed arches, 

Sting on small pillars, and is ceiled with oaken pannds. The 

r^rch over the entrance to the belfry stairs has an embattled 

Imouldiug ; and in the space below it, is a small rsnge of inter- 

cting arches, with other ornaments, in the Nprraan style. The 

IWoJit h octagonal, and consists of a shaft and base raised on two 

[^I)s. The facc5 of the bason are charged with shiel()s of arma 

nd roses, in alternate succession ; and tlie $hai\ is surrounded by 

iright niches, beiween gniduHted buttresses* The angles of the 

^mouldings are sculptured with gn^tesque faces, satyrs' beads, 

flowers, foliage, &c. Some ancient Woodtn StalU remnra lierc. 

The Sepulchral inscriptions are numerous : among them is one in 

memory of WittiAM Smith, Esq. • Rear Admiral of his Ma* 

jcsty's Fleet,* who died in February, 1756\ at the age of eighty* 

one. This Clrurcb was tbrmerly appropriated ^ the use of the 

Dutch residents in Sandwich. 

Si* Peter' 9 Church has been erected at dilferent periods : the 
south aisje was destroyed by the fall of the steeple, which occurred 

\ in 

in October, iSSt i tbe preseot tower was buik wi 

iiab to the height of the roof of the Churchy ti 

was carried up with bricks made with the Haven i 

obtu5€ iirh in the wall of the dcniolbhed alstc, i 

Sia John GroySj of Grove, iii SUp\t, who flo( 

the Shth s time, and wliose elligics, arrayed i i 

placed on tite top: what reraains of this %un u 

Church. Under an arch in the north wall, are i 

grcatli^ mutilated, of a male and t^male, in dirfli 

the tburteentli century : this tonib projects ■"*" *' 

it b siippo^d to have been niised in memoj^ cxr 8- 

of tiie EUi« fiiniily, of whom Thomas El lb, ' g 

citant' of tins trnvn, fon tided a Chanity here, in ine t\ 

tlie FItlh. In Ihe north wall, also, are I wo other an ul lusi 

under arches^ the scnlpture of which has been well t%^;ca | 

Si. Man^'i Church is a large fabric, consisting of a ni y j 

eel, and north aisle; the »outh iiisle has been destj (. j 

Sepulchral memonali are numerous, though not panic n»» 

markable. From the Sandnich Mannscript quoted by xi^ys, tt 
appears that William, Lord Clinton, was interred in this Churchy 
b the reign of Ed want the First , under a gilded arch in the 
south W'all. Here also, in the reign of Edward the Siitth, were 
buried, in a Chanify Chapel, dedicated to Our Saviour^ Sia 
JBOWABD RiNGELEYy Knt. 2Lnd Elizabeth, his wife. At a sboit 
dBfamee southward from this structure, was a Chapel dedicated to 
St James, now entirely destroyed ; but the cemetery belonging to 
it is still used as a burial-place: at the south-west comer was an 
Hcrmiuige. The Register of this Parish begins in 1536; the 
Cbuidiwardens' accounts have also been preserved from the year 
1444, and contain many curious particulars. 

A Priory for Carmelites, or White Friars, was founded in tliia 
town, in the year 1272, by Henry Cowfield, a German; but from 
bis endowments having been augmented by William, Lord ClintoOy 
in tbcf time of Edward the First, that Nobleman was afterwards 
considered as the founder. At the Dissolution, Henry the Eighth 
l^nted the site and estate to Hiontas Ardem, {^ Paversham, 


laO^ KBN7. 

GmtU W9d siiice tliat pf liod^ the f^mmiofs JNve li^fen nwnemm, 
Tbi^ kouM i^ood bietweea the rampart of |hf lown «»<) Nc«r^ 
S(r««l; the buildio^ were ^iteimve^ bifl h»v«^ boeu long dor 
Itffvyed: the Prioi;y Cbiupcb had the privilegf^ of ameliutty/ 

Jhfpi have heeatbree HoapUah founded k tbb tovo ; 8l. Jffya*^^ 
St ThoHMf^a, and St. Bartholoniew'a. St. John's itosHTAfi 
hl§ Wen lately pulled down, aud on its site/ 9^ aomll brick 4mMr 
P0I have been erected, which ave appiopriatad to the nceptiaii of 
lUL pooc penofis, vbo are generally femiilea, teleeted and 'p«t iq 
liy the Mayor: each kiniate has an annual allowance af about m 
guineas. This Hospital was founded before the year 1287» bm 
by whfHD is unknowa. St. Tuomas'i^ Hospital was founded 
and endowed about the year ld<>2, by Thomas EUii, or Ebfn^ a 
wealthy Draper of Sandwich, who lent 40L to Richard the Secoad, 
to supply his necessities in the iirst year of his reign; The number 
of iomales is tweWe ; eight nien, and four women : the annual in* 
coBie b considopahle, the rents having been lately much impryTed. 
St. Bartholomew's Hosfitai. is au amieat foondatiniiy 
•tauding on the south side of the town, m an angle formed bj Ac 
junction c^ the two roads leading from Eastry and Woodoea- 
iMNTOUgb. Mr. Boys supposes il to have been originallytdes%iitd 
for the accommodation of pilgrims and travellers; and Lefand 
aays, from some unknown autiiority, that it was ^* fyni orddned 
lor maryuers desesyd and hurt.'' It has been genetuNy supposed 
Ihat it was founded about the year 1244, by Sir Hemy de San^ 
%nck, whose figure, in a hauberk of mail, with a healer skiekf, 
and a broad-sword, is sculptured on a marble skib, covaiing au 
altar-tomb in the Chapel here. Its origin, however, was at least 
thirty or forty years earlier, as is proved by old wiitiags quoted 
by Boys; and Sir Henry can only be considered as a principal 
benefactor. The number of residents are sixteen, who are appointed 
by the Mayor md Jurats, who are styled Patrons, Governors and 
Visitors of the Hospital. They consist both pf Brethren and Sisteia, 


^ in the garden formerly belonging to this Pciory, a (orimte died 
in the year 1767, which was known lo have been there since the year 
W9\ See Gent. Mag. for 1785, p. 193. 


eddj &f iftljtiiti, tm udm'mv^Uf pp 71 ^$* 4d« \ 

mcdatdj <ljvi(led miiong tlt« ^ bok% Tk« muuml r^ 

w«i i»bout uuitftceti puyud^, btMitl^ »omc situll bif 

tlie rt-ulol of the €^Ht«» liaving b<teu uiudi iucrci p 

ft couAiiltenibW uiidiliou hi& bteii niude to the !iitip«<a. | 

legs Qccup}^ a C(*ii»idcr4bk plot of groimdi of n ig 

idrrauQckd b)' a f«uce/ ^HHI 

A Frcf Qrammur School wm fouiidcd in tbiji UMa, k 
ef QiKseu £ii7Hitbctb, by » tmb^fif^t^uu pmuiatet m 

bitiutb bj Sir liogcr Maii^oodf Chief Ikxtiy o | 

wdea Recorder of S^uidwidi in Uie }€m \ &U^» ^^ \ 

wm gtvMy ^tdvaiiced by tlte Jit^neuce oi Arcf 
it M^aa aficnvardB cudow^id b) Sir Rogefp wiUi i; 
perpelual support ; and four evbibitioiis troui scnooi i 

laUequeritly Ibunded b LiucobY College, C , under I i 

of Souan Tr.*pps, m(it of Robert Tmpps^ ind G j 

of London. Some other beiiefaclioiii} laave ^i^^ku nuule rv 
Sciiool by dJSerenI persons : one of ili Ara !^lusler$ w^i a. 

Knoik^t tbe auUior of I be History of \ke Turk^ wlikb 1 iq\u^ 
mu h^^ i(0 bigidy pmised i be mba idlerwards dismi^^d rur W4s^ 
of ibo *- ueeeisary diligence,' but bad a yearly iTipend of tivelvf 
pounds aJ lowed bim tor lit«<, in coitseijiieace ol' bis bavii^ been 
pUced in ibe School by Sir Roger Miin\^ood. fJc died in l630, 
^4 WU ^md IM Stt. Mar/fs Church. At a Gk^ritg Scho^ 
%i9(^ l^ere aboi4 the ye^r 17U| and principally j|ipport«d by 
ngulfic iHibtgriptioiM, ao^ occasional cootributioosy thirty boy9» 
il|d thirty girls, are now educated, under the superintendence of 
the Mayor, and three Trustees chosen from each Parish. 

Saodwich was first incorporated by Edward the Third, by the 
^|e pi t^e Mayor, Jurats, and Commonahy, of the Town and 
Port of Sandwich, Th^ charter under which it b now governed^ 
was granted by Charles the Second, in his thirty-sixth year. The 
Corporation consists of a Mayor, twelve Jurats, twenty-four 
CoDunon-Councilmen, a Steward, Recorder, Town Clerk, and 


* Many curious particular! relating to the above Hospitals may be found 
in Boyi*i Si^idwicb, p. 1—17 It 


ofliicers, All the Tniiuiefpt! tlections, decree*, and 
ces, are made by the whole corpora le body at a Coruhou At- 
ronvencd by the souiid of a Brass Bom of gicat antiquit}. 
ommon AssembUeii are held yearly^ called by ihe usual 
latioit for * all free Barons, Houiebolders, nnd Indwdler*,* 
d at the Gttildhall, at a time apjKjmted. The earlkst re- 
two Barons to Parlmment from this town, bears date in 
y-secoiid of Edward the Tliird. The right of dectjon was 
f vested in the Mavor, JuTHlif and resident Freemen: but 
last deterrninalion of the Hotise of CcimTnons, it was de- 
ihat Don-re&idents, not rereiviiig alniif, had an equal right, 
imber of i?oten;, boih re«detit and non-resident, is about 
' Each Baron was allowed two shillings a flay for hij w^gei, 
few rariafions; namely, in 1544, the allowance was only 
i-p<fnce a day ; and tirom 1576 to the latter end of the 
'Elizabeth, it was four shilling; mbout which time It aeeros 
ceased entirely in Sandwich.** 

Guild' Hall, or Courts HatL as it is moi! cominooly odled, 
lilt hi the year 1579 : Ibe lower apartment b the proper 
lall: on the first story is the Council Chamber : in the iip< 
ry were kept the Ciicking^Sioalt and wooden M&nar^f 
y used in this town for the punishment of scolds ; and Ihe 
for the tra i ned band s. Tli ^ exectit ton of felons < 
Lh within this hundred, in the fourteenth and fifteeslh.1 
and probably much earlier^ wis by Dmwnhg; ind m the 


y fitr " that be Iiad directed tJie course af q certaii 

Ihe Geuiyngf so thai felons could not be eiteei r 

waters In l650^ a wotnao was hanged without C nrf i^aic^ 

Ibf IFtic^q^.* ia 1^44, atiotJier woman vim c § 

same imaginary crime; and in 1695, a third woim nspu 

for a similar alleged ofietice, onl^ escaped puni^i mi ^ 

quence of the Act tliea pasted for a geueol and fr^paiuuu, 
DUinber of bonscs in Sandwich, as returned under 1 A 
was 1S9B, of whkh 111 were uninhabited: the pop 
retumed at 6S06. ^ 

As earij as the reign of Henry tlie Second, there was an emineot 
md respectable family suniamed De Sandwkh^ who took ihm 
name from this town, and many of whom were employed m the 
first o^es of the state^ They possessed considenibje property in 
tiiis county, and continued to flourish LiU about tiie end of the 
jeign of Ejcbard the Sea I, when tliey became exiiuct, SiK 
Ralph be Sakdwicm, ( » of Lotidon in the reign of Edward 
the First, and HeKby pe ^ajNBWICE* elected Bishop of London 
m 1262, were both of this family. Sir Edge a Man wood, 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer, who founded the Free Gnimmit 
School in this town, whs bom here in 1525^ and dying in 1592, 
was buned at St, StephenX near Canterbury, SiK Henry Ftrfi- 
10E8S» But* so created in IJ06^ a very eminent mercharvt 
m the reigns of Queeti Mary »nd Queen Anne, was the son of «i 
grocer and tallow-chandler of Sandwich, vAitte he iv[\s burn iu the 
year l65S ; and which he represented in six Parliaments. SlE 
Gso&OE Ent, President of the College of Physicians in London^ 
wai also a native of this town, being the son of a Dutch Merchant: 
be was bom in l604, and died in 1689* Josiau Burcuett^ 
Esq. Secretaiy of the Admiralty in the reigns of Queen Aime and 
Kipgs George the First and Second, aud author of a Naval 
History of Great Britain, was likewise bom at Sandwicli, and re* 
praented it m several Parliaments. Admiral Peter Rainier^ 
one of the two members just returned to Parliament for Sandwich, 
was also bom here. Another distingubhed native is Samuel Foart 
Simnunu, M. D. F. R. and A. S. Physician Extraordmary to the 
King: be was bora in March, 17^0, and has published several 
respectable works m Medicine, 6(c. THE 

1010 ftjf^f. 


Tut ClfrOnE PORTS, or fivt Havens, were M cdfed IMi 
their supremicy over the other Ports oo this coast, which Uc dp|k>- 
Ae to France; add though two others faive since bcea nidtd to 
ftat nmnber as principal Ports, and endowM with shmbr fadie^ 
pendeift and peculiar privfleges, the original denonunatibn of Gnqtt^ 
Ports has been retained. The necessity of protecting these shoM 
from invasion, an evil to which their more inirtiediate Vicinity to 
flie Continent rendered them at all thnes peculiarly liable, was On- 
dottbtedly the cause of that particular attention ^ich our antestoA 
Erected to the Ports and Havens on this eoast. Even the l^fittos 
Ihemaelves, who possessed a considerable maritnne stip^irioHty, were 
eompelled to tak^ measures of defence agunst the inCurskms of the 
Sea.King^ of theNorUi; and this they did by e^blishhig tegstaf 
garrisons hi mne different stations along the coast, ptadbg tibe 
whole nnder tiie superintendence and govem i no i t of one prindpii 
Officer, whose title was Comes littoris Saxonka. Podr of tiieae 
itations were in tiib county, viz. Regulbium, Rutvpis, Dubris, 
and Porttts Lemams ; or, according to diehr Inoderh ^pptihttions, 
Reculver, Richborough, Dover, and Lymne. Thb estabUshment 
of the Romans was, doubtless, the parent germ from Which the 
Cinque Ports emanated ; but, Ifte roost other institutions, whethei^ 
of a warlike or of a civil nature, the advance was progtessive, both 
the injunctions and the privileges arising from the preasore of ex- 
ternal circumstances. 

'< The institution of tiie Cinque Ports by Inc&rporaikm,^ sayi 
Mr. Boys, " whether it was the act of Edwttrd the Cotifessot, 0^ 
lof William the Conqueror, was undoubtedly an imitatioti of tlA 
Roman system; but the scale of the establishment was contract^, 
because, in those times, our enemies on the Continent confined 
their attacks principally to the places on the borders of the narro# 


* For the proprietf of thii appellation, ice Turner's invaloablt Hitter^ 
of the Anglo-Saxons, Two Vols. 4to. 

«E|fT. JOll 

The €m*pe Poif» trr mt colk^T^!? mciirbntd In tbt 
Doncsffla^B^jiik: Dover, Sandwteli, and HotumT, ciiily occnrrit^ 
lliei! K pfirik^ f Otis I a cirrumftan€« whicU lias ioducrtj vaajof 
lo OTppofle ihat, «t llmt Hn», tfw^r^ w^ tm Comjnuiiitj of tiife 
Cioque Poffs; Vt-t KiJig johti, in liiiClurm la tbeCitti|i)e PcitU^* 
etpreMly s»3^ thni tfir Biii^li^ of Uic Port* )i^d it tliat liinr in 
llieir po<3#ssl6ri, charitrrs fif niont of the prea'dtag Kliig% back C0 
Kioje; EdwanI lb? Conlcsstir, uhlvh k< had fcm, Mareov«r» 
Hasting btis nhraj^ been t^iet^med ibc first Part in pwcetocy ; 
and It ^lould ir.irc«^l\ liave acquired that pre-eminence* if it huf, 
indeed, been among die la^st thai were pfivtle*ed.**t Kve »i4 
Wbcbebea seetn to hzrt been anneied to the Ciiii|i]e Ports ^fy» 
file Corrque^sr, as John, in hk Chiirter tf» tlirse towiia^ cooErtnt t© 
^em that of Henry the Second, hh f.ttln^n lliej appear to hAvt 
been first aiineied to the Ports m ai^ of Hastings, under die de- 
[KsminatJon of t&e iiro ^ncri^^ 7Wnj; and, ^ as appears bjr a eliai^ 
ter dated iu 1247« they seem to have even then obtained the m* 
periorify tWy now poss^'is over the other linib^^ m thoy art tllere 

^■ll/led nohiUma mcmffra '^duque Pfirtuum.' 

™^ Tlie onghial Cinque Ports, ulth tlieir members, were HastiKC^ 
with S^aft?rd, Pcvense^, Hidncyt %f| IVinchdsm, Beake4iMMr% 
Eiihetheaih, :iikI Ofange; Sandwich, with fardwkh, Rfcuf^^i 
Sarrtp If aimer, RumB^oie^ and Deal ; Doiteb, with Faver^am, 

St. Margara's, 

* It teems very questionable whether John ever granted a charter to 
tbt BMTtf eollectively : Jeake says, that the ' Charters of KiBg John are 
ta every town apan.* Chaners of the Cinque Ports, p. 122, raarg. 
aciie, Retpecting the antiquity » &c. of the Ports, he hat this passage : 
** Of what antiquity these ports and ancient towns are, when enfraa* 
dbiied, or at what time their members were annexed to them, are 
dimfs to dark, and difficult to be discovered, that, without great b- 
iMor and search, (if then,) little of certainty can be had ; and ibouUI 
ifHjr ee^mty be found thereof, it would but contradict these eharten* 
1 6t|^ess them to have been so time otU of mind ; and at iffest IMt 
larthem the more aged ; — nor wou'd it at all advantage the Portly 
I pretcHptioQ is as good a title to many things as a charter*" 

f Hist, of Sandwich, p.tCO,, 




Si' Margaret'Si IVoodckurch, Gorcscnd, Kingsdown, Birchin^ 
Margate, Ringuold, and Folkestone; Uomwey, i%ith Lydd, j 
Pi'omehiltp Oswar stone t Dangemarsh^ aud Old Homney: atid 4 
Hythe, willi H^^e^tfiieatL lentaden is a member of the town of^ 
Et£*» Wjncuclsea Ii»s tMi members. It bas been remarked^ J 
tliat most of the sea-coast, from tbe norlli side of Ttianet to 
Hastings, is within the jurisdiction of tbe Cinque Ports. 

" That tbe Cinque Ports were originally safe and commodious 
Harbours, is clear from their name, as well as from their hhlory : 
it is, however, curious to advert to the aheration that has taken 
place in these once farnoiH Havens. Haibtings, Romney^ and 
Hythe, have entirely lost their rivers by various artificial operations; 
and tlic Rother, and the Slour, are becoming narrower and shal' 
lower every day, Dover Pier, by the aid of a large income, still 
receives and protects shipping of a moderate burthen, and will 
probably^ as an Harbour, sun^ive all the otiier Ports." The de- 
cay of Sandwich Hiiven has been already detailed. By an inqui- 
sition taken at a Court of Admimlty held near tbe fiea-side at 
Dover, in June, i682, it was found that the jurisdiction of the 
Admiralty of tbe Cinque Ports ejilemled from Shore Beaa>Op 
Essex, to Red Cliff, in Sussex, near Seaford. The offices of Lord 
Warden of tbe Cinque Ports, and Constable of Dover Castle> are 
now constantly united in one person, but they were originally held 
distirjct* The Lord Warden has a rij^ht of Warren over a very 
extensive tract called the Warren, over which he appobts Warren* 
ers to preserve the game. 

The freemen of the Cinque Ports are st\Ied Baram; and tt ap- 
pears that in former times, they enjoyed superK>r dignity, and bad 
rank among the nobility of tlie kingdom. The ** evidentes of 
flus," observes Mr. Boys, -^^ are strong, and it may not be diffi- 
cult to state tbe steps by which they arrived at 90 much eminenoe." 
^~* The mbabiranb) were always on tlie watch to prevent mvnsioQ; 
their militia were in constant readiness for action, and their fcssels 
stout and warlike ; so llial in Edward the First's time, they alone 
equipped a 0ect of 100 sail, and gave such a terrible blow to tlie 
maritime power of France, as to clear the channel of these restl 

KENT, ^^H 1013 

msiSoii? lnTa3m. On emergencies, the stati aepended an 
them for its safety; and their services were rewarded with privi- 
leges and bouorg* A spirit of cntcrprbe and industry animated 
them, and commerce flourished in their hands/ 

• Their acquired knowledge of trade, qnaUfied them to give ad- 
▼Jce in all matters of consequence ; and llieir fre<iuent intercourse 
iith strangers, rendered them res|>ectab1c in tlieir manners. Our 

ixon ancestors, wlro understood the iiaNint interests of tJiis couu- 
try, eucouragcd trafiic by ii law that raised a merchant, who, at 
his own expense, had freighted vessels, and liad, in tiiree several 

Dyages, exported I he produce of this country, to the rank of 

%ane, or Baron, one of whose privileges was undoubtedly u seat 
in iJie Wiianagemot, which probably consisted of such members 

0^ by large possessions, muriliuie conaccljons, or conmieicial In* 
e, were tlionght fit pcr^iOus to fie called upon by royal sum- 
moos, and to be invested with the legislative authority. The great 
council of the nation w^^ then only composed of the Nobility; af- 
terwards, the Knights^ Citizen;*, and Burgesses, were added ; and» 
before Uie separation of the two houses, ttic Members were called 
over in the following order, viz. on tlie first day, the lowest class, 
as Burgesses and Citizens; on the second, the Knights; )md on 
the thirdf the Barons of the C tuque Ports, and I he Peers* Conse- 
quently, the Barons ranked with tlic Peers above the Knights; and 
previously to the Knights and Citizens being added, composed 
part of the Parliameut. The Barous ako walked at the Corona- 
tioQ of the Kings and Queens, when none under ihe nuik of Baron 
(some of the King's more immediate domestics excepted) made 
part of t)te procession; and what is still more remarkable, they 
Were entitled to have a table at Westminster hail on the right of 
the King,* at the feast after the Coronation, and whenever they 
tliould be invited by the King to eat with Inm. The manner in 
liich tJie Barons performed their service at Coronations was thus : 
Vol. VIL June, 180?. T 1 1 when 

• The right of the Barons oi the Cinqae Forts to bate their labif in 
bi> tituatign, ha^ been allowed ^t the Ci-jure orCiamiat every Corcun^* 
In 17($1^ the Baront Ending the cable pruvided for fhem was ngt 
lit right place, refused to lit a.L any other during the repait« 

lie successor of a tkcc^^il KiU|j wis to hn ciowned 
were lo aUeiul ;it court, to pcHWin llnir psual tei 

w€iit to be cmwiieii, and iis thiay lelufJiHl; mnl \hvy 
ned to ibis st^rvicc on a eoitdiii da^^ l>j^ ili*? (vingji vin 
to Umtii fortj days previoaa lo llie cerenioii^. On tl 

tbe ^ittmorts, a Brolbahoml Mni9 coiiveuvd, ami t lie 
lied: atlen^iini^^ oi» u Lertaiii dajf, tlie djscItKJ Batoi 

tliirly-hvo, aud iii many more of ibe better sort ^ < 
dj nidde their a|)peur<uicc m uiufomi provMkii nt tbcii 
•; but ilitfir charges whilst at a>url were ddniyed Uy 
mils. Eacli oiiiojiy was fitipjKirtetl by fmir ststvo^ cw 
Ivcr, to each of u hkb wm ^Dixcd a smalt silver bdl 
was provified by fbe KmgB trriisurcr. To each stuff 
«rous, who, with ibosc wlio chr^xc to titlQod, Imd thi: 
I be right of Uie King, After lli« i)^ii()iJt!l, ihey couti 
t during lUe Kiii^^'s pkiimru; and oii tbdr n^turii li 
: imtiopies, »iid all tbcir appurteiiani:es«^ liAhe tbtrty-f 
ytlieSiah, th^ palls, staves^ aud belb, wcrentuBil 
Hutted to oacfi of the Cinqtie Parts in litm ; iiiid i 
(iflh of Henry ibc Eighth, it h-as settled that the can 
be tidien by tlic Ports iu tbis order; Dover and Ron 
itidwidj, and Uytiiej H^tii^ stnd Wiiicbebf^/ 



Tlioiigh the niival services rendered by the Cbquc Fort^ h»^ 
[flow ceased, through the various important alteraliom tliat Iiave 
! |aken place in fbe adiuiubLrdtiou stud coudiict of Dutioual afiliirs, 
l^t those sen'ices were for a long period of the most emir 
I Aent ulility. Duriug several reigns, the ^cets fjUed out by the 
[l^orts, formed nearly the whole ot tlie Royal Navy, and were ea- 
Imaged JD niany splendid actioos. By die assistance of the shifift 
I pnd mariners of ihe^ havens, Krug Johii recovered his kiugdom 
lifter he had been obliged to fly to the Isle of Wight; and soou 
I jifterwards Hubert de Btirgh, witli * forty tall ship^' belociging to 
lie Cinque Ports, defeated a French fleet of eighty sail, which 
Liras briugiug reioforcemcnts to Lewis the Daupbiu* In Edward 
Lihc Third's reigo, tlie shipping of tlie CtJique Ports was of great 
I ^ ia coQveyiug the armies of that warlike Monarch to Fmace» 
ill protecting our own coasts; aud in the reigos of Hciiry the 
cventh and Eighth, the * Ports' Navy' was several times cniploy- 
for similar purposes/ 

Most of the records which mention the quantity of vessels that 
rere, or ought to be, fnmibhtd by ll*e Cinque Ports, and their 
ctive members, vary as to the exact Dumber, as well io ih^ 
eil, as in the particular quota to be provided by each place, 
idle latter respect, tlie variatious may be accouuted for, from the 
j pJteratious tliat wer6 made as circumstances arose, by common con- 
I, in the annual courts, once called GuexllingSt or Broihcrhoods, 
iMherein each Port iiad its particular repre^ntatives. The general 
number of ship* provided by the P^rts was fifty-sey^in, each of 
which was manned by twenty-one sailors, and a^rowic/^ or boy; 
so that the whole number of penons was 1 254, These were tft 
be at the sole disposal of the King for forty days; tJie exf^enses for 
ihc first fifteen days being alv^ays defrayed by the Biirojis. The 
last chatter granted to the Cinque Ports, was in the twentieth of 
Charles the Second, who not only confirmed all Ihc former char^ 
lers» but mve»ted the freemen with ad^htiojial privileges: this char- 
ier was confirmed by Jamej the Second in his tburth >eary and bjr 

Ttt2 it 

** See Jeakt*s Charteri^ p. 38, Noic, for a long tiit oftbe eminent 
lervicct performed by the Ports' 2»Javy from lime to lime. 


1016 %tnr. 

k' die Ports are now gofened. In tbe fifth of Henry the Eightb, 
it was ordered, that ^ Eferj person that goeth mto the mne 
the Ppitis shal hafe a cote of white cotyn, with a red croft, and -^ 
tint amies of the portis nndemeath; that is to sej, the baUe Ijon -^^ 
and the halfe sbippe." The arms of the Gnqae Ports are, * p^ '^i 
pale gules and aiore, three demi lions, Or. impaling amre tfiree ^ 
semi ships, argent/ Two Members are returned to Parliament ^ 
from each of the Cinque P6rts ; but this distinction was co ofe ned ' 
mt different periods;* the first return supposed to be extant bears 
date h the forty-second of Edward the Tlurd, In the fonrteenth 
of Eliabeth, it was decreed, that no Burgess should be dioscB 
to Parliament out of the Cinque Ports, ^except he be a fieenuoi 
'mident and inhabiting, or of council with the Ports, and rfr- 
eeifeth a jeariy fee of the Ports and members, or any of then; 
and this because it has been common to choose persons ignorant 
of the prifileges of the Ports.' Tbe Brotherhood men, like Mem- 
bers of Parliament, in ere previleged from arrest during the periods 
of their services. 

In former ages, the records of the Cinque Ports were kept in 
Dover Castle; but they are now, for the most part, either lost or 
destroyed: what remains, are in the possession of the Registrar. 
The books containing the entries of the proceedings of the Brother- 
hoods and Guestlings, are kept in a chest at Romney: the oldest 
begins in the eleventh of Henry tbe Sixth, and ends m tbe ninth 
of Elizabeth: the other begins in the year 1572$ and ends with 
the proceedings of the last JBrotherhood in 177 l.f 

Many Roman Antiquities have been found in the Pkrish of 
ASH, on a sandy eminence, about three miles from Sandwich, on the 
north side of the high road leading to Canteihury. This spot ap* 
pears to have been a Roman Burying-phce, and was probably 


** See the respective historiet of the diflferent Forti. In the Aceooat 
of Membefi returned by this County to Firliameat given in thit Voiume, 
p. 425, those for the Cinque Poru of Sandwich, Dover, fiythe and 
Romney, were not enumerated- 

f Boyi't Sandwich^ p. 773. 



conoected with the station at Richbarougb, as swords^ spear-beads^ 
mnboes of shields, and oilier articles of a warlike description, have 
been found iji many of llie graves: tliese are generally about four 
feet deep; and in some of ttjem are remains of wooden ci&ts, or cot 
finSf in which the bodies have been interred. Among the great 
\-ariety of tilings met with here, '* are fibula;, buckles, clasps, bcll- 
omaments, amulets, pendants, &c. many of theni of the precious 
metals, or of copper strongly gilt, set with ivory, and with gamels, 
and colored glass, itpon chequered toils of solid gold ; beads of 
baked earth, amber, and anietliyst, and glass bugles, tlie orna- 
ments of female dress: a wooden pail, with brass hoops; the iro9 
head of an axe; part of a beam, and brass balances, of a small 
pair of scales; witlj one leaden, and seven brass weights, two of 
thtm being colni of Faustina, ntother and daughter, with their 
fererses ground away; u stone celt, a cr^Mul bell, thick copjjer 
titigs, and many articles of unknown use/'* Olher coins aud me- 
dals^ both of the Upper and Lower Ein[>ires, have also been found 
here ; togetber with a glass urn, glass beads, a large drinking glass^ 
1 glass cup, or patera, a nest of weights, and a large earthen 

At WOODNESBOROLGII, generally called IVinsboTOUgfh is 
a lai^e artificial mount, or Ttmndmt as ajipears from sundry se- 
pulchral remains found at a short depth below I be surface, toge- 
ther with a spear-head, a glass vessel, a fibula, and some fragments 
^ Roman vesseb. 

Oo Ibe seashore, in the parish of Worth, or Wwd^ as it is 

frequently denominated, is SANDOWN CASTLE, buili on a si- 

:Fia/iar plan to those of Deal, W aimer, and otben* in different parts, 

wliidi ibe polky of IJcnry tlie Eighth occasioned Iiiin to erects 

** X^aving shaken of the intollerable yoke of the Popish lymnnie, 

3nd espying lliat the Emperor %vus offended for the divorce of 

T 1 1 3 QuceiJ 

^^ Boyi'i Sandwich, p* 869, Q ; in which are two plate/ containing 
'^t^w-eteotaiions of many of these articles j oihcn are engraved in the 
^^^snu Uritanmcom 

t Guugh's Camden, Vol I. p. 243, 4, 

Katherine hh wiffe, and tliat Hie French** Krti« harf cotiplecf 
Jibe Dolpfiine liis soride to file l*cip€% niec#, and inaried his datigb- 
ITtcr lo the King of Scots, so thai he fnijg^t more jti.^rly guspeet 
bdm all, tbati iufclj trust any onCf Hennr detemttned, by the 
[tede of God, lo sland uj>on hin owne ijitrde^ Hiid defipoce, and 
bcreforc, wirh all spe^^dc, and uitliout spurmg any cost, be biiitded 
ill«, plalfoiimies, and blocke-liouses, in all needcinll places of 
! <he realnte : and anwnge^t the other, fearinf least the eme and 
[Wvauotaf c of descend mg on land on this part, should pre occasion 
Imd hardmc^se to the enemies fo invade him, he erected (tieare 
I together) fhr^ fortifications, whiche might at all times keepe and 
fTCate the iamlmg^filaccj thai is to !«ay, Sandmom, Dc(e, and ITa- 
I Were/** This fortress consists of au mifnense round tower tn the 
^re, connected tvith four semicirctdar oufworH or lunettes; 
f Ihe whole beinsj siffrounded hy a d**ep fosse, mth additimiBl de- 
fences, or battened, opposite to tlie sea: the entrance is by a 
' tfraw-bridge on Hie land side. The upper part of the cehtre tower 
f (Contains a spacious cistern for water; below which is a " Ited 

j-lpartment, bombproof, for the garrison. Somerepn: ueen 

ricccntly made in this Castle: it is under the goveroment of tirt 
(lord NVitrden ot the Cinque Ports. The S^i' .f, which 

give name to this fabric, extend from Fepenit i ,^l, a dts- 

tfine^ 6f somewhat more than fire miles: their general breodtii i| 
about a quarter of a mile. 

DEAL ,^d 

Is a very considerable maritime town; but, from its partlruW 
Ktuation, is alN^ays more flourishing in times of war than of peace, 
it lies imniediately opposite to that part of the North S«:ac^]ed iJic 
Downs, which having long become a general place of retideievous 
for shipping, not only of merchant vessels, but also of men of war, 
greatly contributes to the growth of Dtal ; tlic constant influx of 
people, and the necessity of pr**vi*ling regular supplies of ship I 
stores and provisions^ rcodering this a most eligible s{>ot for tm- 


• Per^fTtbuIatron or Kent^ p. 117, Ediu 157$. 



ders. In Lefanfr?< limo, Deal was no more than « small ^* Plsuher 
\iU*»2;e, Imit* a nivle fro Tl»e short? o1' tlie sea ;** tlio bouses bdtri* 
mljabitcH l>y iii^ltt^rmcM^ aud staiutlitg in tlic part now cdHeil 
Upj^er Deal I^nvcr Denl has wholU arhcu durmg the two hmt 
C4;t]tunv5. A house on the \ve>t siric of XUg Lower Si reef » at this 
lime lhi» ftirlhcst from l!)e sea-ahore, is Hesrrihed iii a dQ^d, bear- 
ing date in 1624-, as *ahutlinu; on llie sea-bauk/ and fn a cause in 
Cliancery, argued in }663, a witnessi, tlien aged seventy-two, de- 
posf'H, that he well knew tlic valley where Lower Deal n t»riw 
situated, and ritut lie knew i\ before aat honse liad been built I here/ 

lu the Daniesday Bouk thb parbh is reeorrfed under !tie name 
iif Adddam; and in an oriliimnce of Henry the Third, dafed ifi 
lt!^9^ it Is ennmeruted as a member of ihe Cinque Port of Sajjd- 
wich. Before tbii, it b supposed to have formed a jiarl of the 
county at largr; and tlie question being a*jain a|>}tatect in the reign 
of Henry the Sixth, that Kin|,% by hb Letters Fa»ent, issued in 
his nmctcctjth \ear, confirmed it to the jurisdiction of the Cinque 
Forts, to^ellier with Walnier. It whs then coverued by u deputy 
and assistants, appointed by the Mayor and J unjls of Sandwich; 
and this mode contiuued lill tlie elevemh ef William the Thinf, 
anno 1^!>5), when, nt^er a slreimous opposition frour the Corptmt- 
lion of Sandwich, the inhabitants of Deal succeeded tn obtuinin*; 
a charter^ by which their town tvas constituted a ^ft^^ town aiid 
borough of il^elf;' and its lf>cal govcrnnjent vested in a Mayor, 
twd%'e Jurats twenfy-tbnr Common Council men, a llecorder, 
Town Cterk, atid inferior oftieers, * There is nothhijf, however, 
b the charter ol' Deal, tha< uhro^ates the prescriptive ri!»hts of 
the magistrates of Sandwich respecting Deal; and it b understood 
from ItHi scJilinients of eminent Uiv\\ers, tJml lliey have a conrur- 
reat juri^dictk>n with the magistrates of Deal in all juridical mat- 
ters wlmtsoever: the inhabitants serve on juries ;it S;mdwich as 
before the charter/f 

Tlje gfval mcrease in the extent and |iopnlarion of Lower Deal, 
about llie beginning of the last rcntur), and itii disiluncc (mm the 

T t I 4 jariiib 

Ihited't Kent, \oL X. p. 8. 

f a>/f 1 Sandwich, p, 9^5** 



parish Church, occasioned the inhahitanti to coiniDence 
buUdbg of a Chapel of £ase^ by subscriptioD, in 1707; but 
tlie mms subscribed being imufficient^ au Act of Parliament vras 
I Dbtaiticd ill the year 1? t^j by which ^ a duty of two shilUugs wa» 
[ jiaid upon every chaldron or ton of coals, or culm, brought into 
the town liil the fir^t of May, I727> to be applied «o the buUdingv 
I finishing, and adorning tlie said CbapeJ, &€.' The Chapel was 
I consecrated in June, 17i^» to the honor of St. George the Mar- 
tyr; the whole expense of erecting it, and inclosing the burial- 
L^ound, which includes about two acres, was 2654U 128. 4^* 
I Jt is a brick buUdiug, tlie interior measuring eighty feet by fifty: 
the roof is of timber-work, curiously iVanied, and wholly suptKiil* 
€d on the side watls. Dr, Nicholas Caner, &ther to the c«te- 
brated Mrs. £. Carter, was Curate of this Chapel more Uiau fifty- 
jfix years : he died at Deal in October, 1774, 
[i Ttus town stands close to the sea^shore, which is a bold open 
||»each, defended from the violence of the waves by aji cjiteusive 
)>ank of b^ch-stones and pebbles that the sea itself has ttirown up. 
}JX principally cousists of three long streets, nuining jiaraliel with 
fthc sea, and connected by others, either more or less narrow; 
Ijhe houses are mostly of brick, and irregular; but in the buildings 
bat have l)een erected of late years, greater attention has beeo 
l]»aid to uniformily. Most of the inhabitants are employed b ma- 
i/itime occupations, or in pif>v\i\'mg supplies of food and necessaries 
|<^r the shipping that anchor ip the Downs. Some portion of them 
l^^re also engaged in smuggling, though by no means to so great an 
extent as before tlie passing of Mr. Pitt's bills ibr the preveutioii 
of unlawful comnicrce.* The whole a^puut of tlie population^ i^ 

^ It has been said, and probably with trutb^ tb^t the practice of 
smuggling at Deal, and its vicinity, is in lome degree^ to use a com- 
0)oa cxpreiiion, winked at by Government, through th,c nece»iiy of 
jencouraging a hardy race ofieatncn upon this coait^ the dangers which 
arise to shipping in bad weather, Tfoni the Ooodwio and other »udc 
being ¥cry great, and the imugglcn, from their extensive local know, 
ledge, and extreme courage and hardihood^ being best calculated to 
rei^ve others iro^i danger. 



fttiiniefl'uiiSlef'Qte Act af 1800, vi'as 5420; the nimiber of houses 

was 917* 

la this town, as at Dover, and in the Isle of Thanet, ban esta- 
blisbnieut of Pilots for the luore safe cooveyance of shipping into 
tod out of the Downsi aud up llie rivers Thames aud Medwai^. 
Tbey ^ire divided into two classes, culkd the Upper and the Lower 
Book; the first of which cousiiits of lwent)-ft>ur Pilots, five of 
whom are Wardens; and the latter, uf tweti))-five. By their aid, 
and the seauicn cojinected with theni, many hvcs are iuinually saved, 
and much property preserved.* The charges of pilotage are regu- 
lated hy the tonnage ; and it k a privilege of tliose on the Up^ier 
Book, to pilot all sliips that dnm more than eleven feet four inches 
imter.t Here is also a r^aval Storehouse, under the direction of 

a Clerk 

* Those seamen of Deal and Dorer who more particularly make it 

their businesi lo succotsr vesseh in distreis, are called Hoteliers^ and are 

certainly a very valuable class of men, iliough iheir cond*icl it «ot uq« 

IV^equeatly marked by extortion and plunder. Their skill and inirepidity 

are wcU portrayed in the following lines, by Falconer: 

WhercVf In ambush lurk (he rilal itndi, 
Thtry claim the ^ angers proud of skilful btndli f 
For while with darkling course ihe vuseU iy^ctp 
The winding *horc, or plough the fiithlcss deep, 
O'er bar or ihcU the watery path they aound, 
With dcxt*roui irm ugacioDs of the ground ; 
Fearlesa they combst cv^y hoitile wind, 
Wheeling in rmzy track with course ificlin'd. 
Expert to moor, where terrors line the rotd. 
Or win tbe anchor from it» dark abode. 

SiiirwiitCK, dotal, p. ly, 

Xaa a «tonn, wtien the wind seems to bafHe all human skill, and nothing 
^»at destruction is expected by the laboring vessels, one or more hovel* 
Urt^ iKtats wiU frequently be seen riding on the waves, as if in de^ance 
ot the angry elements. The instances in vifhich their brave crewi hava 
l»eeii successful iji rescuing others from the most immincni peril, are 

f The Pilots of the Upper Book are those which have been loflgest 
o« the list; those of the Lower Book are the latest appointed j iheirriie 
is progressirei according to seniar Uy. 

1032 KENT. 

a CItrii of the Cliequc and Storekeeper; atK^ aft 0$ee 6(flbt 
toiiis> under a Collector, Comptroller, &c. Wlieo tlie beets' of 
tl»c Royal Navf, wnA Die East and West IncBa fl^, lie In the 
'Downs, the sea prospects from the b^adr are eminently' beautifid^ 
4vpecuiHy at sun-rise. Between three aad fbor bwidned Mil nt^ 
aoteetimcs at anchor in the Downs at one'tinte; on these ooca^SoAs 
\ht town is [MirticQlarly full, and the bustle and traffic are both 
vefy great. The East India Conqpany have an agoit co iis ttetly 
Resident here. 

Various improvenients have been made M Deal since the jnr 
1790} when an Act i^as passed for paying, lighting and cjfean^g 
Mt and of late years, eomrenient atcommodations for visitors ib 
the bathing seasdn hare been nrade. Under the charter granted 
by King William, the inhabitants hold two mariiets weekly, and 
two fairs annually: the latter, which are for the sale of . cattle^ 
gobdsy and merchandize, are well frequented. 
'^Tn August, l648». an attack was made on a body of the Par- 
liament's forces in this town, commanded by Colonel Rich» by oi^ 
^er of Prince Charles, afterwards Charles the Second, wlio then 
lay at anchor in the Downs with a considerable fieet; but the as- 
sailants were soon routed with much loss» A considerable shock 
of an Earthquake was felt here in September, l692) as well as at 
Dover, Sandwich, and other places on the coast : sewral chimneys 
were thrown dovm ; and the walls of Deal Castle, though of im- 
mense thickness, were shook so violently, that the people within- 
side expected the building w6uld have fallen upon their heads.* 
Deal Castle stands at a httle distance from the Naval Store- 
house at the south end of tiie town, and is built on a similar phiu 
to that of Sandown.t Lord Cartingtou, its chief officer, or Cap- 
tain, has fitted up apartments here for his occasional residence. 
I^ear this fortress, but ui Walmer Parish, extensive Barracks have 
been erected, both for cavalry and iniantry ; and also a Royal 

raiy and Naval Hospital. 

* Dr. Hook*$ Philosophical Experimentt, &c. Svo. 175^6, 
t See page 1018. 



l>eiil was tlicbirtb-pbce of the Iaf€ Mrs, EttiSABETH CAin er, 
tvhose literani' eminence slioiic cons]>ifuf»us for a period of upwards 
of threescore years and ten; a longer leriu fJmii fijetierallv fjilk to 
Ibe lot of fnan. She was the ^Idei^t daughter of tiic Rev« Nicholas 
Carter, and was bom December the seveiUeeuth, 17 J?. To fhU 
superintendence of her futher, who * tau^hl the )'oung rden how tci 
9ho6t/ she wai indeht^l for that eiirly eitpansion uf mind, and 
mpid acrguif^^ient of teaming, \yh\d\ Inid the basis of her fatiire 
tiune. Her translation ©f Epktefus, from the original Greek, wal 
her principHl work, and isuckh^wletf^ed a$ llie best version of that 
author in the Elnglish langtmge. Her poems are also ifmch cele- 
bratedy and deservedlv $o: «onie of tlieiti dbpla}^ as befiutlfn) ex^ 
amples of fine conipositionf clej^^ant taste, ami propriety of moral 
sentiment, as can possibly be paralleled. " Hers indeed," to use 
tbe words of her nephew,* ** were not merely the ordinary attain* 
meots of a female writer, nor even of a second-rale scholar of the 
more teamed aex; hot her learning was sound, deep, and critical; 
her knowledge general, ai»d her taste pure and classical. All that 
Ae understood^ she understood thoroughly, and uhat she had 
once known, 5he neverforgot. Her acquaintance wilh both dead 
and living languages, was such as is sehloni met with in one jwrson : 
|ierhaps no scholar of the (TTesenl age knew so many, and so well, 
the late Sir William Jones only excepted. Like that emment liiK 
gulst too^ fthe particularly delighted in Greek, and was more cotu- 
pletely mistress of that language tlian she was of any olher: He- 
brew and Latin she undentood well; and Ambic enough to read 
k Itilerably, and to add, iu ii nrarmscript dictionan* of her own in 
liiat ditHcutt language, many di^erenl meanings of uords and ilieir 
eombitmtions. Of the moileru tongues she was acqtiaintefl with 
French, Itahan, Spaiji:^h, German, aud Portuguese. Her know* 
ledge of aucieut and mmleni history' was equally exact and exten* 
«ivc : of the sciences, astronomy was her faf orite study ; and in 
that she had made a very consider hie progress/' Her htimility 


^ The Kev, Montague Penningioji, Vicar of Northborne, in Kent, 
i^ho has just publiihed * Memoirs gf her Life/ wiih a new cditiuo of 
her Poemf, &c. in quaito. 



and benevolence were equal to tier leamiugi and in her breast, 
it be allowable to give a summary of her character id a single 
phrase, the Christian virtues were enshrined. Slje died at her 
IcMJgings 10 Clarges^treet, London, in February, 1806, in her 
eighty-ninth year. 

Another native of Deal, whose name has attained distinction m 
the walks of literature, was the late Willi AM Boys, Esq. F.A. 
and F. US. lie was bom in September, 1755, and for r 
years practised as> a surgeon at Sandwich, where he made his ' Col> 
lections* towards a history of that town, afterwards published in 
a quarto volume. His father was one of the six [>eraons preserved 
in the yawl of the Luxborough Galley, of the destruction of whicb^ 
vessel, and subsequent distresses of the crew, mention has hvcii! 
made in the account of Greenwich Hospital: he died in March|. 
IS03| greatly lameutcd. 

The channel, road-stead, or anchorage-ground, called 
DOWNS, is immediately opposite to Deal, its southern boundai 
being formed by the Goodwin Sands. Its width is about aix mill 
ai)d ifs len;:;tli about eight: its general depth varies from eight 
twehe iulboms. This is the comniou rendezvous of the East 
dia aud other fleets, both on their homeward and outward bound 
voyages; and in particular states of Ibe wind, nearly 400 sail of 
shipping have rode at anchor here at one time, Tlje Carliile, « 
fourth rate, cue of Sir George Rooke's squadron, was blown up 
in the Downs, in September, l699f «n^ gf^^t part of the cfew 
peris bed* 

The GOODWIN SANDS, though frequently fatal to marinei 
are, notwithstanding, of considerable use, as it is by them alo^ 
tliat the Downs are constituted a road for shippbg. In all easier! 
winds Ihey serve as a pier, or break- water, and greatly niitigstte 
the force and imiiieusily of ihc waves, which, in stormy weather, 
w<juld otherwise roll upon thb shore with unabated fur}'. These 
sands extend in length about ten miles, the north sand-head being 
nearly opjHisite to Ramsgate, and the south sand-bead to Kings* 
down. The danger of sltikiug upon them arises from their natuje, 
which IVIn Snieaton describes as that of * a quicksund, clean and 
unconnected/ yet lying so close, as to render it ditHcull to work ^ 




poitUetl bar to tlic dc^»th of more than six or seven feet.* Their 
uigurgiuitin^ property is so powerful, I bat in a few days, even tlie 
largest vessel driven upon them would be swallowed up, find seen 
no more* At low-water they are in many parts dry, and parlies 
frequently land on them ; but when the tide begins to flow, the 
sand becomes soft, and is moved to nud fro by the waves. Some 
years ago, in order to prevent the many accidents which h.ippeii 
to shipping on these sands, tlie Corporation of the Triuily House 
formed the design of erecting a ligbt-house on them; bur, af^er 
the sand bud been |>enetrated by boring augern to a great depth i 
the scheme was glveti np as impracticable, as no soliil foundation 
eoutd be obtaineil. A floating hght, however, has been since 
placed on the east side of the north sand-head^ and has proved of 
Mguai benefit. 

Tradition, grounded upon some monkish anuats, has represented 

these siuuls as having been formerly an island belonsijing lo the 

great Earl Goodwin, and that it * sonke soiluinly into the sea,' us 

a mark of the vengeance of Heaven against the sins of that noble* 

Alalia Lam bard, with greater attention to probability, accounts 

for iheir origin as follows; "Silvester Giraldus, in his Itinerarie of 

Wakfs, and many otberg» doe write, that, about the end of the 

reigne of WilUdiu Rutiis, or tlie beginning of Henrie the Fir^if^ 

t litre was a sodaine and mighty mumlatiou of the Mia, by the 

^^wbicb a great part of Fbnndcrs, and of tlie Lowe Counrriei there* 

^boulf tvas drenched and loit, so that many of the inhabitants, 

l>etog I hereby repulsed from their seats, can:e over into Englund, 

^i^^Now at the same time that this happened in Flaiuiders, the like 

Bsarme was done in sun dry places, both of England, and Scotlind 

^ilso, as Hector Boethius, the Scottish hystoriognipher, mosle 

Iplainty writeth, aflirming that, amongst other, this place, being 

^oiDetyme of the possession of the Eml God wine, wlis then first 

-^'iolently overwhelmed with a light s;ujde» wherewith it not onely 

x~etuayneth covered ever since, but Is become withidi (Nariumguf' 

jgfj tt voragoj a most dreadful gulfe, and shippe swallower/'t 


* Historical Report on Ramsgate Harbour, p. 75^ 
t Pcrainbubiio0 «f Keot, p. 85j-U. 



Bomner^* ndfuuciug still uearer to die Itnth^ i^ierhaps, cotijecturc«^ 

Ihiit tlie ov€ri1oiiin^ of the Low Countries rii^ulioned above, oc« 

. Cftaiofieil Uie sands to emerge above Uie oceaiif tiiroitgh the de« 

trre;i^ of the depth of water in these |>art9p utid that tiie} \mi pie- 

' tiously been eiitiicly covered, even at low tides, to a sullkient 

depth to sulttiit the sailtitg of vessels over liteni. The latter pM 

0f his opbioii itppears to l>e untenable; but the presets sihi^tioo 

l©f the Porius Huiupcwxis o( Xiiv Romans^ aod of Sandwich llai-eo^ 

fiS^rds stroll^ cvideiJce of the tea having formerly flowed Uiglier 

jjipoii thi!» eo4»t than at pie^nt.f 

in tlie year 1775^ a carious piece of old Ordnance ivas dmgged 
of tlie sea near tlic Goodwin Saiuis, by some liiiiernieu wlie 
^were sweepinj^ tur anchors in the Guli-slream, It was seven feet 
[leu iric}ies King : and troni sotnc of the ornaments, .was supposed 
[|» liave been cast about tlte year 13^0. It waa do contrived aa 


* Roman Port?, Sec. p, SO, et leq. 

f It has lung been a laying among the rommon people, that 'Teoier- 
Sen Sreepte wat the cauie of Goodwin S.indf /* yet it tbouJd feem n* 
er^ from tUc Di^luguet of Str lliomat More^ ihat ihit taying wa% 6m 
Ippplied to the decay of Saudwkh liavcn* Ac an assembly of " old folk 
pf the cuntre/* f:iys thii author, " they byjgan fyru to entearcbe what 
^hinge had ben the occasion that la good a Havo^n wai in io few yerys 
ioore decayed,'' &c. At length, as ' dyvers men alledged dyvcff 
auses/ '* there started up one good old father, and laid, * Ye^ May- 
ers, »ay every fiian vvliat lie vvyll, cba [I ha/e] marked this matter as 

ivetj at sum otiicr, and by 1 wote how it waxed noughie wetl 

ughe : for 1 knew gm)d, I have mirkedt to dtave when tt bc^Q co 
^vaxwori/ — ' And vvhathath hurt it, good father?' quod thoje ^rwilc* 
pien. * liy my fayth, Maystcrs,* quod he, ♦ yonder lame TrnUrtUn 
•cepell, and nothyng clty», that^ liy ihe maise, sholde 'twere a fayre fyth* 
pole.* ' Why hath the ttepell hurt ihe haven, good fathcrf* quod they. 
' Nay, by'r Lady, Maysier*,* quod he, * ych cannot tell you w-^lj why, 

but chote well yt haih : for by I knew that a good haven tyll the 

itepeil was hyldcd, and by the Mary ma^se, cha marked yt never throve 
lynnys/* The idea entertained by the shrewd countryman wai^ that 
the funds which has been appropriated to the preservation of the Har- 
bour, had been expended by the Monks in the adornment of the Churdi. 



U \yo loatlcJ at the breech, and fliough extreaicty uuwichJy, Iiad 
evitleiitK' been yscci as a s^vivt!-jgun."* 

It lia» been stated hi ii iWiuer p^rt of ihi^ Iltstary, tkiit, ac* 
cordiuj; tx) Horijley, (xule, aiiil olher aiuiijuarie.s I he phice of 
Cacstr s lumilug, b his firtit eNpcditiou to Bi Itaiii, itiii^l have been near 
fljchburou^h^ or Rump^it} Au iuspxlioii of the cmisf, however, 
and ail aiteiitlve examiiialtuu of C«i^{ir'» own aceotiiit, u^ givicii ui 
fits Cominciitaric^, hus cvbiccd that opitiioii to be erruueoits ; ai«d 
Uiere cum be no doubt but thiit the Hantaj) Chieftain huuleif iti the 
ii€tgUbourliood of the present town of Deal* AJler nieulioning 
that the advantageous pobjtiou of the Britons on the Cbfl^ of Duver^ 
convincetJ him that he could not there attempt a [ajidrng without 
grpiil loa£, bU word^ are, daio sigiito a subiatis anck^m, circUur 
miliium pussam v Hi ah no loco procrressus apctto rt piano liliorc 
nuzjis cuKitttuit; i. c* * Having made iJie signal, and weighed au- 
ction be sailed eight nules further ti]^ utid brought to bis «»hips oii 
a plain and open i?hore,* This perfectly ai^Tccs with the coast near 
Deal, ivhicli is tlie first low shore from Dover; and from ihe re- 
luaios of entrenchmenls still to be traced, bis ship camp is Blip* 
P'jsed to have been near thb towu4 Camden saysj, '* At Deaf, 
vliich Ncuuhi!», and 1 believe n'^hlly, calb Dole, a name still 
pveu by our Britona to an open plain on a river or tlie sea, tradi- 
lion atiirms Caisar landed, with which agrees Nenniui^, who, m 
bis Imrbarous si\le, writes, * Caisar batteled at Dole:* — a table^ 
%l^, lianging in Dover Castle, proves tlje same/* 

III the Chunk at Ul'FER DEAL, which is a pleasant vilbge 
about one mile westivard from the town of Deal, is a mural monti- 
mrut ill memory of TtiOMAS Boys, Esq* of Fredville, in Non- 
oington Parisli, " which Thomas was, in bis youth, a gentleman 
at amies at Calles, and att^ended upon tlic jvcrson of Kinge Heiiry 
the Vllltb, at the Siege of Bullen."— liis ti*j;urc, in Bia$$, is re- 
presented m a devotional attitude, in complete armouf. lie died 
itt February, J56C, at the age of sixty. WALMER 

* Sec ArduBologia, Vol* V, p. 147, where the dcicriptioii Is accom- 
panied by an engraving. 

t Sec p. 407. ^^ 




WALMER is stttiated about one mile southward from Deaf, 
and at the beginning of the high ground which extends from 
hence, wrlhout interruption, to Dover, Thi ftllagie is callecl 
Walmcr Street, and principally consists of good liouftes, frhich^ 
from their fine situation^ are genemlly inhabited by res))e<!ta!>le fit- 
miliefp Tlib manor was anciently held by tlie De Aubtrvitfes^ of 
Humo de Crevequer, by Knight i service, as of the Manor of Folk- 
stone, Joan, the lieircss of William de Anbcrviljc, of Westen* 
hanger, conveyed it in marriage to Nicholas de Crlol, o? Kcriell, 
the last of whom. Sir Tljomas Keriell, ^vas killed at the Bisttle of j 
St. Alban*s. The ruins of the ^fanor-house of the Criols still re* 
main near the Church-yard, in which several sfmiecofiinsi^'ere founj 
some years ago, supposed to hive l>etonged to that family, TTie 
Church is dedirated to St* Miiry ; and in its doorways, and on the m 
face of the arch which separate!^ the nave and chancel, it displayt m 
some curious specimens of Norman architecture. WaxmEB 
Castle stands close to the «ca-shore, at some distance from tht 
villugc, and communds a beautiful view of the Downs^ and coast f 
of France* This fortress ts appropriated to the Lord Warden offl 
the Cinque Ports, for whose residence the piincipnl apartments 
were ucwly fitted up a few years ago. Here the late Mr. Pilt, 
who held that otHce, and was abo Colonel of tlie Cinque Port Ca* 
valr}', used frequently to spend some of the suniiuer months. 

In Ripple Parish, near Walmer, is an oblong Entrtnchmentt 
called Dane Pits, comprehending about half an acre of ground^ 
and having vdriotis sinHll eminences within it,* At a small distance 
northward from Ri))plt: Church, also, is another ancient Vnntp^ 
which Hasted supposes to have been thrown up by Cassar in bis 
route towards Bvtrham Downs.f 

In a sweetly retired situation at WEST LANGDON, are the 
rcmaiDs ot an Abbey founded in the reign of Richard Coeur de 
Lion, by Sir William de Auhemlle the elder, for Premonstratcn* 
mn Canons, who were brought hither from Leyslon, in $uffi>] 
On tlie dissolution of the lesser Monasteries^ tlie revenues of 




Ilstted s Kenti \{A, IX. p. 5$% 

t Ibl4. 




estimiited at the clear minual value of 471. 6s. lOd, 
tnct at the gross valae of 561 6s. 9d. The site of the Abbey de- 
mesne! is still called the Abbey Farm ; but ibc pnnci|iul building 
tms been new fronted with brick^ and olber alterations made, 

ST. MARGARETS, or St. Margaret at Clifc, stands within 
« qoBTtcr of a mile from the edge of the cliffs, which are here of 
consitlenible height* The Church is an ancient structure of Nor- 
man origin; the nave is divided from the aisles by massive columns^ 
li^ttstainiog semicircular arches; and is aho separated from thechan- 
te) by a large and handsome arch of the same figure. Tlie mould- 
iofs of the west doonvny are mtich ornamented, and exhibit seve- 
ml sculptures of rude heads. The angles of the to*er were for- 
merly ornamented with turrets; but one of them havhig fallen 
ibont the year 1711, the others have been since taken down, to 
nmkie the whole uniform. St. Margaret^ Bay is only frequented 
by fishing crdft, to defcMid which, a small pier, or jetty, was made 
here in the time of Archbishop Morton. In and near this Bay^ 
lubstemare caught, of a small size, but of a very su^pcrjor flavour. 

Ttje Manor-House of WEST CLIFFE, now sunk into a farm, 
was formerly the residence of the Gibbonx, a considerable and an- 
cient family* which gave birth to the Historian of the Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Einpiie; and by the female hue, to Lord Chan- 
cellor Hardwicke. 


TuE ssitKiiion oj Dover, in respect to the Cohliuetit* must have 
reodercd it a post of the greatest consecjuence even from the most 
early periods of our history, and there can be little doubt but that 
the site of the Castle was once a British hill fortress, long previous 
to the invasions of Caesar, or to the subst^tpitnt cout|uest of this 
Islaiid by the Roman arms. *^ The rrd existence of such a prior 
strong-hold,** obser\'es Mr. Kinj», ** may not only be concluded tVom 
its situation on the summit of a cUff^ so very proper tor the pur* 
pose, more than 300 feet in height, and from the peculiar form 
of part of the outlines ^xWl remaining, but may also be very fairly < 
inferred from the old tradition, which says, that here Arviragus, 

Vol. VIL Junr, 1807. U u u the 

1030 Kimr* 

the Britiflh chief, fortified UinaeU; when be icfuied to pqr tb 
tribute impoaed by Julius Ceeiar; and tfatt here, ifkeiwaidsy Kini 
Arthur also held his residenoe.*^ 

Darell, in his History of Dover Castle, has giten currency t 
another tradition, which assigns the foundation of thb fortr ei a t< 
Caesar himsdf: and Lambard quotes Lidgate and Bosse, ass^finf 
that ' they of the CasteU kept till this day certeine vesseb of old* 
wine and salte,' whidi they aflbme, Mo be the remayoe of mcb 
provision as he (Caesar) brought into it' From what vre knovi 
however, of Caesar's operations in this country, as detailed in hi 
own Commentaries, the assumed fact may be considered as wboU 
devoid of truth; though the ancient Pharos, which still iemaio 
on the upper part of the Castle hill, furnishes unquestionable evi 
dence of Roman workmanship rf and as the importance of thb a 
tuation must have pointed it out as an object of primary ngui 
there is a strong presumption, that it must have been one of the fin 
places that the Romans fortified. An accurate observer, perhapi 


* Munimenta Antiqua, Vol. IL p. 158. 

t *' The component pant of this Pharos,** lays Mr. King, " by 
strange coincidence of circumstances, plainly shew its age ; for it b ( 
almost all Roman buildings usually are) composed, indeed, of ioD] 
thin, irregular bricks ; but in the intermediate courses, as no quarri 
of stone were immediately at band, both the facing, and a great pa 
of the interior substance of the wall, was filled up, not, as might ha' 
been expected, with flints, and chalk rubbish, from the neighbourii 
country, but with a harder, and more effectual lasting substance th; 
chalk, though lighter, and fitter for carnage : — for it is filled up, h 
most unusual manner, with masses of hard stalactitical incrustations, c 
into blocks of various dimensions, that could not well have been n 
with nearer than the more nort/iem coasts on the east side of this Islat 
where they abound in great numben; and which, therefore, could i 
have been obtained by any Roman commander prior to the time 
Agricola, who surrounded the whole Island by a regular navigation 
the first time; and who might, therefore, most easily, in his shr 
« convey, from the north to the south, these curious and desirable ma 
rialSft fpr the purpose of rearing this structure.*' 

Munimcntm AnHqunt, Fol. IL p. i50 



wmy still trace the oulline of the HomaD cmmp, wbicti, in thii ioi* 
stance, partook of a customary deviation, according to the nature 
of the ground « and had more of the oval in it» figure thau of the 

The form of the Roman Pharos is octagonal without, but wjuare 
within: (be sides of the internal square, and each side of the en^ 
temal octagon, being about fourteen of our feet, or about fourteen 
toil a half Roman feet, in dimeusions: the thickness of the wall 
m llie lower part, is about ten feet^ The foundations were laid 
ID a bed of clay, notvtithstanding it U built on a chalk rock; a dr^ 
comstance that has also been observed in other Roman buildiugs* 
It has an arched doorway, about six feet wide on the ea^t side; 
on the otljer three sides of the internal square were Roinau arclieit 
and narrow spaces for windows, about tbirteeu feet and a half 
high* and near four ie^t wide : thc:»e have been much allered m 
^baequent ages, to convert them hito loop-holes. Tlie old archei 
at the top of these recesses, were turned with Roman tiles, and 
with pieces of sialuctitical concretion cut wedge-3haj>ed, about 
four times the thickness of the tiles, and placed alteniately with 

The dimensions of the tiles in leugth are different, but their 
breadth and thickness are nearly the same: tlie forms of some of 
ihem are very singular, especially la the lower part of the buildipg^ 
and on the eastern front: these are on one side furnished with 
** winding grooves, and with four protuber4nt hemispherical knoba^ 
nearly equidistant from each corner; and at on«" end of each tile, 
near each comer, is a projecting part, of about an inch and thret 
quarters b length, and an inch and a half wide ; whilst at the op* 
posite end, near each angle, a void spate is left of the same di- 
menslonf ; so that by reversing the tiles when laid in the wall, the 
projecting ^rts might drop into the void spaces hke a sort of dove- 
tail work, and reader it impossible for tbem to give way, and slip 
from each othar, in consequence of any interniil pressure. With 
alternate courses (or ©f^t\*a) formed of these and other Roman 
tiles, and then of small blocks of the slulactitical incrustations, was 
this edihce constructed from the bottom to the top; each coone 
U u u 2 ^ 

<yf tfles consisring of two rows, and each couna of s&lae 
amnrowsofblodu, genenll y aboat sevao inchas deep, an 
one foot in length." Five of these alternate courses are 
cemible, notwithstandmg an external casing, which was 
over the whole abont two centuries ago. Hie present fa 
the Pharos is nearly forty feet; but the upper part is of m* 
dem origin; most probably of the time of Sir Thomas Erpi 
who repaked it when Constable of Dover Castle in the : 
Henry the Fifth: his arms, being two bars and a canton, sci 
on stone, were then placed on the north front.* This cur 
nuun b in a state of great dilapidation, the roof having b 
stroyed, and the interior exposed to the ravages of the v 
The masonry on each side of the opemngs is very differei 
the ancient work, and evinces considerable alteration: t 
over the original entrance is about nx feet wide, and nea 
feet; the others have been much damaged, most probably t 
the idle curiosity of tiying the hardness of the materials. 

Immediately contiguous to the Roman Pharos, are the : 
an audent Church, which is generally stated to have been h 
King Lucius in the second century. Whatever may be the 
to a Christian edifice having been founded here at that early 
the remams of the building are certainly of much late 
though, as in the Church of St. Martin at Canterbuiy, 
tiles have been worised up in the walb, particulariy of the 
These remains, with the Pharos, and the foundations of a b 
supposed to have been a Roman bath, which have been 
times laid open in digging graves near the west end of St. 
Church, are all the vestiges of Roman occupation that i 
known in this town. 

In the Itinerary of Antoninus, Dover is called Ad Porti 
BRis. Lambard suj^poses its name to have been derived fi 
British Duifyrrha, signifying a steep pkice; and Camdet 
with him in this derivation. The Saxons called it Dotfa, a 

^ Tl» fubttaace of the above description it derived from the Mu 
Antiqua, Vol. IL p. i6Q,-l. 



i, wliich in tlie Domesday Book, is §aftened into Dovcre. The 
Mnl Iter of Aiitoiiiniis proceeds immediately trom Load on to this 
port, * a Landinio ud Portitm Dubri^;' mentioning only the ioler- 
tiiediate stations of Rochester and Canterbur} : the track of part of 
the old road over Bar ham Downs cao be readily traced. It is pro* 
bable that the Roman town was on the south side of the river 
which flows through the valley into Dover Harbour* and tliat the 
Walling Street, coming straight from Canterbury over Barham 
Downs, entered it where Biggin Gate formerly stood.* 

The Saxons ar« stated, by Darell, to have very early made 
themselves masters of Dover; and very soon atler their conversion 
to Christianity^ the ancient Church within the walls of the Castle^ 
is said to have been re-consecrated by St, Augasliue, at the request 
of King Ethelbertf whose son and successor, Eadbald, founded a 
College near it for secular canons, under the government of a Pro- 
ifost. Widred, King of Kent, having, in the latter part of the 
foUowiag century, extended the fortifications of the Castle, re- 
moved the canons into the town of Dovcr^ where he had built a 
new Church for their use, upon that very spot, says Darell, where 
* before ihe reign of Arviragus, ships used to ride at anchor.'f 
He also fortified the town with a wall on the side towards the sea. 

In tJie reign of Edward the Confessor, and probably before, the 
great Earl Goodwb was Governor of Dover Castle, and is record- 
ed to have strengthened it by additional worksf. The great quAr> 
rcl between him and King Edward, arojie from an occurrencs in 
this town, which b thus told by Hasted: ** Eustace, Earl of Bou- 
logne, (who liad married Goda» the King's Rister,) being come to 
f* t ^iward, some of his attendants, who were sent biefore to pro* 
U im 3 ride 

* This road, according to Harris, crossed the nver at Chariton, and 
look iti cQunc by the Park wall, (probably that at the back of the Vic- 
tualling Office,) directly into Dover Tuwd, at the weit end of St, 
James*} Church, and thence proceeded to it* icrmination at Fortts Cor^ 
Iter, which was the ancient landing-place from foreign parts; though it 
i^now at a considerable distance from the »ea. 

t Hist, of Dorer Castle, p. 13, 

i Hastedi from MSS. Bibl Cott. Veipaiian^ A. 5, 



vidt todgmp at Dover, inststtd npon hafiog tliem fn a hotjw thertf 
eoatmry to I he will of the owner, wbereiipon a quarrel arose, and 
k townsman was slain. This $o exasperated tiie iiihabitanrs, thai 
fhcy Tiiirae<f lately fell upon the Earl's refinwe, killing teveral, and 
froutidittg many more; Earl Eastace himself, who had entered the 
town in the midst of the tumult^ hardly escsping their hijf^ 
Eustace, enraged at this afl^ont, hafteoetl with bis comptatnt to 
the King, vtho comnmnded Earl Goodwin to proc€ed with bit 
power, and take vengeance for tJie insult. The Earl, instead oT 
obeying, excuaed the fiiet, and, in a haughty tone, made such Mh 
terc remarkft on the insolence of foreigners, that the King wai 
highly provoked; and, instigated by the Normans who were ronnd, 
detarttiined to chastise htm and bis sons, Swane and Harold, 
Goodwin, having rnlelligence of the design, assembled forces to 
defeat it ; and marching into Glocestersbire, sent messengers to 
the King, requiring him to deliver up Eustace and bis ^llowers; .^ 
and threatening, in case of refusal, to declare open war. The -^ 
erents that succeeded, impelled Earl Goodwin, and bis sons> to 
fly the realm; but they afterwards returned, and, by a well-con* 
certed plan, obtained such an accession of strength, that the King, 
on the merely nominal submistton of Good\^in, reinstated him in 
all his estates and lionors. 

The importance of Dover Castle was so well knowii to William 
the Norman, that, when that chiefhiin tvas taking measures to en- 
sure to himself the possession of Eogloiid, be refused to permit the 
departure from Rouen, of Earl Harold, whom he had sonieiinie hekt 
in forcible restniint, till he had bound the latter by a soleoui oath, 
to deliver up to him, after Edward's death, *■ the Castle of Do^r^^ 
With the Well of water in it/ After the battle of Hastings, also, 
lie immediately hastened hither; and though tlie restslauce be met^M 
with was but slight, he tliought proper to revenge it^ by pullbj 

• Halted*! Kent, p. Si of the General History. Harrit, lo his Hk - 4 
lory of Kent, p. 102, relatct ihi$ circumtiance in a different msoner^^ 
and tayi, that * the quarrel arose from one of the Earl'i nietsengers be- ■ 
ing slain by a fowmmaiit whom be would have forced to afford hia 



the then Governor, Stephen cie Ashbiiroham, and \m lieutenant, 
to death. Tliis cruelty is stated to have been exercised, iii order 
to terrffy others into submbsion. It was probably on this ocaulon 
titat the town was bomt; as the Domesday Book, speaking of Wil- 
liain, under Dover, says. In ipso prima advent u tjm in AngUam 
ftiit ipsa villa combusia^^. From the same iuvaluable record we 
learn the following particulars, 

** In the time of King Edward, Doverc paid eighteen pounds, 
of which sum Edward bad two parts, and Earl Goodwin the third 
part of one moiety, and the Canons of St. Martin liud the other. 
Tbe Burgesses have furnished the King with twenty ships ouce in 
each year for fifteen days, and in each ship were tiventy-one men; 
this tbey had done because he had freed them from Sac and Soc, 
When the King's messengers have cojne there, they liave given for 
the passage of a horse, 3d. in winter, and 2d, in Summer; but 
the Burgesses found a steersman, and one other assistant; if more 
were necessary, they were provided at the expence of the King, 
Whoever constantly resided in the town, and paid custom to the 
King, was quit of toll throughout England. All these customs 
were tn use there when King William came into England, At his 
first coming, the town itself was burnt ; and therefore the value of 
it, when tbe Bishop of Baieu\ received it, could not be computed : 
now it is rated at 40L though the Bailiff renders from theuce 54l, 
In Dover are twenty mansions of which the King has lost the 

II appears from tlie above, that the possession of Dover had 
been assigned by the Conqueror to Bishop Odo, his half brother, 
whom he had constituted Earl of Kent, and had intrusted with 
tbe Government of Dover Castle. The disroutent of the Kenttsh- 
meo, however, under tiieir new masters, very early induced them 
to make an attempt to surprise this fortrcsj and for the ** better 
atchieviog of their desire/ says Lambard, '* it was agreed that 
Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, should crosse the seas, in a ni^rhte by 
them appointed, at whiche lune they would not faile with aJl their 
feree to meet him, and so (joyniug hands) soudainly as&ayle and 
enter it. They met accordingly, and marched by darke night to« 

U u u 4 ward 

1086 I^BVl. 

fud the Castell, well fimiisbed with «Galii« h4dm; but bj i 
800 that the watch had descried theuiy Hf^ oot oidj ftjied of tfaa( 
wbiche they inteoded, but also fdl ioto that which thcj nevef; 
ftared: for the so^ldioun withm the Ca8tell(to wlipnie Oda» thj^. 
Bishop of fiaieuxy and ijugh Mountfort, which thed weie with tbii 
KiDg in Normandiey had cpn^mitted the chaife thereof) h^ tbeftt* 
selves close, and suffered the assaykints to approache the 1|d^^ audi 
then, whiles they disorderly atteiopted (o scale it» they set wide opea 
their gates, and made a soudaiue s^ out of the place, and s^t. 
upon them with such fury, that they cpinpflled Eustace, with a 
few others, to retune to his shippe; the rest of his companie beiqg 
eyther skyue by the sworde, destroyed by £U1 iifom the dyffi, or. 
devoured by the sea."* 

At length, Odo falling under the King's di^pleasui[i|, frftt seat 
prisoner into Normandy; and all his possessions l^eing confiscated, 
the King seized the Castle mto his own hands, and immediately 
fortified it anew ; and for its fuither security, put it under an.entiie- 
new system of government. On this occasion he committed to 
his liuisman, John de Fiennes, cot only the govemment and custodj 
of this fortress, but of the rest of the Ports also, by gift of inhere 
tance; and he also gave him one hundred and seventy-one knights^ 
£ses, and upwards, in lands, in order that he should distribute part 
of them among other courageous and trusly ^nights, for the de« 
fence and preservation of this Castle. Accordingly, John de 
Fiennes made choice of eight others, to whom he liberally di8tr»> 
buted, in portions, the greatest part of what he fiad received from 
the King; these were, William de Albrancis, Fulbert de Dover, 
AVilliam de Arsic, GaU'ridus Peveril, William Mamiuot, Robert 
de Port, Hugh Crevequer, and Adam Fitzwilliam ; each of whom 
was bound by the tenure of the lands so given, to maintain one 
hundred and twelve soldiers. These lands were held in capite by 
barony, at first, of the Constable, and of his eight Knights res« 
pectively ; and aften^ards of the King, as of his Castle of Dover. 
Besides the lauds thus appropriated, tjiere were many other estate^ 


^ Perambulation of Kent, p. lS2,-3. Edit. 151(3. 



whidi were held by the like tenure of ward to this Castle^ by which 
Dieans there was always a garrison of one thousand men m it fof 
its defence^ And the Constabtes so divided these soldiers by the 
months of the year, that one hundred and twenty-five were lo en- 
ter in iuccession, and to perlbrm watch and ward wilhm Ihe Castle^ 
for their several allotmeDts of time, exclusive of the w^rd perform- 
bd by him : the rest were to be ready whenever tljcy were coni- 
nanded on any urgent necessity ; and they had each their several 
charges given them in particular towers, turrets, and bulwarks of 
hit Castle, which they were enjoined to build, and, from lime to 
ime, to maintain and repair, in consequence of which, they aAer- 
rards bore the names of iheir respe<!Live captains/ 

At this period, end during several succeeding centuries, Dover 
)4islle was regarded as * the key and barrier of the whole king- 
om/ ' Ciuiii €l Rtpagulum totius Regni,* are the words used 
y ^^attbew Faris; and the propriety of this description may be 
isily seen^ when it is rccottected, that in every civil broil, the 
ossession of this fortress was a first object with tlie contending 
towers, Henry the Second, on bis arrival from Normandy, rebuilt 
le Keep on the Norman plan, smd otherwise fortified the Castle, so 
lal its strength wa^ uiateri ally increased. Lewis, the Dauphin, be- 
^^ it soon after hh lauding in England to assist iJie discontented 
arODs; but Hubert de Burgh, the then Governor, so strenuous- 
' deeded it i^ith l lO »otdiei5only, exclusive of his own servants, 
lat the enemy v%as obhgcd to relire afker much loss.f The Dau- 
Uii again besieged this fortress in the reign of Henry tije Tliird, 
a witich occasion he sent a nu^ssage to Iluliert, promising toeu- 
cii him with great houois, und adi'aiice Inni lo he chief of hii 

rl, if be would deliver up the fortress. Hubert nobly refused 

* Haitedi XqI IX. p. 4S3, Trom Dareiri Hlilory of Dover Castle. 

t Grose iiaic», in his Anilquliic*, VoL HI. p* 35, that, ¥ihcn the 
>hin*s father (Philip Augunni) heard that hii son had nut obtained 
mteition of Dover Ca^iley though mo»t of the castics m the southern 
iitiitki had sikbrntttcd to him, * he tworei by St. Jamet, that he had 
ained a foot of land m I 'nglaud ! • 



to incur the ^It of treason, nod boldly replied, tbat» (bouglj liil 
ViBster was dead, be bad left both sons and duughteri, who aught 
to sufceed him. Lewis, therefore, mised the siege^ and retorDed 
U^ London; and, in coosideration of his emiacnt services, Hubert 
bad t grdiiit (nth of Henry the Third) of the great office of iuf- 
tidary of Ejngland ; as also of the Castle and Port of Dover, with 
the revenues of the Haven, and of the Castles of Canterbury and 
BocbesteT; during life; togetlier with the fee of 1000 maAs p^ 
annum for the custody of tbem* 

* Tbis great naan/ says Darell, * be«an the exercise of hb aulhoff 
ty as Constable and Warden, with reforming alj abuses and di^ 
orders, and suppressing all bad customs tlmt had crept into the 
Castle under his command ; and being, moreover, desirous of abo- 
iisbing the old, and introducing new regulations, be ordained, with 
the King's consent, that those who had been previously bound to 
give their personal attendance for the guard of thtf Castle, should, 
for the future, in lieu thereof, pay each tcii shillings per mouth 
towards the maintenance of a standing garrison/ ABer this lie in< 
creased the number of the garrison and wardens, and made new 
legulations for the guard and watch : he also provided new tnetns 
obtaining supplies, which had before, in respect to com, bay, 
^raw, &c. been drawn by requisition from the Kentisb-meit, by 
the name /fftrag^iWi, or forage. 

The ordinances made by Hubert de Burgh, continued mostly in 
force (ill the reign of Henry the Eighth, when, by an Act of Par* 
lianieiit, made in his thirtv-second year, it was enacted, that ** the 
owners of lands holden of the Castle of Dover, who were bound 
by their tenures to pay rents at the said Castle, under great peiml- 
ties, called sursix^g, should, for the future, pay tlie same lents 
t0 the King in the Exchequer, on the day of Simon and Jude, or 
iritbin lifteen days after, on ^min of paying double the sum ; that, 
any one bound to build or repair, should do it accordingly; that 
during the lime the King held any of the lands for wardsbipi or 
premier seizin, not any rent should be paid from them for Castle* 
.ward; that iGoh should be paid quarterly to the Constable of the 
I Caustic at Dover, at Uie Couiuiou Hail in the City of Cautcrburv, 

» bj 

SKMT. 1039 

6j the KiBg*8 General Recovery to dischaige oiBcen and soldiefs; 
and tlmt the Constabk of Dover Castle shoidd survey and contrOuI 
Cbe keepeiB* and chief ofikers of the castles, block-houses, and 
bolwaifcs, in Kent and Sussex, and all officers, soldiers, and mu- 
nition there.'* 

Many alterations were made in the fortifications and apartments 
«f the Castle by different Sovereigns, till tlie time of the Civtt Wati^ 
mvfaen it was wrested from the Kingfs hands by a merchant named 
X>rakc, who was a zealous partizan for the Parliament, and, oa 
Uie night of August the first, l64>2, took it by surprise, with the 
^d of ten or twelve men only. By the means of ropes and scalini; 
bdden, he contrived to lead his party to the top of the cliff oa 
'^he sea side, which being considered as inaccessible, had been left 
^i^inarded. Having reached the summit unmolested, they instant* 
ly advanced, and seizing the centinel, threw open the gates. The 
^jSctt OB command concluding that Drake had a strong party, 
^md that every thing was lost, surrendered at discretwn, when 
1>rs^ immediately dispatched messengers to Canterbury with in- 
telligence of his success ; and the Earl of Warwick, who was then 
Sn that city, sent him 1130 men to assist in retaining possession. 
*The King, on receiving news of the loss of this fortress, sent a 
<]kDeral Officer to retake it ; but the Parliament, knowing its im* 
portanoe to their cause, dispatched a superior force, and the Roy- 
adists were obliged to raise the siege. 

After the terrors of civil commotion had subsided, this strong 
pile was, for upwards of a century, left to moulder into ruins ; 
though on one occasion, iu 1745, barracks had been built here 
sufficiently liurge to contain a regiment of soldiers. The effects of 
the French Revolution, however, and the many threats of invasion 
thrown out by the sucrrssive rulers of the French empire, have 
occasioned a vast alteration in the defences of tin's coast; and go- 
vernment thought it udviscable to put Dover Castle into a slate of 
sufficient strenglh, to enable it to withstand any uttentpt to carry 
it by coifp de main, or any thing short of a continued siege. This 
was of the greater consequence, from the extreme facility which 
these heights would afford to an eneniv, of repeating signals be- 




tween the oppoute shores* Tlie alterations thni have bceo madi^ 
are but little calculated to aBbrd pleasure to those who venefak 
the Castle for its antiquity, \et it is still one of the most interesting 
fortresses in the kingdom; and ^>erhaps that intereiit nmy with 
many be considered to have increased, through the opp art unity 
which is now aflbrded of contemplating both the ancient and mo* 
dern sjstems of defence on tiie same spot 

DoV£R CastlBi in its present state, cotisbts of an immense 
congeries of almost every kind of fortification which the art of war 
has contrived to render a situation impregnable ; though iti conje* 
quence has been materially lessened since the invetition and general 
use of cannon; the eminences to the north-west by west*^ ami 
iouth-westf being much higher than the site even of the K^ep Jl* 
self. The buildings are so numcroiis and complex, that a pieciac 
idea of their relative situations can hardly be obtained without tbi 
assistance of a ground-plan. Thoy occupy nearly the whole suxn- 
rait* of the high eminence winch bomids the south-eastern side of 
the deep valley in which Dover is built. In a general way, thii 
Castle HJay be described as consisting of two courts^ a lower one 
and an upper one, defended by deep broad and dry ditches, from 
which communications with the inner towers have been made by 
well-like subterraneous passages. The Lower Court is surrounded 
by an irregular wall, excepting on the side next the sea, where a 
considerable part of the clilf, with tlie remainder of tl)e wall, wai 
thrown down by an earthquake which happened on the 6\h of 
April, idSO. This \^-all is called the Curtain, and is flanked, at 
unequal distances, by a variety of towers of diflerent shapes^ jcmv* 
circular, square, polyagonal, &c. These are the workmanship et 
different ages: the oldest of them, which is on the eastern side 
the Castle, is said to have been built by Earl Goodwin, and it still 
bears hts name ; though this, as well as most of the otliers, hat 
been much altered since its original erection. Nine of the otlicr 
towers are stated to have been built in the Norman tiniea, 
to have tiikeu their names from Sir John de Fiennes, and the eighl 
approved warriors whom he had selected to assist b the defenci 
of this fortress. The firbt of the towers in this wall, beginninj 




from the cliff on tlte western side, was called Old Tower, and 
here whs anciently a gate and draw>bridge : tbe second tower is af 
a pentagonal farm, and was origioally called af\er William de Ah 
brancis, its first commander; but it atrerwards obtained the name 
Rokesley Tower, from one of ifs captains of that name* Chil- 
Lm> or CalderMTOt Tower, the third in this raj)^e» is of a square 
form, and was built by Fulbert de Lucy, aftenvards stirnained of 
Dover, who was Lord of the Manor and Cdstlc of Cliilham. In 
front of this tower Ls a house for un officer called the * Bodar of 
Dover Castle,' probably from ihe Srixon Boda, or raesseiiger; 
though, tlie particular duties of iiis office are but little known. Ib 
all writs directed to hitn from the office of tlie Loid Wnrden, he 
is yet styled Bodar: but iie has aUo a further title, of Serjeant of 
Arms; and by virtue of this latter post, he has power from tlie 
Lord Warden to take witliin his [peculiar jurisdiction, crown and 
other debtors, and to keep them in custody in a prison within 
Chilham Tower* This prison had formerly but two rooms; and 
pe|f9ons of all descriptions were confined in it without discri- 
mination; but some additional rooms were built a few years 
ago, ami a courtly ard inclosed for tbe me of tbe debtors* Hurst 
Tower, the next in succession, was named after a de^xnident ma- 
nor ill Chilham Parish^ which was allotted lo keep it in repair. 
Arsk or Sayes Tower, was repaired by the produce of lands held 
by the Says in Folkstone, Langdon, and Paviuglon; as was Gattoa 
Tower by the Copleys, Lords of the Manor of Gatton- 

Tbe seventh tower on the wall was built by William de Peveril, 
to wboni the Conqueror granted l6o lordships in diilerent coun- 
ties: from him it had its first name; but it was afterwards called 
Beauchamp's Tower, from Hugh de Beauchamp, whom Peveril 
had associated with him in the command ; and Marslud's Towefp 
from tbe Marsbahuen, or inferior officers, who had the care and 
deb very of all mifitary stores, the iusjjectiou of the bedding and 
barracks, ^c. This tower was built over a Saxon gateway that 
liad been connected with a draw- bridge, the abutments of which 
were discovered about twenty years ago in digging for the tbunda* 
lions of a new wall, a considerable length of the ancient one hav- 
iDg iallen down. Port or Portb's Tower, so named trorn Robert 






Forth, wa» alio called Ga&tingi Tower, frmn one of its Capl 
fmi that name : it it now called Mary's Tower, (torn Queen Maiy, by 
frbom it was rebuilt^ il having liillen into decay. The ntit tawtt^ 
through which is the pHiicipal entnfice into tlie lower court, wit 
named afler Sir John de Fiennes, though more generally caHed 
New^Gate, to distinguish it Jrom I he ancient entrance, and Conil&- 
ble*s Tower, from its being the residence of the Constable, or chief 
Governor of this Castle ; as it lias still occasionally been to the 
present time. This entmnce exbibils the usual precautionary caa- 
trivances of the Normans; the deep ditch crossed by a draw* 
Mdge, the massy gates, the portcullises, and the long passage 
«Bbrdiiig convenicncies for additional barricadoes: the apartmcntiy 
however, have been much altered ; on the right are those of the Go- 
vernor and Lieutenant Governor, together with an Armoury of small 
arras: on the left, is the Porter's Lodge. An ancient sword, two au* 
eient keys, said to have been tliose of the gut es, and an old horOr 
are shown here as objects of curiosity : it is probable that the latter 
was used in the feud^tl time^^ to give notice of the approach of r 
atmngers, or to sound an alarm on the appearance of dangnf. ■ 
Beneath an arch of this gateway, was lodged, many years ago, a ^ 
large quantity of parchment nianiiscripts, which are thought to 
have been the ancient records of the Cinque Ports, and the rolU 
of the Court of Shepway : many of these perished from neglect, ■ 
having rotted as they lay; and others uere used for tailors* raea- ■ 
■ares. About this entrance are modem barracks for the soldieiy. 
The first tower beyond it was rebuilt by £dward ihc Fourtli, and 
called Clopton s Tower, from an c<^{uire of that name, who held 
I hindt in Suflfolk, which had been assigned to keep it in repaif« 
Darell says, that when Piucester, or Penciiestcr, was Constablf, 
be assigned this tower to the Treasurer for the kcephig of the ar- 
chhrea or manuscripts of the Cnstle in, and that these records were 
very servkeable to him while compiling his history, wnd would 
have been still more so, ' had they not been piled up in a heap, 
and then set on tire by a lewd scoundrel named Levenbhe, out Qi 
flpite to John Momngs, whose competitor he had been for 

Hist- of Dover Caiilc, p, 26* 

or the chief I 



OcNis-foe Tower,* the next in 9uccession, was ao named from tli« 
eputy of Nicholiw Vcround, a contemporary wirli Willmm cie Pe- 
k^rtl: it presents little for obsen^alion: but tJie succeeding one. 
Billed Crevcquers, Cmulle's, or the E;irl of Norfolk's Tower, has 
en one of much magnificence. By this tower, says Darett, tlmre 
fe a subterraneous passage leading to a vault, defended by a moat 
and drawbridge, and so vastly large, that a considerahlc number, 
both of horse and foot, might be concealed in it : besides Uie ntoat. 
whkh is of a prodigious dcptli, and dry, tliis vault \% also de^nd- 
ed by a kind of round tower, which is supposed to have been built 
by Hubert de Burgh. In the angle opposite to Crevequer'a Tower, 
is an advanced work, called the Barbican. TUe next tower on 
the wall has the name of Fitz William, or Si. Jolni's Tower: the 
lirst from Adam Fitz-Williamf to whom, for bis valor at tbe battle 
^of Hastings^ the Conf|ueror gave the scarf from his own arjn ; the 
1 last from Lord St. John, who, in right of his wite, became pos- 
sessed of the esttites of Blackstone and Betshanger, which had been 
mlloted to keep it in te{>air. With this tower was formerly connect- 
ed a spacious sally-port, the entrance to wliich was in the Saxon 
ditch ; and this, like the vault under Crevequcr*s Tower, was de- 
signed bolh for in^ntry and cavalry. In the under- ground pas- 
sage were a gate and portcullis; the stone grooves for the latter 
are still remaining. The two next were common watch towers^ 
and were kept in repair by lands at Swingfield. 

Averanche's or Maunsefs Tower is a fine remain of Norman 
workmanship, standing at an angle formed in this |)art by the cur- 
tain wall. Mauosel, who succeeded Averanclie in the command 
of this Castle^ was Lord Warden of the Cmque Ports in the reign 
of Henry the Third. The next is Vcvillc or Pmceslcr Tower, so 
caUed from its different commanders of those names, the latter of 
whom assisted Hubert de Burgh in defending Dover Castle against 
the Dauphin, and is said to have led a reinforcement of men into 
this fortress through a postern and subterraneous passage at the 
back of £arl Goodwin's Tower, which is the next tower on this 


^ — .' ^im Dei immicuf diciicr,* Ibid. p. 2T. 

wril. Furtber on is Ashftlrdian Tow^r, to mnied fima Itedt mM 
AAfotdi which had been granted to keep it in reptir: and be» 
jond tbisy reaching towards the extremity of the wall near the 
difl^ are three other towers^ or rather platforms^ neither of 
which have any particular name, but appear to have been intend^ 
ed as temporary posts for a few soldiers^ who nught here defend 
the curtain, or annoy an enemy b the ditch. 

The ascent from this court is pretty steept and winding round 
towards the south, it leads to a second bridge and gatei which 
forms an entrance to the Upper Court, and is called King^s 
Gate and Bridge* This entrance was formerly defended by two 
massive gates and a portcullis, and was further strengthened by as 
outwork, so constructed as to command the vallum on each skle 
the bridge. Withm the gateway, on each side, is a recess for 
arms, &c and the whole passage, which is of some length, exhiH 
bits a good spedmen of the ingenious contrivances of our anoet^ 
tors m military architecture. 

The Upper Court, like the lower one, is surrounded by a strong 
wall, and various towers; and near the center stands the spaciont 
Keep, erected in the first years of Henry the Thkd« On the 
eastern side are three towers, named after Gilbert de Mamuot, or 
Mainmouth, who was one of the knights that accompanied the 
Conqueror to England, and was appointed Marshal of this Castle 
by John de Fiennes: these towers command the whole vallnm^and; 
ascent leading to the principal entrance of this court ; near the 
south angle of which is another entrance, by a gate called Pdaoe 
or Sttbterranean Gate : it received the bitter name from a passago 
leadkig to it from Beauchamp's Tower in the curtain walL Near 
Palace Gate is Suffolk Tower, a stately fabric, so called from De 
la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, it having been given to him by Edward 
the Fourth, by whom it was built, and who expended 10,0001. in 
fortifying and embellishing this Castle, under the superintendence 
of Edward Lord Cobfaam. Almost adjoining to thu is the old 
Arsemil Tower : and further on was the King's Kitchen, and other 
oflkffs for the use of the court, probably of the time of Edward 




the Third.* All this side bai now a modern aspect, llie back part 
having been cased over, and the front bidden bv the Barracks 
erected for the officers in the year 17*^3. On the east side is an 
ancient edifice, formerly called King Arthurs Hall, which has been 
much altered^ and made into a Mess-Room, Kttchen, 6cc, In ttie 
wall of this side the quadrangle are remains of four towers, cxclu- 
mvt of one in each angle. 

The noble tower, called ibc Keep, or Pulace Tower, is coor 
structed on a siniibr plan to those built by Btshop Qundulph, and 
particularly to that at Rocliester. It is still in very tine preserva- 
tion, and is now used as a magazine, the roof having been made 
bomb-proof for additional security. The present entrance is on 
the south ; but its original entrance was on the east side, and it 
opened by a magnificent portal, now bricked up, into the grand 
apartments, which were on the third story. The aswnt to this 
portal was by a noble flight of stone steps, corameuciug on the 
south side^ and continued within a tes«^r adjoining tovver, whicli 
6anks the sonth-east angle, and whole east side. The statr-casei 
besides other defences, ^'as guarded by three strong gntes, at dif^ 
ferent heights, and had two vestibules. The lower veaiibnle com- 
municates with a small room on the ri^ht, probably desired for 
the Warden ; and on the left with another apartment, which ap- 
pears to have been the Chafiel, and is embellished on each side 
wiih Norman arches, having richly sculpt^ired mouldings and capi- 
tals : the doonvay is ntorc plain, though in a correnponding style, 
as are also the arches in the vestibule. Above the Chapel u 
another room, similarly adorned ; and below it, and the vestibule 
aod stairs, is the Dungeon, which is divided into two vaults. The 
apartments within the Keep were principally large and lofty ; the 
ground floor seems to have been intended for stores, and the se* 
cond floor for the garrison : a small stone stafr-case leads up from 
the former to the grand apartments* la the thickness of the walls. 

Vol. VII. June, I807. X x x which 

• Tbi« Prince frequently reiided here, ai otheri of uur Sovcreigni 
have occatioiuMy done, both on their joumeyi 10 i Ke Continent, and it 
«iher times, as mAf be »eeQ from various puhlic dcedi bearing date frvn> 

^^1 Cattle. j^ys^HHHIHHHiHi^^^^^^^BKIA^— ^11. 



which iDf^iire from eighteen to tv«'eotj feet« tun tlie gallc 
tliese are sa inj[»eru0t)$ly couf rived, as to reader it nearly tija|>as$ihte 
jar the anroursi or iziUsive weapons, ot* an enemy to do any cxccu^ 
^00 within them. The same cautious policy is observubJ« to those 
«f the windows, or rather loop-hole^ which pre^erre ihcir original 
fornix wbene the ard»ef are lo contri?e<i^ that no irrow, bavins 
tlie least elevation, could be shot into the a[>erttires without 
Itriking agaiujit the i^ail : many olf the origimi) openings have htcn 
lyihirged ia >ubse()u«ful times^ The aocient Well, which f laroh) 
undertook to deUvcr up witji the Castle to Duke Williiitu, i^ said 
to be in the north angle of tha area of this fabric, but ha^ beeu 
vdied over, and covered up. Tlie suntniit of the Keep is cm- 
battled; and at each angle is a turret, as at Rochester; when 
Miijor General Roy, »od the Meiubers of the Academy of Scieuce*v 
Ai Paris, were estimating tlie distance between tlie observatorioa d* 
Greenwich and Paris, they ii\cd upon tlie north tiurret as ooe f>f 
tite points of observation ; and from the re|>ort made on tbif oc* 
€aibu» and pubU^bed iu the Philosophical Tramactiocis^ it appears 
that Ihii turret rises nearly ninety-two feet from tlie ground on 
which it stands; and that (lie whole height above low-wutcr mark* 
spring tide, was 46*5 feet aud three quartern. The ttioft rewadir 
able objectjj seen from tlie turret, are the point of tl*c North Fore* 
land beyond the Liglilrhouse, Ramsgale, Sandwich, Richborou^h 
Castle, Reculver and Mmstcr Churches, Dnukirk, Calais^ the bilb 
beyond Calalji and Boulogne^ and Dungeness Point amd Light- 
house. During sonie of the uajs iu ibe l^st cciilur\^ tiiis Ikjrep 
was made a French Prisoit, through wliich tlie timbers of tjie floors 
were destroyed, and other dilapidaljutis luade. 

VVitliout tl)t^ inner court» towards tije south, but at a siiort (Lb- 
tancc only, are tlie walls aud vallunif supposed to have been original'^ 
]y raised by Earl Goodwin, Here also is Arthur's or North GiUle, 
and three Towers, Armourers Tower, the W^^ll Tow»fr» and Hmx- 
court's Tower. The Well Tower was so nam^d from a Wdl witliiii 
it, which is siiid to be about 370 teet deep; and at no great dis^ 
tancc, -and all witlim the Saxon works, are three other WVIIs^ said 
to be of nearly tbe same depth, Harcourt Tower is built aver a 
gateway, and had its name from the Harcourts of Stain ton-Hac- 




cdifrt; ia O&fordUli ire ^wlikk Manor waj granted (q drfend mxl, 
keep it in repair. Without lliis tower are several ranges of Bar- 
tacks, aud aiiotlicr wall^ wliicli, taking a circular course^ goes. 
round the upper suiaiajt of the hilE, iuckdiu;^ within it tl^c apcii'iit 
Churcli and Light'boit^e, lit tins w<iil is Coltou'ji Tower, where, 
tjje Cliuplain ol' tlie garrUoa was aGcustouied lo lodge ; and Ctiq-. 
tooV Tower, which was to l>e kept m repair b}' the Biurons uf thai- 
ii'dme, or their successors in the Marior of Folkstone, Beyond tliis 
^vuJlf towards (tie &ea-$hore^ stood iMortiiner':^ Tower, originally 
cadled Valeooe Tower, from its first coiniitajidaiits of tliat naiiie. 

The Roman Pharos, and the ancient ChurcJi, which staiid on 
thh part of the height, have been already r>oticed, and the for mc]^ 
sufficiently described : some fnrtlier particulars of the Church are. 
here givei). The roof is entirely destroyed ; and the walb> wbkb 
are much djlapidated, e^liibit luiiuy marks of diifereiit reparatipus^ 
The pilasters oa tlie east and west sides of the tower» are carried 
up with Homan tiles, but have been underset with stone ; and se- 
ideial of iLe upper courses of the tjlejs have been taken out, to 
mike rooui tor a »toiie impost mouldinn;. The pilasters ou tha 
porth and Muth sides are carried up with squared stones, widi a 
returned bead, whicJi is continued round the face of tJie el]iptic<il 
ardi«:s on these sides. Li the angles of tlie tower are remains of 
triple colunms, with vaussoirs spreading from their capitals^ pro- 
bnbJy of the titue of lleury the Fifth. In tins fabric several per- 
9<Miiiges of family aud rank liave been interred ; among theut, as, 
9ppeaj« from VVeever> was Sm Robert Ashton, Knt. who wag 
Coii&table of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, au 
Adiuiiid of tlie Fleet, Chief Justice of Ireland, Lord Treasurer, 
and one of the Executors to the will of Edward the Tliird, He 
^»aa descended from the Ash tons, of Asliton uuder Li tie, hi Lan- 
isaahire* Here also were buried lieuteiiant Governor William 
CoPELDiKE, who died in the reign of Henry the Eighth; and 
Hekry Howard, Earl of Northaii*pton» Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports, who died in iGl-t, and whose body and moumuenl 
were aAerwards remo\'cd to the Hospital, called Norfolk College, 
iwhich this Nobleman had founded at Greenwich* It has been 

X X X 2 said 


saifl of this Ear!, that * he was the most leflrne*! amou^ the Nofei- 
Kty, and Ihc most noble among the learneH.' The ptiund on the 
southward of the Church, is the general place of burial for the sol^ 
diers who die in the garrison. Formerly there were three Chap- 
bins to this Castle; and, on account of the antiquity and dignity 
of tlie place, they were permitted to wear the habits of Prebends, 
The first said mass to the governor at the high altar; the secomJ* 
to the marsh almcn and officers, at the altar of the Virgin Mary; 
1 ftnd the third, to the soldiers, at the north end of the Chapel of 
^ BeUci. In the time of Henry the Eighth, these Chaplains were 
I reduced to one ; and tbotigh tlie Church has long been in ruins, 
mod the perfonuance of divine worsliip discontinued, the ancient 
I aalary ts still paid. 

* The new works recently formed for the defence of this impoN 

I' tent fortress, consist of different batteries^ furnished with a very 

ribrmidable train of arliHery, casemates dug in the solid chalk* 

I fock, magazines, covered-ways, and various subterranean commu- 

nications and apartments for soldiery: the latter are suHtciently 

idipacioui ^r the acconimodatton of about ^000 men, and» with 

[fheir inhabitants, form a very curious s|>ectacte: tight and air are 

onveyetl into tliem by weli-like apertures cut in the chalk, and by 

Iher opciujigs carried throngh to the face of the cliffi^ A new 

Ifoad has also been made uucler tlte direction of the Boani of Oid» 

imnce, from the town to the top of the hilt^ (where it unites witli 

tlie Deal road^) In a direction to be commanded by the batteries^ 

fbe old one having become so hollow^ as to protect the approaefaes 

6f an enemy : a branch from this road turns to the right neatly 

fcdppodte Gattou Tower, and enters the Castle by a new bridge 

land gate. 

Near Uie edge of llie cliff stands a beautifu! piece of brass Ord- 
nance^ twenty-four feet long, cast at Utrecht in 15+4, and culled 
Queen Elizabeth's Pocket Pistol, it having been a present from the 
States of Holland to that Queen : it carries a twelve-pound shot. 
Tlie touch- hole is gold, and has suffered cotisiderabty by the band 
of violence^ m endeavouring to pick it out : it is entirely unfit for 
use. There arc several ciirious devices upon it, and the following 
lines in old Dutch : Breeck 



Breeck dcvrtt al mure tnde xml 
Bin ic gehiien 
Doer Berch en dal boeri minen M 
Fan migesmcten,* 

This fortress occupies about thirty-five acres of ground : the hill 
on ^hich it stamls, is very steep and rugged on the side of the 
lowu and harbour ; and towards the sea, it is a complete precipice 
of upwards of 320 feet from its basis oti ibe shore. Ukt other 
Bo}^l Castks, it was fonnerlv both cjLlra-parodiial, and extra- 
judicial ; but as several of t!»e ancient ffdnchisca arc either lost or 
disused, the civil power has of late years been exercised withiu its 
liiuitSy iude|>endently of any controul from the Lord Warden, Tlie 
present Lx>rd Warden of the Cinque Ports, and Constable of Do- 
ver Castle, is Lord Hawkesbur\% who succeeded Mr. Pitt in these 
offices, and on whom ihey were bestowed, as an inducement t# 
secure bis acquiescence in the uicasures rendered necessary by the 
circumstances of the times, to prepare the way for the accession 
to power of the late AdniinislraLiori. 

Since the recommence nient of bosti lilies, in IS03, tlie Heights 
on the western side of Dover have been strongly fortified, agrees- 
1)1 V to the modem system, and a new miUtary road leudiug to them 
mmde. The other fortifications arc Archdiff Fort, at the extre* 
snil^ of the Pier, and Ajnhcrst Battery at the North Pier-head: 
^hese acting m conjunction with the Heights and Castle, entirely 
«:oriiniand the road of Dover. During the American War, two 
ottier forts were erected ; vijs* North s Battery on the Rope Walk % 
^11 d Town send *s Battery on tlie South Pier-head : lliese have been 
m^ndered useless by inroads ot' the sea, and are now wholly decays 
^edy except the guard-houses and magazines. 

ll is evbiced^ by several concurrent circumstances, that, in an- 
cient limeH, the sea flowed over the greatest part of the valley in 
^^hicb Dover is now situated, and thai the Harbolr was consideiw 

X X X 3 My 

* or thi^ venc cbe rollawiog triintlation has been given : 

O'er hill and dale I throw my btll : 
Breaker mv xiatne «r mgund zud wait 

ably more inland,' Id'wirtds Vhe ndtth-ttiil,- tUm at present* KH^ 
bume saiys, that, ^ before King Arviragos stopped up the Haven, 
the town stretcH^ ittelf Utlder the Caatde mote to the eastward; 
but after that period, it was buHt to the s6utb-west.'' Upon wliat 
authority this asserticm is made, does not appear; but the proba- 
bility isy that tbe ancient haven was choaked up by the ^nst quan- 
tities of beach-stones thrown i|p by the se^ii, rather than by any 
.artfficial means; end that the Stream Brook, or river Idle, which 
Jbad previously todc its course directly through the TaOey, waa 
ihen forced to glUe obliquely along the shore, under the southern 
xlifis, and to empty itself into the sea where the present barbouf 
js^ to which it forms a natural back-water. 
. Though the Partus RuUipcnsis was the principal haven .of the 
Homans in this countiy, not any doubt can be entertained of Do- 
ver Harbour being much frequented by that people: their ideas 
of its importance may, in some degree, be appreciated, by the 
inowlecige of the fact of their having built a Pharos, or Ughtr 
house, on the summit of each of the opposite hills which bounded 
the entrance. It seems highly probable, indeed, that it was then, 
as it has ever since been, the principal place of embarkation for 
^ssengers journeying to the Continent; and it is certain that th^ 
fort and Castle gave origin to the Town.^ 

At what particular era the ancient haven became useless is not 
Jcnown. In £dward the Confessor's time, <as appears from the 
Domesday Book, the Burgesses of Dover furnished the King * with 
twenty ships, once a year for fifteen days, each ship containing 
twenty-one men.' The same record states, that, at the entrance 
.of the port, ' is a mill, which causes damage to almost eveiy ahipi 
from the great agitation of the water/ From the number of shqis 
thus fumislicd, it may be conjectured, that the harbour was then 
:fiourishing; and from the circumstance of a mill standing at its 
eulrence,.it may be inferred, ihat it was even in that age considqrr 
fibly within the land. Of the present harbour, little is recorded 
till the time of Henry the Seventh, in whose fifteenth year, anno 
1500, a round tower was built, on its soUtb-west side, taprotectlhe 
shipping from the violence of the $outh-\^est winds: to this tower 
i, . .. . th€ 



fhe trssefe were lUbrtretl by rings ; and it is said to have made tkat 
part of tile haven so pleasaQf, thai it was ci»Hed Little Paradise,^ 
Comidemble 8unw were also evpemle^Un T!ji* reign on oUier workf ; 
but It n-ds at len^^tk foiuid that tvothing but the cotistructioti of m 
Pitr could cflTcctually benefit the harbour. Accordingly, in tlj« 
feign of Henry the Eiglilli, a plan was laid down by Sir Joho 
Tliaiiipsoii, viho at that time held tbe living of St. James in thi^ 
lown, and this being approved by the King, was commeQced ia 
1535, under llic direction of Tlionjpson as Chief Surf eyor. Thm 
Pier WIS begm at Arcbdift, on the soulb-weiit side of the bay, 
ttid canied out directly eastward into the sea, to an extent of 1:31 
rods, Jt was conipos<?d of two rows of nrain posts, and large pi leg 
of about twenty-six feet loog, shod with iron, and driven into tli^ 
tnain chalk, und fastened together by iron bolts and bands. The 
bottom was laid with vast stones^ of twenty tons weight, brought 
Ironi Folkstone by wa^er, or rails 3up]x>rled by empty casks; and 
the ^liole was fdied up with Ijeaclj-sfoneji, chalk, Acf Henry 
bimaelf came several times to Dover, to view lt»e works, and is 
itsied, by Harris^ from ttie Dcring Manuscrij>ts, to have expend- 
ed about 80jf*C>0L oit this Pier; yet his absence, at the siege of 
Boulogne, and subsequent ilhicss nm\ death, prevented its coinplt* 
lion, hi the reigns of Edward the Sixth, and Queen Mary, sonte 
«lighl attempts %rere made to advance the work; but nothiitg was 
effeetuatly done till the time of Elizabeth, to whom a memorial 
on tlie flubfecl, of which the Ibllowing is an extract, was presented 
by Sir Waller Raleigh, 

** No Froniontory, Town, or Haven, in Christendom, is so 
pieced by natait« as»d situation, both to grality trkndtiy and annoy 
enemies, as this town of Dover. No place is so setlted to receivt 
and deliver intelligence, for all matters and actions in Europe, 
frotn time to time. No town is by nature so setlJed, eitlier to al- 
hire intercourse by sea, or to train inliabilants by land, to make 
X X X 4 it 


it flow filled up, and built upon ; and the place where the Tower 
stood, i» called Hound Tower Streeu 

t Oarrti** K«Bt, VoK I. p. 103. 

} Ibid, 


1053 K^Htb 

it gteat, faii^ rich, and populous: nor kdicve in the wfaole 

of ihiB famom hk, any port, chber b rc^)ect of leatiit; or de» 

ieoce, or of traffic or iotercourae, more cooicoiciil 

ratber of necessity to be regarded, I ban lbi% of Dof€f< 

ou a promouiory next frootiDg a puinaat natioo, umI id Uic vety 

strait, passage, aitd intercourse, of almoM all tbe iliippiogin Cbristettn 

dom ; and if tbut our renowned king Henr> 8, your majeKy't far* 

tbcr, found how necessary it was to make a llaven at Dovcr« 

(when Saniluich^ Rye, Camber, and others, were good bavea% 

and CalaiB was also b his possession,) and yet spared not to be* 

atow of h'm treasure so great a mass b buildbg that Pier, mbkh 

then serured a probable means to perform the same, how modi 

more is the same now needful, or rather of necessity, (tlio»e good 

havens being extremely decayed,) no safe harbour being Left on nU 

the coast utmost from Portsmouih to Yarmouth. Scdng» th^i, 

it hath pie«]»ed God to give into ibis realm such a situatioo for m 

port and town, as ull Christendom hath not the like, and endowed 

the same wilti all conimodities, both by sea and land^ that can be 

wihhcd to muke the harbour allure intercourse, and mabtam ioha- 

bitaiits, and ihut the suuie once performed, mu»t be advantageous 

to the reveime, aiKl augment the welfare and ridies of the realm 

b general, und both needful and nece^isary, as well for tbe mc^ 

couriiig and piotectiug friends, as annoying and offending enemici| 

botli in peace and war; methbkf* there reiimiueth no other dedl^ ■ 

ration in this cjase, but how most siifiiciently, and, with greater 

perfection possible, most speedily, (be same may be accomplished.* 

About this time a vast bar, or shelf, bad been foimed acro» 

<he b»rbour, by the immense quantify of beach thrown up by the 

4ea, so that the p^tssage was totally iinpeded, exc^ptbg at a small 

4iutk-t made hy lj)e current of the river* At length the bar itaelf 

became iii^ed; and tbougli it had at hrst threatened the entire de- 

«truclion of the port« was found lo constitute its best detence, the 

dcptli of water withb it bebg still the same. Several project* 

were then tormed lo make a proper channel; and Queen EUiabetli 

granted the town the free exportation of 50,000 tjuarters of wheat, 

10,000 i|uarters of barley, and 4000 tuns of beer, b aid of the 




:pcase; and for the same purpose, in her twcut^vtbirc! year, t 
duty oif threepeuce j^r ton was laid on every ve^jsel passing tbii 
port above twenty torn burthen: thb duty produced about IQOOL 

A Commission was then issued for ibe repain aud improvement 
of tlie harbour ; aud Lord Cobhaiii, tljcn Lord Warden of ibe 
Cinque Ports, t^ie Lieutenant of Dover Castle, the Mayor of Do- 
ver, aud several others, were appointed Commissioners. After 
several laiUires, and alleratious tu tbe piiin, u secure haven was 
at length made by means of different walk and sluices, constructed 
at an e?ipense of several thousaud pounds. Its subsequent preser- 
vation has been principiiUy owiti^ (o a Charter granted by James 
the First in bis fourth year, (anno IbOb',) in which, after stating 
the great utility of the harbouFf tbe injury it had received by storms 
aud Uie nigaig ot tbe sea a I dideretii periods, and the necessity oi 
keeping it in repair, it names eleven Cotnmissiouers, aud incorpo* 
jatcA them by the title of ibe '' Wanh^i and Assistants of the Port 
aud Ilarboor of Do^-er," It also em}K>v\ers ihcui to till up vacan- 
cies, to have a conmion seat, to choose othcers, appoint a house 
of council, njake bye laws, inliict penalties, ^c, aud directs that 
tke Lord Warden of tbc Cinque Ports, the Lieuleuant of Dover 
Castle, md the Mayor of Dover, for llie tiim being, shall alwayi 
be tbe priiicipaL For ihe support of tbe haibour, a large plot of 
ground, witliout Snargate, and adjoining tiie Pier, was granted by 
the same charter, to tbe Warden aiut Assistimis; and has been 
ftince let by thexn on lease, renewable every Iwcnly-one years, un- 
less when lea^fted to tbe Mayor and Jurats of Do^er, ^ho have an 
exteusion of ten years upon that term. The right of cranage, 
sluiceage, ba!1asta|;e, wharfage, &c. which bad been previously 
surrendered by the Corporalion, wras also grdiiled for the repairs 
aud improvement of this Port, 

From Ibis i^eriod till nearly the conclusion of the century, tbe 
barbour api^ears to Imve contkiued in a r€s|}ectable state; aud ill 
tbe year lb32, it contained tweuty-two feet water at spring tides* 
Claries Uie Second ascril^ed a great part of the successes gained 
ill his marilime wars, to the services reudetcd by thb haven; and 




In |689, «cvcnty snil of merrhautmeti were driven mto it br • 

^^orm, wiihont anchors or caMeSf the whole of which would pro* 

hMy have been losf, or taken by the eneitiy, but for the salatiir^ 

akl affordefl in ihfs port. By a report made nn the twelAb of 

l^ebniary, l6p9, it appears, however, iJiat the harbonr wii§ Ibeo 

Pin dait<^r of becoming totally useleaA^ even the Packet-boati^ sail- 

iog betvbceci this place and tite Continent, couki only enter wvlh 

lafety at spring tides; and t)ie Captatni petitioned the Commty 

woaen of tlie Poet Office^ to be permitted to laud Ibe moib at 

Deal till this harbour siioiild be rqxiire<L 

In 1700, aiM>ther Act waa obtained (or repainh^ the haecn, tn 

ttmequcnce of the above report: by thii the Warden and Am- 

Btfi were empoweped to borrow Rioney et si^ per cent, and a 

i ceouderable som waa obtainefl at ibis rate of tntereit» and e\pend^ 

in fepairSf t^etber with tbe reremie of the tiarbour, which 

^ wn% then very inconsiderable, exclusive of the toimage on sibippin^. 

The total produce of the revenue from May the tnut, 1*00, to 

l^iay tlieiirit» 1717, amomited 10 20,89^1. 5s. The total expeo^ 

dilute diiri»R this period was $0,15^1. 1 3s, id. ^o that 7591. 1 Is. 1 Id, 

fettmincd in tlie Treasurers hands. This iinti was very inadequate 

to any great undertakings; though their necessity waa apparent, u 

the barhour wus again repre^nied hs in a <)ecayin^ stnte: and in 

a Report of tbe Committee, dated in the same vear, it was alHrinp 

«df ^ that if tbe Piers were not kept up» Wit harbour^ and two* 

ibirds of the town, would t^e utterly lost." This produced a ftiiw 

[iliir grant, in 17 IB^ and the Pier-heads i^-ere repaired; and the out 

tbe south-west of the harhonr, called Cheeseman's Head, ww 

[lengthened and exteudt'd to Low-wuter mark: but still the ^troiijf 

•outh-west wind*, at times^ l>rought ^jch quantities of beach b^ 

I fweeo the Pien^, as rendered tJte harbour useless for many dayi 


Lord Aylmer, the then Lord Warden, to provide a reoiedy for 
I Ihia eviU ordered the harbour to be surveyed by Captain Joba 
Iflerry; who, in a report made in tbe following November, recora* 
I fended several great works, fwirtieularly jetties, or breakwaters, 
1 1^ be built» two of three to tbe westward of tbe Pier» aad tive or 

XEVT* 1055 

ik ualwi rdc but at that time nothing wiii done: the eitiaiatdl 

expanse of 35,0001. was probably d(%med too enomioiM, ft senn, 

iadeady that Government began to despair of making the port of 

llMft vtflitj which its situation deserved, and therefore directed 

^iwir attention to other parts of the Channel; for by an Act of 

JhuiiBmcnty two-thiids of the tonnage duty of this port was taken 

-vnmyy and a ppropr ia ted to the repair of the Harbour of Rye. 

I period till 17379 notfaing, except the mere necessary te- 

tsas carried forward, owing to tlie reduced state of the fioHi- 

i; bat io that and the following year, the present cross-wall wan 

I on both sides with Portland stone, and new gates were bdk 

k tfaa antianoe of the pent or bason. The swkig bridge, foribot 

was also erected in 1739, across the entrance from 

hahout to the bason. Tlie wfaote amount for repairs from 

1737» to May 1757, amounted to 22,2261. 4s. 2d. and 

[ those years, besides the above works, the North and Sooth 

I were reboilt^ CheescmanVhead repaired, the gates and 

^oidge for carriages, &e. erected at the entrance of the pent, the 

on the present rope-walk made firm, and the head under 

i eastIje4aD extended into tiie sea to the length of 170 feet. 

The revenue of the harbour, by many favorable circumstances, 

^lad now begun fo increase. The rents of the ground granted by 

ithe charter were much improved ; tlie huids left by will were aho 

' magmented in Talne, and the tomiage duty vras not inconsiderable. 

"TTie expenditme has nevertheless exceeded the inooiue ; but tlie 

■Siarboar at this day is in a respectable condition. Agreeably to 

^hc idea of Captain Perry, several jetties have beni erected to^*ards 

*^he east, to prevent the tiicroacliments of tlie sea; and (hough 

'^he strong south-west wiikIs still throw tip large quantities of beach 

^att the mouth of the harbour, llie sluices have been so constructed, 

-^hat, with the aid of the back-water, tliey generally clear it in one 

^e. Ships of 400 or 500 tons may now enter in safety ;* the 


* The following circumstance will prove the above auertion beyond 
c^mtroversy. In 1792, the- Berkhout Dutch East Indiaman sprung ■ 
'^ in a hard galC; and was in great danger of being wrecked on the 


=^^ I^^ 


dqnh St fpnog tidei Ueiog 
at fiesip ticles aboiil fonrtefii. 

l^c mmtit of u^rful bsriMMm ofioii II10 coMf m tunes </iriir 
with the oortbem powen, ^rbcii CMwdcnblc iMmbcfi of ven «f 
war aire statiooed in tbe Down^ hm Mffieiefllly dMPfni the adfift* 
lage» ttmt might ariac from that of Dover, if anpmved to the ex- 
tent of which it is vet capable. Its sifalinn, mioiij to the ofipiii 
fite coast, aud miuiy other circumatancett lioiild nake ila gcoesil 
milky, b a more improved i^tate, of the utmost cooaeqticikce to tk 
Joigdotn at large* The wbds which often blow op tjie Channel, 
mad to the eastward, greatly fdvor the shrp& of the enemy, as the 
mmc wbds prevent our vessels from coming out of the Downs by 
like Soyth Sand- head to intercept them; and by the time they ^ 
to tea Ihrougb ilie Gull Stream, pursuit is of Utile nse, tbe cnttny 
lumng gained the vnnd so considerably. This great diaadfaatige 
would be remedied, if Dover Harbour wassufficiejitly improved to 
admit of its becoming a station for sonve part of the Eloyal Navy. 
^ Dover was the first of tbe CItN]ue Ports incorporated by cbarleri 
wtitch charter was granted by Edward the First, who had a 
here; and who, by letters patent iji the twenty-set euth of hb reigii^^ 
appointed ' the table of tbe Exchequer of money' to be bdd bete 
and at Yarmoulli. Shortly before this, the greatcat part of thi' 
town had been burnt by tlie French, who bnded in the 
though two Cardinals from France v^ere then in England lo 
for peace* lu the seventeenth of Edward the Second, as appeaiB 
from the patent rolb of that year, Dover was divided iDto twenty- 
one wards, each of which was cliarged with one ship for tlie King's^ 
use, and on that account each liad tlie privilege of a licenced* 
packet-boat, called a Passenger, to convey goods and 
from this port to Whitsan in France, which was then a 
pkice of embarkation to Uiis comitry. In the tenth of £di 

co^t of France, between Cahjs and Gravt Imes, At soon as the mttU 
ifgence reached Dover, a cutter sailed 10 the asiistancc of the crew^ j 
(>rought the ship into this haibour» though drawing nearly twenty 1 
water, and meaiuring almost 8CM> tons : she had previously t»een a i 
^Lia»slup in the HTvicc of the iitatcf. 




the Tliird, it wai enacted, that * all mercliants, tniTcllcrs» tod 
pi^ms, going to the Continent, shoulil not g» from ;tiiv otber 
place than Dover;* and t ha price of conveyance* as regulated in 
the next reign, iffts, hi summer, sixpence for a single person, and 
fof a horse U, 6d, and in winter, for a single person U. and lor 
a faor»e 29. It is probable that the above law for confining tlie in* 
tercourse betvieen England and the Continent to this port^ wat 
not duly observed, z% in the fourth of Eilward the Fourth, aao- 
tber statute was pussed, ordaining that none ' slictitd take shippiiig 
for Calais but at Dover.' This last statute wa^ repe;>led io tlie 
twenty first of James the First, In the year 1665, the great PLagtte, 
which made such dreadful ravage inth^ Metropolis, extendcMl ^ 
ifiif to this town, and destroyed full 9OO of ks Infiahttanls. 

The ancient town of Dover was defended by a strong einhatlled 
wall, which incluited a space of about half a mile ^r^uMre, and io 
H'hich were ten gates; though not a trace of any of ibem now r«- 
Dsins^ excepting a part of Cow Gate.^ The form of llie town is 
iiii^ar, and, from the hills above, it has a mo^t interesting and 
romantic aspect. It appears to consist of ihmee long streets* €%* 
tending in contrary directipusy as east, soulh*west, and north, and 

• The Jf^all itretched itself from a ptace called Mansfield Comer 19 
SnarGaie; fmm l hence 10 Up-JL^ti^ Coztf Gate, Biggin Gale, aad 
alcmg the Church-yard of St, Manj the Virgin to the river. Of the 
gatef, the fifH wai Easthrook Gate^ near Matujield Corner, under the 
eait cliff: the lecond, St, Helen's Gate, near the former, touard* »he 
•ouch-wett: the third, the Postern * or FMerU Gate: the fourth, the 
JMdhery Gate, whkh opened to the touih : the Bfth» Snar^Gate^ to* 
wardt the south -w€it: the %ixth. Sever us' s Gat€, towardiihe Pier, ukl 
to hare been built by the Emperor Sevcrui ; the leventh, AdrimrfM 
Gore, afterwards tilled UpvMll, on the fide of the hilt on theweit: the 
eighchi Ctmimon or Cofm Gate, leading ti> the Common, apd through 
which the cow* belonging to the lown were driven ; the ninth, St* 
Martin 9, *[vA^ Monk^s Gate, or Foster n. GtUCt leading towardi xht hilh 
the lemh, Bigf^tfi or North Gate* Snar*Gaie, Biggin Gate, and Cow 
Gattf were taken do»m by order of the Corp<5ratioo ; the fir»t in ifiSl ; 
tlie tec'^od tn 1702; and the laM in 177S: the other* had been eithrr 
pulled down, or fallen into ruin^ at a much earlier period* 

mm itEKT. 

nkeding at ond pdiot io the centre. Froili the old Mtison Oieo, ' 
or present VktualiiDg; Office, to the further houses at the Pier, ila 
extent is nfnrards of a mile. That part called Snargate-Stieet liea 
immediatelj iitloir the diflb, and souie accidents -have happ — od' 
here from the naisies cf chalk that have fiUlan down. The Iomb 
is now separated into the two parishes of St. ikfaiy tb^ Virgin, and 
St. James die Apostle; but it was fomieriy ditided iitto six, eaeb 
of which bad its distinct Church; bnt these hitter boildinfahata 
ki^ been destroyed; with the exceptioa of Mne parts of those af' 
St. Nicholas, and St Martin le Grand. The farttet Chiach was 
founded by King Widred for the Secuhur Oumnis whota be had 
femoved from Dorer Castle in 691, and whose nambefa he in* 
creased to twenty^wo, and endowied them as IMbends.* I%ei» 
Oanoos were suppressed by Henry the FInt, and their potscsiians 
giveli to the Monks of Clirist Church, Canterbury, most piobali^ 
at the kstigation of Arefabishop Corbo^, who had fdna&i sdoM- 
slgn to replace them by a PlEtiORT of Canons RcgnfaHr, the bdU» 
nigs for whkb he soon atlerwards begun at a short dhtmioa wil|b^ 
out the walb; but dying before he had completed theoi, ttwf 
itore finbbed by hb successor, Theobald. Thtspidate, hofpsitar,' 
instead of preferring the Canons Regular, filled the new Priory 
with Benedictines; and the King, Henry the Second, decreed 
tliat no other order than that of St. Benedict should ever be ad- 
mitted into this house. At the period of the Dissolution^ its re- 
Tcnues were, according to Dugdale, estimated at the annual value 


^ Sc. Martin's le Grand was considered M the Mother Chorcii ; and 
fboh was its superiority over the other ChurcUes, that Dooe of cbe PrioiCa 
were permitted tosiog Mass till St. Martin's Priest had begun, which. 
was notified by the tolling the great bell : and all annual pentioiii wcro 
paid, and "almost all offerings made here. After the suppres«ion pf che 
College of Secular Canons by Uenry tlie First, this Church becaoMk 
only parochial, and was used as luch till ibid, when it was all takc0 
down, excepting the tower. In the old Church-yard belonging to ity 
lie the remains of the Poet and Satirist Churchill, who died in 17649. 
and to whose memory an inscribed stone has been put up in St* MaryV 

^ipHmiipiW 9l4 :ta.Mu?> Set it HiU. Mf^ifii ^ GmI put^^llw^^ 

^inimUkmi^^ hm» i>m i<M« oififiifM mm? 

kmg, mad k.iiipii||i4af«bfMg|^. f^poftivB^f idKiCbpiriib: 
Itifll^'f^KliV^UMi iMBtk mwy vpmins iif olii«r buiUigm M 

I the iociait fMindrtim 6op vbicb it H"rupi|l(»,: /.^ 
^^MlNrft/^^^Nn^ |o Urn umk, ^fuft « M^iflON OiWt 
^^.SUPif^ Mk wi endovcd ivUnt^ de Bund, tlw pMtr 
f iriRPqt^ .^EoI^pMI 9b9iit tbe Ugmiiw^^dic reviof 0WP 
^l«^/q9iqir Tim UotfiM was dedipit|9)..ta St Bfuy, iui4?iiii 
A« tl»9 nwintraaacc of a .Maitcr» aad acfeial BiftAmmi 
i.j|f|g|ai^ and faffTtb^ yeliaf and loigng ofwk paog gflgiii ^ 
idMiiM^Bpnitliitliac. Jlwm bodf^.rqDta.w/mgiaao W4p 
hj SiipfRa ^e Warduaa. Tbcae danatiQaa^wcaa a«- 
lij Heury tbe Tliird; and tbe t^ea of all tbe profits anb* 
"^1^ fimn tbe pafsage of the port wen further granted by him to 
^ke brethjen. Ten pounds per aonuia were* also granted by tba 
^^ame King out of the profits of the port. Henry the Eighth 
teok this Hoipital into his own luuids; and at tlie Dissolution, tlie 
aauual revenues were valued at l^^K Ids. 6\d. Queen Mai^ 
cqKverted it into an Office for victualling theNiivy, to which use Jl- 
is atiD appropriated. In tunes of war, much business is done bei«^ 
this being the only established office between Portsmouth and 
Sbeeniess; and all sliips in the Downs, belonging to the Royal 
Navy, are supplied from hence by vessels engaged ibr the purpose, 
Tbey sail from tbe Victualling Quay, near the old dock, at Ai* 
bottooi of Snaigate-Stieel, where there are Store-houses for tber 
use of govemmenty and from whence all stores are sh^iped. Jht * 


'office 8 conducted by in Agent, Storeketper, und QeA of llicH 
Cheque. The Agent's house is at the Miison Dieu ; but thck^e of i 
the Storekeeper, and Clerk of the Cheque^ are at the Victualltng 
Quay. In thi!9 HospltHl, when our Sovereigits, and the great oS- ^ 
cers of state, were accustomed to reVide in Dover, on their way 
to and from the Continent^ the Kin;^s Chancellor, and his suitei 
mually took up their abode; whilst the Sorereign himself was 

* lodged either in the Castle, or in the Pnory. Tlie buildingv 
though much altered and modernized, evince the Maison Dieu to 
bave been an entensiYe and splendid establifthmenf. 

Another Jlospttn!, connected with this town, though itandmg 
in the adjoining Parish of Buckland, was built for Lepers^ at the 

[ joint eTijiense of Henry the Second and the Monks of St. Martin*! 

■►Fripry, to whom it was subject. It was dedicaled to St. Bi«rtbo- 
loroew; aud tlioiigfi not a vestige of the building is now remaining* 
an ancient fair is kept on the spot on the anniversary of that Saint.* 
SL i^Iartiii's Fair is held in the market place in Dover, near which 
the original Priory stood: it begins on the twenty-second of No* 

^ Yvmber, and continues during three market-days. Tliis fair ap- 
peus to have been original!y gmnted to King Widred's foundation ; 

I it is generally attended by a considerable concourse of people. 
Of the two Churchet of this t0WD» St, MaryU it tlie principal: 
this is a spacious and curious ediBce, consisting of a nave and aisles, 
with a tower at the west end; its length is about V20 feet^ and its 
breadth fifty-five. It b said to have been built by tfie Prtory and 
Convent of St Martin, in the year 12l5;t yet, as the architectura 
of the tower, and part of the west ifnd, is that of a prior age, it 
leeras prolwible that this wns one of the three Churches in Dover 
which the Domesday Book records as being subject to St. MarttaV, 
md of course its origin must have been earlier than the date men- 

• Leland, Lamhard, Kilhumc, and oiber wrriters, hive mentioned m. 
UoufC or Knight Temptart ;ifl having %tood m ibit town ; but they wtre 
c«nainly miiiaken ai to the foundation aUuded to, which n now a Farm* 
hgute io SwitjgBcld Panth. 

t Kiihume*! Survey, p»78i Harris*! Kcnr« p. IOQl 



The weft front is of Nonnan architect iire^* as are the 
three first arches^ and Ihctr snpporliirg columns on each side the 
nave: the tivo next arche<( on each side are i-llipllca], tlie span ol 
the easternmost being very large: bevond ihem, on each side, 
extending towards ihe altar, are two pointed arches of unequal di- 
mensions: most of the columns are large and massive; tliO!>e of 
the Norman age have fluted capitals, Ttie monuments are ver^ 
numerous: the most observable is that to the memory of Philip 
Eaton, Esq, who died lu January, 17^9$ hi his for ly-ninlh year. 
and ** whose remains arc here deposited with his ancestors, inha- 
bitants of this town of Dover for ages past :" the upper part is iilled 
with numerous emblems, and the arms of the dcceaied.f A very 
fine Ors;an wais jitit up here In IJ^i: the galleries are very large, 
and the Church is well paved; yet the accommodations are still 
insiitficient for the number of inhabitants. Two years after the 
Dissofntion, this Churcti, which had premusly belonged to the 
Maison Dieu, was given to the parishioners by Henry the Eiglith, 
who was then at Dover; and every housekeeper, paying scot and lot, 
has now a right to vote in the choosing of a muiisler. The present 
incumbent is the Rer, John Lt^on, an ingenious anti<|uaiy, la 
this Church, King John is slated by Rapin to have resigned his 
Crown, and other ensigns of Royal ty» to Pandulpfi, the Pope*s 
Legate, in the presence of many Earls and Barons: but it seems 
more probable that that degrading ceremony took place in the 
House of Knights Templars at Swingfield, m the original instru- 
medt, by which King John agreed to submit to the Pope^s autlio- 
rity, is dated 'apuddomum militum TfmpU, juxta Doveram.* St, 
James*s Church is an irregular structure, and its interior, which is 
Vol. VH. June, 1807, Y y y kept 

* The ann^ed view, which was drawn from the window of a houie 
opposite, the ttrect in this part being very narrow, will give a very 
perfect idea of ibi* front, and of the siituaiion of the Church in respect 
to the Caitle. 

f Rcre it alio a memorial far the celebrated ComedUn Samuel FootCt 
Esq. who died at the Ship Inn, in Dover, and had a grave prepared 
for hit remains In this Church, but vvai afterwards convi^yed to London* 
and buried diere. Hasted^ f'ol, IX. p* 5i^. 


neat iind clean, di^plajs iti origiii to \mvft bcetl 
a square tower at tlic west ejuL Hert are tm' 
Simou Yoikcf who died in 1082; atiU Pfuiip 
m Clerk of Dover, wlio died m 17*Mj fbc fti- 
ihtT of the Lord Ch^t^celbr Hnrdwicki*, both oi 
d here, Ttiii Church ajK^cntlv Wlougeil to Dm 
litliiti it are still lield the Courts of Chancery «iid 
< Cinque For Is, and their nicmUers, fit ivhidt thi 
- his Deputy, presides, Beitideii tlie ubovr ptmccj 
ship, in ihii town, are Meetiug*Houi«ii for Buji- 
Quakers, &c. 

lie times it was customary for the ArdibLhops to <^ 
^ Bishop, who should be constantly re^dcnt in ^ 
olliciatc in ail iJie eccle^iasltcid officios of a Eisjiop ^ 
(bishop's absence. These Suffntgun Bbh^m, tilt fl J 
of Henr\ ilie Eighth, boa* the tiller of foreign *!i 
I ^ere merely nominal ; birt in that year it m^ ^ 
*y should in future take their titles trom piurtkubr -^k 
L One of these towns was Dover; and, firvviotii- ^ 
olition of the office, iJi the latter end of tlie rdgn «i 
ere were three Bishops Sutfra^n of Dover, thi^ 
J Dr^ Richard Rogers, wlui was afternitrds Doiii 

present civil jurisdiction, is governed by a Mt^r«. 
I thirty-six Comnion-Comicilmeu, from tlielallei at 




Immediately quits his office. The Jurats are nominated from the 
Coramon-Coimcilmen by the Jurats, and apj>oirited l>y the Mayor^ 
Jurats* and Common-Council, by ballot. The two Members of 
ParUdractit, as well as the 3^Iayor, are elected in St. Mary's Ctmrth 
1>y the whole hody of freemen resident and non-resklent : the num- 
ber of freemen is about 160O, Freedom is acquiretl by birlh, 
fnarriage, servitude, aud burgage tenure: the acquired franchise 
by marriage ceases with the death of the wife, and that by tenure 
with the alienation of the freehold. The ancient charter of Dover 
was surrendered to Charles the Second; and in August, I6'84, a 
new one was granted, nccorfHng to the general provisions ot whicb^ 
though the charter itself is lost, the town is now governed. 

Most of our Kijigs have, on different occasions, visited this Port; 
and several foreign sovereigns have also landed here. The Em- 
peror Stgismund, cousin to Henry tlie Fifth, came to Dover in 
141^, with an intent to make j>eace between the French and 
English Monarcbs, He was met on tlie water by the Duke of 
Glocester, and other great Lords, with their s^vords drawn, who 
declared they would not permit him to laud^ if he came hitfier 
to claim any authority, or any othen^ise than as a friend and rela- 
tive of the King.* The Eiui>eror Charles the Fifth landed here 
Irom Corunua, Maythe!6'th^ 15*30. " Tliis unexpected ™t sur- 
prised the nation ; and Henry the Eighth, who was then at Can- 
terbttry in his way to France, sent Csirdinal Wolsey to Dover, to 
welcome the Emperor; and being highly pleased with an event 
so soothing to his vanity, hastened to receive, with suitable respect, 
a guest who had placed in him such unbounded confidence. "f On 
May the i?6th, l65o, Churles ihc Second landed here at his Res- 
toration, accompanied by the Dukes of York and Glocester, and 
many noblemen and gentlemen. He was conducted by the Mayor 
to a canopy on I he beacli, where Mr* John Reading, a niinbter, 
presented him with a large bible with gold clasps, and made n 
'^ech suitable lo the occa?>ion. 

The trade oi Dover is extensive ; and in times of peace, (he <^* 
xieral business is particularly great, this U-iug still Ifie principal 

Y y y 'i \*hi:e 

• Harrit*« Kent, p. 103. 

i RoticrEion'i Chadei the Tifth. 


►lace of embarkation for the Contiaent. Previouily to ibc last 
^ar, five packets were established here under the direction of the 
leneral Post Oitice ; and there were also upwards of thirty v€»- 
th eniploved in Hie passage to the opposite shores, exclusive of 
be piickets; each of ihese wert; of about Ihe burthen of slvty or 
seventy tons; and they were fitted up "i an ekgant manner, so ms 
juMly to entitle ihem \q the denomination of the handsomest sioop§ 
ia tiie kingdom* With a leading wind, they frequently reactted 
Calais in three hours: tlie shortest pas?iage ever known was aiadr 
in iwo